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  1. 1

    Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].

    Pan American Health Organization

    [Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.

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  2. 2

    Southeast Asia Ministerial Conference on Family Planning and Population, Juala Lumpur, Oct. 1970.

    Southeast Asia Ministerial Conference on Family Planning and Population

    (Proceedings of the Southeast Asia Ministerial Conference. Kuala Lumpur, National Family Planning Board, 1970) 104 p

    Hosted by the Government of Malaysia, this Conference assembled ministries from Malaysia, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam and observers from Canada, Japan, U.S.A., Asian Development Bank, ECAFE, IPPF, OECD, Population Council, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO to explore the possibilities of regional cooperation in family and population planning. This report summarizes the events of the conference and gives the text of statements by each participant delivered at the open session on the 1st day. The details of deliberations at the closed ministerial session and the 3 sessions for officials are not given. However, the report includes the text of the working papers prepared by the Conference Secretariat which served as the basis of discussion. The subjects of these working papers were the population problem in Southeast Asia, objectives of a regional program of cooperation in family and population planning, the activities to be undertaken and priority projects. A Working Committee was appointed by the officials. Its report served as the basis for the Joint Communique issued at the end of the Conference in which the Ministers announced their agreement to create an Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee with the Government of Malaysia providing an interim Secretariat and to implement several intraregional projects of research, communication of information, exchange of personnel, sharing of members and Conference staff are appended.
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  3. 3

    Report of Southeast Asia ministerial conference on family and population planning.

    Southeast Asia Ministerial Conference

    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 22-24, 1970. 104 p.

    A Southeast Asian Ministerial Conference on family and population planning was held in Kuala Lumpur in October 1970 to explore areas of cooperation in the region. Representatives from various international organizations and ministers from Laos, Indonesia, Cambodia, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia attended the conference. Each delegate spoke about the population situation in his/her own country. Working papers were presented on aspects of the population problem in Southeast Asia and objectives, activities, and priorities on regional cooperative effort. A chart of demographic indicators accompanies the report.
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  4. 4

    Training in national health planning.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Training in National Health Planning

    Geneva, World Health Organization, 1970.

    A WHO Expert Committee on Training in National Health Planning met in Geneva from 24 November to 2 December 1969 to review different training programs based on modern concepts of health planning in order to answer such specific questions as why there is a need to train various types of personnel in this field, which particular catagories of personnel needed, which different types of planning courses and factors should be considered in each category, and what types to medical and nonmedical institutions should be used. Because of the general and specific variables that are found in each country situation, the report does not prescribe 1 or more standard courses to be adopted universally to accomplish training in national health planning. The category of generalist health planners is the most urgently needed. The training of the health planners requires a diversified faculty who have a grasp of the whole field and expects in pedagogy. Factors which influence training in national health planning include politico-social variables, availability of resources, the character of the health and educational systems, the trainees' educational level and future role, and the state of technology. Certain recommendations are made for the future development of training in health planning including: 1) the necessity of determining the validity of a model of national health planning, and 2) the advisability of subjecting the various roles in national health planning to systematic analysis in order to delineate more sharply the functions for which training is required and the most appropriate backgrounds for those to be selected for training, 3) Plans for training must be evaluated and, if necessary, reformulated. 4) Institutions should make a systematic and joint approach to the development of training and to the exchange of teaching materials. 5) A clearinghouse should be created for literature, resources, and experiences in national health planning. 6) International cooperation and exchange in national health planning should be improved and made more systematic. 7) Professional publication in the field of national health planning should be stimulated and supported.
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  5. 5

    Designing population assistance programmes.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1970]. 13 p.

    This statement discusses the origin of and activities undertaken by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Programs and projects supported by the Fund differ considerably in countries at various levels of development and with varying population patterns. Broadly they may be envisaged in stages and design: 1) to assist governments in determining the size and structure of population and to assess population trends; 2) to assist governments to understand the consequences of population trends in relation to economic and social development; 3) to assist governments to formulate population policies, taking into account all factors which affect fertility; and 4) to assist governments which adopt population policies in carrying out and evaluating measures to control fertility. This includes assistance in the organization of family planning programs and in training for the evaluation of such programs. The question of financing is examined in depth. In the Fund's initial stages, primary emphasis will be placed on operational programs and projects assisting efforts to moderate fertility rates where such assistance is desired. In this respect, the Fund is intended to be action-oriented.
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  6. 6

    Meeting of Experts on Education and Family Planning, Paris, 20-24 April 1970. Final report.


    [Unpublished] 1970 Aug. 13 p. (SHC/CONF.17/5)

    This report relates the conclusions of a meeting of experts on education and family planning. The meeting, which was sponsored by Unesco, focused on the planning of investigations of the relationship between education and fertility, analysis and interpretation of results of such investigations, and submission of conclusions to policymakers. It was noted that previous studies have been hampered by an excess of variables, a lack of observed data, and the treatment of education as an indicator rather than as 1 of several variables playing a role in the determination of demographic behavior. The education-family planning relationship is multivariant, multidimensional, and multidisciplinary. Studies in this area should cover a minimum of 5000 cases, establish the analytic framework and methodology before field work begins, and aim to produce specific recommendations that can be translated into action. Where possible, census data on level of education and fertility should be correlated for cohorts, socioeconomic groups, and residence. KAP studies are another source of material for tabulation, and planners of KAP surveys should be urged to place more emphasis on education variables. It is further recommended that studies be undertaken in which education is considered as the main variable of interest and fertility is treated as 1 of the many other relevant sociocultural and economic variables. Awareness of the population problem and attitudes toward family planning on the part of professional groups and agencies that have mass influence should also be studied. In particular, it is recommended that the content of the primary education syllabus be examined from the point of view of its relevance to the population problem, sex education, and other subjects that may affect family planning motivation. Unesco should introduce population education and sex education materials appropriate for the different levels of education, including professional schools.
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  7. 7

    Statement of the International Planned Parenthood Federation on the future of family planning associations.

    In: David HP. Family planning and abortion in the Socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. New York, The Population Council, 1970. 304-6.

    A new form of family planning council suitable for countries in which family planning associations existed and governments are showing interest as well as for countries where governments have taken the initiative in family planning is emerging. The aims and objectives of such a council should be to: 1) eliminate misunderstanding, competition, and confusion between the government and/or a voluntary association; 2) establish short courses of practical training in family planning; 3) urge the government to include family planning facilities in all hospitals and health service units; 4) help establish supplementary services where needed; 5) ensure that all methods of contraception are available; 6) encourage research, testing, and evaluation of contraceptive methods; 7) ensure adequate payment for professional services for contraception; and 8) offer sex education and information on family planning planning. In terms of international goals, the national family planning council should be the national member of IPPF, act in liaison with their own government in activities for aid to developing countries, act as a negotiating body for other governments giving aid to their own country, and negotiate on behalf of their own government with any other grant-giving body. It is concluded that a national family planning council as outlined here may not be easy to establish in countries with already-existing family planning associations, but this system is considered to be the best possible way to achieve national and international cooperation, and it should be possible to make this system acceptable to almost every country.
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  8. 8

    Lives in peril: protein and the child.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Protein Advisory Group

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1970. 32 p. (World Food Problems No. 12)

    The group most vulnerable to the adverse effects of food shortages are the children--the country's investment for the future. This is especially true in developing countries, where the infant mortality rate is 3-10 times greater than that of developed countries; where the death rate among preschool children is 30-50 times as high, and, where children below 5 years of age account for 40% of total mortalities. Of importance in nutrition studies is the quality of protien, and the efficiency with which it is used. In a diet lacking in calories, some of the proteins are diverted to provide energy, rather than provide for growth and repair of body tissues. Measuring both the quality and quantities of foods at the international, national, local, and even family levels may be useful in designing nutrition strategies for different populations. Pregnant women require about 900-950 gms. of protein in addition to their normal dietary needs. In many developing countries, this additional requirement is a matter of survival for both mother and child. Although the fetus, cushioned and protected in the mother's womb, can withstand most food shortages (except prolonged starvation), the child upon its birth manifests the marks of nutritional deprivation through its low birthweight and susceptibility to serious infections. The biggest menace to the health of many young children in developing countries is protein-calorie malnutrition; other severe nutritional disorders that are prevalent are marasmus, kwashiorkor, and Vitamins A and D deficiency. To combat the protein problem, the Protein Advisory Group was established in 1955. It provides a multidisciplinary approach to protein matters in the hope of improving the prospects for life of infants and young children of the world.
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  9. 9

    Project agreement on family planning between the government of Pakistan and United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1970 Aug. 17 p.

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  10. 10

    Agreement between the government of Mauritius and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1970 Dec. 8 p

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  11. 11

    Population assistance to Africa: 1969-1970.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]. Development Centre

    Paris, DECD, 1970. 34 p

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  12. 12

    Center for Family Planning Program Development: highlights of the first two years, 1968-1970.

    Planned Parenthood-World Population. Center for Family Planning Program Development

    N.Y., PP-WP, 1970. 37 p

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  13. 13

    Principles and practices.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] April 1970. 16 p

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  14. 14

    Health aspects of family planning: report of a WHO Scientific Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    World Health Organization, Technical Report Series.. 1970; 50.

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  15. 15

    The World Bank and population.

    McNamara RS

    Population Reference Bureau Selection. 1970 Oct; 33:6.

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  16. 16

    The Puebla project.

    Bruner R

    N.Y., The Agricultural Development Council, June 1970. 39 p

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  17. 17

    Report on A.I.D.'s population program assistance in relation to envisaged worldwide needs.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Unpublished, Nov. 1970. 28 p. plus tables

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  18. 18

    United Nations fund for population activities: procedures and programmes.

    Salas RM

    Unpublished, U.N. Development Programme memorandum, July 1970. 16 p

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  19. 19

    Rural community development and planning: promise and reality.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    International Social Development Review, No. 2, 1970. p. 28-33.

    Community development is concerned with stimulating people in decisions to change. Participation and involvement of village members enhances the development process by including them in the change. The question is how to organize administrative and executive machinery without losing local participation. Much depends on individual staff members skill at coordination at all levels of village life. Community development should fulfill certain goals expressed in national development policies. Planning for the fullest use of existing resources, acting as a communication medium, promoting volunteer organizations, modernization, encouraging civic responsibility, using labor surplus, creating conditions for social mobilization, aligning national and local aspirations, and paving way for local government should be the goals of a plan for community development.
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  20. 20

    Towards a philosophy of health work in the African region.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo, WHO, (AFRO Technical Papers. 1970; 1:38.

    The African region has the following health-related problems in common: 1) high morbidity and mortality due to a prevalence of communicable diseases and nutritional deficiencies; 2) inadequate basic health services; and 3) a shortage of medical personnel. The interrelationships between health and economic growth are stressed. An integrated health approach, i.e., 1 in which preventive and curative work is combined, must be followed. The public health priorities for the African region are discussed in detail. Health planning must be dynamic, responding to an ever-changing health situation. Health planning, integrated with socioeconomic development plans, is discussed. Ways to meet the manpower shortages in the region are outlined. Programs for dealing with the following health problems are proposed: 1) malaria; 2) smallpox; 3) environmental health problems; and 4) health education. International aid for health services in Africa must be directed toward eventual health self-sufficiency in the region.
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  21. 21

    Community planning in marginal urban settlements.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    International Social Development Review, No. 2, 1970. p. 7-12.

    Slums, shantytowns, and squatter settlements are symbols of organized planners' failure to provide adequate attention to housing and resource shortages. Technical and financial assistance is minimal in most developing areas despite marked successes in Latin America. No material resources have been available to the UN to assist in programs for squatter families. Government efforts are ineffective unless accompanied by local citizen groups' participation. A comprehensive program for solving the problems of slum areas would enable the dwellers to own the property legally if suitable for habitation. Governments should acquire parcels of land for public services so that future investments in housing will have a permanent pattern and assure maximum capitalization. Extended credit for improvement efforts should be provided by both public and private organizations. Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil have developed government financial assistance programs on the basis of successful pilot projects.
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  22. 22

    Maternal mortality.

    Alvarez-Bravo A

    In: Purandare, B.N. and Jhaveri, C.L., eds. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Maternal Mortality, Family Planning and Biology of Reproduction, held at Bombay on 3rd to 8th March 1969. Bombay, India, Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India, (1970). p. 1-5

    The functions and activities of the Committee on Maternal Mortality, established under the auspices of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, are reviewed. A primary aim of the Committee is to promote the establishment of National Committees in as many countries as possible. So far, the Committee has drawn up classificatory definitions for direct and indirect obstetric maternal death, factors contributing to maternal death which could have been prevented, and the total maternal death ratio and obstetric death ratio. The scope of activity of the Maternal Mortality Committees and rules under which they should function are outlined.
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  23. 23

    The National Family Planning Programme in Pakistan.

    Sadik N

    In: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Development Center. International assistance for population programmes: recipient and donor views. Paris, OECD, 1970. p. 107-133

    Pakistan has been experiencing an increasing rate of population growth since the beginning of the 20th century. During the period from 1960 to 1965, about 40% of the economic growth was absorbed by population increase. In order to deal with this problem, the Family Planning Association of Pakistan was founded in 1953. It soon became recognized that the government would need to assume primary responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. The 3rd plan of Pakistan includes a revised and more comprehensive family planning scheme. The minimum goal set for the program is to reduce the birthrate from an estimated 50-40/1000 by reaching all the estimated 20,000,000 fertile couples by the year 1970. The current scheme in Pakistan is postulated on the following 6 basic assumptions: 1) family planning efforts need to be public relations oriented and not merely clinical; 2) operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority; 3) monetary incentives play an important role; 4) interpersonal motivation in terms of life experiences of the clientele through familiar contacts along with mass media publicity should be used; 5) supplies and services should be easily available to all people; and 6) training, evaluation, and research should be multidimensional and continual as an integral part of the program. During the 4th Plan, 1970-1975, family planning efforts will be greatly expanded. Some of the main features of the 4th Plan will be an expansion of the field structure, more emphasis on training research and evaluation, inclusion of hormonal contraceptives, and increased relaince on sterilization.
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  24. 24

    The donor's response.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]. Development Centre

    In: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Center. International assistance for population programs: recipient and donor views. Paris, OECD, 1970. p. 159-173

    At the November Conference, the 1st day was devoted to discussion of the Rapporteur's Statement on the April Conference by the donors of aid, governmental, international, and private. Additionally, aid for family planning was reviewed. During the 2nd and 3rd days, donors and recipients jointly considered the Rapporteur's Statement on the April Conference and certain aspects of aid discussed by the donors on the 1st day. The discussion by donors on the 1st day of the Conference was based on a series of background papers. A table showing a breakdown of aid by donor, type of aid and recipient was discussed in detail as was a report on research work undertaken by the Center. Prior to the joint discussion on the 2nd and 3rd days, a general statement of the recipients' views on aid was given by Dr. Nafis Sadik of Pakistan. This introduction is reproduced here for review. The general discussions at both the April and November conferences revealed that long-term unconditional aid for a population program is the ideal as far as recipients are concerned. The donors, however, are not usually prepared to provide aid on these terms. Both donors and recipients did agree that long-term aid is preferable. The problem of meeting local costs is important where family planning programs are concerned, since they require relatively little foreign exchange. Recipient's expressed a clear preference for private rather than governmental aid, multilateral or bilateral, in many cases. Private aid is flexible, quick and nonpolitical and involves less red tape and paperwork. Other topics of concern in the general discussion were coordination, evaluation, population programs and the infrastructure, and advisers.
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  25. 25

    [Some aspects of regulating family size in India] Nekotorye aspekty regulirovaniya razmerov semi v Indii.

    Simonyank G

    Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie. 1970; 29:58-63.

    The family planning campaign that has been carried out in India is described. The methods of reducing the birthrate have been the prime concern of this burgeoning population, but this goal entails more than just contraception and quantitative decreases: achievements in improving the standard of living, raising levels of education in both general areas and in the understanding of India's demographic postion and needs, and in promoting the greater expansion of public health services. The role of WHO and UNICEF in the family planning program of this and other developing countries is examine. WHO/UNICEF maintain a policy of nonintervention in the adminstration of these measures, do not hold the country responsible for recommendations or for the encouragment of certain policies, and maintain that these countries must decide indpendently upon which policy to undertake.(Author's, modified)
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