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New York, UNAUSA, 1969. 57 pRapid population growth is an extremely serious problem in developing countries, creating economic, social, and educational burdens. For example, if GNP is growing at 5%/year in a society with a stable population, it would take 12 years to double per capita income; if population is growing at 2.4%/year, it would take 27 years to achieve a doubling in income. Governments of all countries should try to ensure that their people have access to family planning information and service s. Many governments also need policies that would have the effect of reducing population growth. In the past, the governments of the U.S., Sweden, and other nations, as well as private organizations (Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, International Planned Parenthood), have contributed to international family planning efforts. In 1968, $2 million was channeled through the U.N. system to population programs. This amount, however, is inadequate. In order to strengthen the U.N.'s population programs it would be useful to 1) expand the Population Trust Fund from $1.5 to $100 million a year; 2) appoint a Commissioner for Population, with a highly qualified staff, who would be central in planning and coordinatin g U.N. population assistance, and would also be responsible for the Population Trust Fund; and 3) have the Commissioner of Population be the U.N.'s chief representative in intergovernmental forums dealing with population. Many of the U.N.'s major agencies, such as WHO, UNESCO, Foo d and Agriculture Organization, and the World Bank, could assume more responsibility in the population field.(AUTHOR'S, MODIFIED)
In: Overcoming world hunger, [compiled by] Columbia University. American Assembly. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1969. 137-70.The role of the US in facing the problems of population growth and food supply in less-developed countries is discussed. In April, 1967, the International Planned Parenthood Federation held its International Conference at Santiago, Chile, and some 25 countries adopted official policies encouraging family planning. Despite the Pope's statement in July, 1968, endorsing only the rhythm method of fertility control, government leaders around the world were increasingly emphatic about the population problem. The United Nations was expected to develop a strong program in the population field. Most of the increases in population would come in less-developed regions and demands for food would rise faster than population growth rates. A 4% increase of annual rates in grain production in developing countries was needed, nearly double their historic rates. Many new wheat, corn, and rice crop varieties were developed at the international research centers established by the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations. Much of the fertilizer to produce the bumper 1967-68 crop of food grains in India was financed by USAID. To build a competent technological and scientific research and development system for agriculture in less-developed countries requires the training of many young scientists and cooperation among national institutions in the developing countries. To establish incentive prices for agricultural products must be a central objective of national policy in developing countries in order for rapid agricultural growth to occur. A policy which would enable developing countries to achieve self-sustaining growth would give and top priority to their food and population problems would cost the US between .5 and 1% of its gross national product. This US policy could have very important effects in 5 to 10 years if it were combined with strong development programs and matching aid from advanced countries. The US has promoted multilateral assistance, but some other developed countries have been reluctant to raise their contributions.
In: Overcoming world hunger, [compiled by] Columbia University. American Assembly. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1969. 89-135.Advances in physics, geology, chemistry, and biology have provided information about how soils affect plant and animal productivity. In agriculture, adaptive research involves 1) the development of crop varieties with the greatest productive capacity which are also resistant to pests, 2) practices that will maximize yields, 3) the determination of nutritional requirements, and 4) studies of the quality of harvested products. Successful programs necessitate the careful study of national needs; research and production goals; research and training programs through existing or newly created institutions; capable career scientists placed in charge with the needed technical and financial support; college graduates being trained through internships; the most outstanding people given opportunities for advanced study for leadership; and the provision of markets by governments, with incentive prices, credit at reasonable rates, and the development of irrigation schemes. Multinationals which can provide technical help include the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Development Program, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Colombo Plan. The successes of USAID include a project in Turkey to increase spring-wheat productions; Operation Spread in the Philippines which aided that country's self-sufficiency in rice; and a highly effective corn production campaign in Kenya. As a result of a cooperative venture in the early 1940s between Mexico and The Rockefeller Foundation, by 1968 Mexico's national average wheat yields/acre were almost quadruple the average in 1043, corn yields were double those of 1943 and potato production was more than triple that of 1950. The Ford and Rockefeller Foundations in 1961 jointly founded the International Rice Research Institute located at Los Banos, the Philippines. The International Corn and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) evolved from The Rockefeller Foundation's earlier cooperative work in Latin America, CIMMYT conducts fundamental research on corn and wheat, and cooperative relationships are maintained with interested countries in Latin America, Asia, East and West Africa, and the countries of the Near East.
In: Overcoming world hunger, [compiled by] Columbia University. American Assembly. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1969. 41-87.Projections of food production and needs, worldwide and by areas, to the year 2000 are presented. The National Advisory Commission on Food and Fiber reported that the 1 billion people in the developed countries and 5 times as much animal protein per person as the 2 billion people in the less developed countries in 1959-61. In 1968. approximately 6 million people in the United States were enrolled in family food assistance programs and approximately 20 million school children were participating daily in the School Lunch Program. After 1961, emphasis was placed on the Food Stamp Program. Anemia, goiter, xerophthalmia, pellagra, beriberi, and rickets are associated with malnutrition. According to the 1963 United Nations Third World Food Survey, at least 20% of the population of the less-developed countries was undernourished and 60% had inadequate diets. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that in the Caribbean are per capita food production in 1967 stood at an index of 76, with 1957-59 equal to 100. In 15 of the 37 African and West Asian countries, per capita agricultural production declined from 1957-59 to 1967. Another USDA study of 26 developing nations showed that between 1948 and 1963, 12 of the 26 developing nations had average annual rates of increase over 4%. If the historical rates of increase in grain production were to continue to 1980, the less-developed countries would require between 54 and 58 million metric tons of grain imports. If the rate of growth accelerated to 4% annually by 1975 through 1980, these countries would require imports at 1964-65 levels. A near doubling of the historic rates of growth in food production would be needed for these nations to break their dependence on food aid and to reach minimal levels of food consumption by 1980. Direct food aid, popularly named "Food for Peace," was formalized in 1954. The maximum benefit comes from moderate-sized programs. Countries prefer to retain more of their autonomy by receiving food aid multilaterally through a large-scale program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
In: Overcoming world hunger, [compiled by] Columbia University. American Assembly. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1969. 9-39.In 1969 in the less developed regions of the world, the gross reproduction rate was well above 2, while in the more developed regions it was well below 2. The high variant of the 1963 United Nations world population projections assumed that, after 1970 in the countries with moderately low fertility, the birth rates would be 25/1000 population compared to 20/1000 in lands with very low fertility. A birth rate of 32.6/1000 population for Mainland East Asia (dominated by China) and 43.0 for South Asia was predicted. The suggested average annual rates of global population growth between 1960 and 2000 ranged from a low of 1.5%, a medium value of 1.8% to the high value of 2.1%. From 3 billion in 1960, world population would rise to a low of 5.5 billion, a medium value of 6 billion, and a high value of 7 billion by 2000. THe projected growth for the less-developed regions was 2.1% as opposed to 1.0% even .8% in the more-developed regions IUDs, mainly the Lippes Loop. In 1969, at least 7 million women used then, Oral steroids became popular in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Britain, and their use was spreading in Europe and Latin America. In India more than 3.2 million sterilizations had been performed, and 2-3 million IUDs had been inserted. In Pakistan the rate of sterilizations was about 10,000 a month and that of IUD insertions over 60,000 a month. In South Korea and in Taiwan, more than 25% of the women of childbearing age were either sterilized or practicing modern contraception. In Taiwan, the birth rate was well over 40/1000 population in 1955 dropping to well below 30 by 1969. Similar low rates in Singapore and Hong Kong were clearly related to the growing prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive practice. In South Korea,Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore active birth control programs rapidly reduced the birth rates.
Family planning and national development: proceedings of the conference of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Bandung, 1-7 June 1969.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1969. 260 p.Add to my documents.
The formative years: the beginnings of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, statement made at the Fifteenth Session of the Population Commission, United Nations, Geneva, 10 November 1969.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 10 p.In 1967, the Seretary-General of the United Nations established a Trust Fund for Population Activities, to be financed by voluntary contributions from governments and other sources, in order to enable the level of programs of the UN agencies to be increased, as approved by the Population Commission. The Fund has been used to finance, among other activities, programming missions to ascertain the needs of governments in the field of population and family planning and to finance family planning evaluation missions. The Fund has recently been expanded to include forms of assistance which have not normally been financed under UN technical assistance programs. In addition, programs undertaken by the specialized agencies of the UN and by UNICEF may now be financed from the Fund. Assistance shall be given only to those countries which request it. The different types of assistance available are outlined. These include conventional types of technical assistance and financing for field research projects, training, research, and equipment. US$4.9 million have been contributed to the Fund to date of which US$2.9 million has already been allocated.
[Unpublished] 1969 Jun. Paper presented to the UNESCO Conference on Family Planning Mass Communication. 10 p.India's 4th 5-Year Plan (1969-74) aims to restore a balance between births and deaths by decreasing the birth rate from the present level of 39/1000 to 25/1000 within the next 10 years. The family planning program gives equal emphasis to all appropriate methods of contraception, with the choice of method left to the individual. 5% of total outlay on family planning is targetted at mass education to get the population to accept and adopt the norm of a small family. Among the obstacles confronting such a campaign are the vastness of the country, its low education and literacy levels, diverse languages, social and cultural differences, low standard of living, and resistance to change. Moreover, only 25% of the population has access to the mass media. On the other hand, factors facilitating family planning objectives include favorable attitudes toward limitation of family size, the lack of organized religious or social opposition, support from many organizations, and government commitment to provide free family planning services and supplies and to establish a network to provide such services. At the central level, the Mass Education and Media Division of the Department of Family Planning designs communication strategies, provides guidelines to the states, works with national opinion leaders, and prepares materials. The states adapt central policies to the local context and plan the details of mass education campaigns in their areas. At the district and town level, indigenous channels of education, e.g., song and drama troupes, are utilized. District Family Planning Bureaus are provided with a mobile audiovisual unit and portable exhibition set. Thus, the family planning mass communication campaign involves a combination of standard national media and local interpersonal channels. The 1st phase of the mass media campaign was aimed at the concept of family limitation through repetition of a simple meaningful message: "2 or 3--that will do." When this phrase was used visually, it was accompanied by the symbol of the family planning program. The 2nd phase of the campaign introduced the notion of spacing through the slogan, "Next child--not now: After 3--never." Individual methods of contraception, including sterilization, condoms, and the loop, were stressed. The mass communication campaign is credited with creating largescale awareness of the need for family size limitation. According to 1 survey, 70% of the population now favors family planning.
Mandate and summary of current activities: Health aspects of human reproduction, of family planning and of population dynamics, 1968-1969.
[Unpublished] 1969. 45 p.The WHO's (World Health Organization) mandate to work in the health aspects of human reproduction; family planning and population dynamics has enabled the Organization to provide assistance to member States in the development of family planning activities, in addition to stimulating; coordinating; and assisting research and reference services on the physiological; clinical; epidemiological; psychological and administrative aspects of these questions. Since 1967, WHO have dealt with the following activities: 1) Advisory services and technical assistance (family planning in health services: requests for advice and technical assistance; introduction of family planning in regional or rational WHO projects; health statistics); 2) Training (development of technical expertise within WHO; inclusion of family planning in on-going WHO projects; short-term training programs; development of suitable curricula in schools of health professionals; health statistics; 3) Research: biological; clinical; epidemiological; evaluation, and psychological; 4) Meetings and; 5) Projections. Future program activities include: further strenthening of staff; development of family planning in health activities, and development of other activities (establishment of training centers; fellowships for training; development of improved curricula in schools for health workers; meetings; workshops and seminars on health aspects of family planning and population dynamics).
Santa Monica, California, Rand, 1969 Jun. 15 p.The Rand Corporation has conducted development research on 21 countries: 5 Latin American, 8 Middle Eastern, and 8 in Asia. The countries receiving the most attention are Colombia, Turkey, Laos, Thailand, Korea, and the Philippines. Their research is relevant to national security because problems of economic and military aid, overseas bases, and "small" wars are often intertwined with political and economic and technological development in the less developed countries. The subject matter of the research includes planning and allocation of foreign aid; political and socioeconomic change; technological transfer; economic growth and structure; and, population growth. Future research will focus on systems analysis of population control programs; further work on technological diffusion; policymaking and organizational capacity; "regionalism"; country studies; and, international finance. Population control programs cannot be evaluated without fertility models. A major study of the costs and effectiveness of family planning programs in various parts of the world is planned along with suggestions for alternative programs, including financial incentives for those who accept smaller family size.
World Health Organization Technical Report Series.. 1969; 30.Add to my documents.
Unpublished, March 1969. 20 p., addendumsAdd to my documents.
Unpublished working paper (no. 29), Oct. 1969. 11 pAdd to my documents.
In: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Development Centre. Population: international assistance and research. Proceedings of the 1st Population Conference of the Development Centre, Paris, December 3-5, 1968. Paris, France, OECD, 1969. p. 129-138The basic aim of the IPPF (founded in 1952) is to gain acceptance of the ideal of responsible parenthood throughout the world and to promote its practice by stimulating the formation of family planning associations, by assisting the training of medical and other personnel in the techniques of family planning and motivation, and by organizing international gatherings at various levels in order to increase knowledge and effectiveness. The IPPF seeks to stimulate scientific research and evaluation. For administrative reasons, the Federation is presently divided into 5 regions. The structure of the Federation is designed to meet the requirements of a loose union of autonomous indigenous members initially coordinated at the regional level. The ability of the IPPF to continue to meet ever-increasing requests for assistance depends on an increasing measure of public and private financial support and on the possibility of establishing responsible and effective voluntary organizations in countries where this type of organization has no long tradition. The IPPF can now claim that almost every country that has accepted a governmental responsibility for providing family planning has had the way prepared by a national voluntary family planning association and that it has made a significant contribution to the growing awareness, at national and international levels, of the population predicament.
In: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Development Centre. Population: international assistance and research. Proceedings of the 1st Population Conference of the Development Centre, Paris, December 3-5, 1968. Paris, France, OECD, 1969. p. 15-35Principles and goals for organization, development, and implementation of the population program, mandated in 1969, of the Development Centre, Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) emerged from the Development Centre's 1st population conference. Principles governing the involvement in population include consultation with experts about program development, avoidance of duplicate efforts, and centralization of activities to meet strong pragmatic demands. The program itself focuses on 4 factors. The 1st is exchange of population information, both with OECD member countries and developing countries, and 2nd is organization of conferences and expert group meetings. 3rd is development of research to analyze demographic variables in relevant applied research, studies on socioeconomic aspects of population dynamics, and estimates of manpower needs. 4th is development of activities leading more directly to coordination in the population field. Suggestions emerging from the conference focused on the need for integration of population concerns with economic development, operational aspects of population programs, and contraceptive technology. The conference concluded that the crucial issue is the extent to which present population increases hamper development plans which aim at improving individual and national standards.
In: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Development Centre. Population: international assistance and research. Proceedings of the 1st Population Conference of the Development Centre, Paris, December 3-5, 1968. Paris, France, OECD, 1969. p. 39-47Resolutions made in the period 1965-1968 by components of the UN (Population Commission, Committee for Economic and Social Affairs, General Assembly, WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization, UN Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, International Labor Organization, and UNICEF) have created mandates to provide technical assistance in all population fields including family planning (FP). The mandates are being translated into action-oriented programs. For a nation requesting assistance, there is support in the UN for almost every aspect of a comprehensive national population program, including FP. Going beyond its usual role of providing information and policy advice, the UN will give more operational help such as training FP personnel and evaluation of FP programs and possibly providing supplies and equipment. Also, importantly, it will provide better and more detailed population projections. The UNFPA has been extended; resources will have to be increased by $5 million annually in the period 1969-1971 in order to support the huge training effort, and governments concerned with population are invited to contribute to the fund and to supply resources to the programs.
In: Sobrero, A.J. and Lewit, S., eds. Advances in planned parenthood, Vol. 4. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Planned Parenthood Physicians, San Antonio, Texas, April 16-17, 1968. Amsterdam, Netherlands, Excerpta Medica, 1969. (International Congress Series No. 177) p. 28-29A study was conducted to determine the extent of educational activities in family planning and sex among Planned Parenthood affiliates. 61% of 140 questionnaires were returned with 53 of 86 respondents reporting the existence of a family planning educational program and 43 indicating the existence of a sex education program. More than 50% of the respondents indicated that they had no set standards or qualifications for the teaching of sex education or birth control to young people. The Medical Departments of the Planned Parenthood affiliates were mainly involved in discussions outside the Centers. Generally, a physician spoke relating to sex education and a nurse provided the family planning instruction. Regarding needs in the area of sex education, the respondents indicated a need for a training program for their professional standards for volunteers. Other needs are for study guides, teaching aids, film strips, literature, and outlines of curriculums suitable for specific age groups. It seems that the average affiliate is ill-prepared to work with the community in a constructive and coordinated manner for either the initiation or the extension of sex or family planning education programs.
In: Petersen, W. Population. 2nd edition. (New York), Macmillan, 1969. p. 23-58The census, vital statistics, international migration records, and records on internal migration are the 4 types of available population data. Essentially, all 4 types can be considered as a product of modern Western culture. Gradually, the censuses of the Western World, conducted every 10 years, have become increasingly accurate as well as broader in the range of questions covered. Vital statistics have developed more slowly, whereas international migration records were brought up to a reasonable standard of accuracy and completeness by about 1914 in the U.S. Several international congresses and organizations have tried in numerous ways during the 20th century to establish worldwide statistical standards. These efforts are worthy of praise, but it must be remembered that variation in statistical methoss is only in part accidental. The variation is also a reflection of differences in national culture. In sum, only some standardization of population data is both possible and desirable. In order to avoid errors in demographic statistics, it is necessary to meet the following conditions: 1) all categories to be measured must be precisely defined; 2) each instance of the phenomenon being measured must be counted only once; 3) respondents must be encouraged to answer truthfully the questions asked of them; 4) answers must be classified in the appropriate categories and subcategories; and 5) errors must not be introduced in the compiling, processing, and publication of the data. Recognizing that perfect accuracy cannot be achieved, the objective in modern demographic statistics is to limit the error to a small proportion of known range rather than to attempt to eliminate it totally. The errors that are made can be detected and in part corrected by checking any form for collecting information, data of the same series and data of different types, the grosser count with an especially carefully drawn sample, and the components of the population for consistency with a mathematical model.(Author's, modified)
IPPF Situation Report, January 1969. 3 p.According to 1967 data, the population of the Netherlands Antilles is 212,000; the birthrate is 22.8/1000; and the growth rate is 1.2/100. The Family Planning Foundation was established in October 1965 in Curacao and is now working to extend its efforts to the other islands of the Antilles, Aruba, Bonnaire, St. Martin Saba, and St. Eustace. Clinical services are provided in Curacao by a professional staff consisting of a physician, a nurse, and a field worker. Since its creation, the Foundation has served more than 600 women. The services are free and the women have a choice of methods available. Many women, however, use their own physicians for contraceptive services. The Foundation receives a grant from the government, and contraceptive counseling is also available at government health centers in Aruba. Currently, the focus of the Foundation is on family planning education. An educational campaign is being conducted in Curacao with the use of television and radio. Family planning is discussed within the context of sex education. During 1969 the intention is a broaden the educational campaign from birth control to other aspects of responsible parenthood.
IPPF Situation Report, April 1969. 6 p.Demographic statistics and some information on the cultural situation in Thailand are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) and family-planning-related government personnel are listed. Various FPA-funded projects are summarized. The government started a 3-year family health program in 1968 which will include family planning services. Initial surveys indicated positive attitudes toward and interest in family planning in the country. IUD insertions have totaled 100,000 so far and sterilizations are averaging 10,000 yearly. The plan is to cover 20 million people by 1970. Current training and educational activities are sumarized. Other agencies active in the family planning field are mentioned.
IPPF Situation Report, March 1969. 12 p.The total population of Nigeria as of 1967 is 61,450,000. For 1957 the birthrate is recorded as 49.2/1000, and the growth rate is given as 2.7/100 for the 1963-1967 period. The Family Planning Council of Nigeria was established in 1964 and has been an associate member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation since 1967. The government officially recognizes the Council but provides no financial support. However, there have been indications that family planning will have a major part in the development plans of the government when the present war is over. There is no anticontraceptive legislation, and supplies are duty free as part of technical assistance. Of the 10,000 women who have received contraceptive services to date, about 75% reside in Lagos. Currently, 300 women receive contraceptive advice each month in Lagos. The intention is to increase this figure to 1500 a month. The Family Planning Council, the Lagos Medical School, and the Lagos Island Maternity Hospital cooperate in the effort to train family planning staff. To date educational efforts have been concentrated in Lagos. The Family Planning Council is now involved in the effort to form branches in all states and attempts have been made to bring already existing family planning clinics into membership with the Council.
Questions and answers about the charge of "genocide" as it relates to Planned Parenthood-World Population, its affiliates, and the provision and expansion of private and publicly sponsored family planning programs in the U.S.
New York, Planned parenthood-World Population. 1969; 12.A small minority in the black community has adopted a pro-natalist p osition, and charged that family planning is a racist plan to keep non-w hites weak in number. On the premise that both sides on this question must keep communication open and non-defensive in an effort to understand each other, the author attempts to answer these charges direc tly. He offers a brief history of the subject, summarizes medical, scientific and factual answers to the charges and, in question-and-answe r format, suggests how these charges might be dealt with by family planning personnel.
Washington, D.C., USAID, October 1969. 163 pConcentration in this publication dealing with population program assistance is on the areas of the population problem, world demographic trends, world concern, assistance to developing couuntires by the U.S. government, private organizations, multilateral agencies, and governments other than the U.S. Summaries of demographic population and family planning information are given for Vietnam and countries in Latin America, Near East, South Asia, Africa, and East Asia. Many developing countries have begun population and family planning programs, yet due to limited resources they requested assistance to expand these programs from The Agency For International Development (USAID), the United Nations, the World Bank, and private and international organizations. The USAID support of population and family planningg programs in developing countries has increased sharply since 1965 along with the growth of program action in these countries. Major areas of USAID assistance have included research, manpower training communication support, program analysis and evaluation, and commodities. Several new directions which require exploration in the future include the areas of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and advanced nations; trained personnel and training; availabiltiy of contraceptives; mass communication and public education; resources for program action; improvement in demographic data and vital statistics; and program evaluation and analysis. An outline is given of USAID projects in population and family planning along with a summary of the financial obligations of this agency for population and family planning projects.
IPPF Medical Bulletin. 1969; 3(1):4.At the end of its 2-day meeting in London in December 1968, the IPPF Central Medical Committee issued the following press statement, which gives its views about 2 suggested adverse effects of oral contraceptives: Cervical carcinoma in situ: "The International Planned Parenthood Federation Central Medical Committee has reviewed unpublished studies reporting a statistical association between carcinoma in situ of the cervix and the use of oral contraceptives, and has come to the conclusion that the available evidence is insufficient to confirm or exclude a causal relationship. Other studies are in progress in several countries. Where cytological service is available, an annual cervical s mear makes possible the detection of carcinoma in situ at a stage when a complete cure can be effected. Therefore, existing facilities for annual cytological examinations should be used, and where such facilities do not exist they should be established if possible. The Committee, fully cognizant of its responsibilities, recommends that no programme of hormonal contraception should be deferred or interrupted since, at the present time, the Committee is of the opinion that the benefits to health of widespread use of oral contraceptives out-weigh the probable risks." Thromboembolism: "Recently published studies in th e United Kingdom reveal a significant statistical association between the use of oral contraceptives, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and possibly cerebral arterial thrombosis. There is no evidence that the risk varies with the duration of use or the type of compound. The excess risk of mortality due to thrombo-embolic disease among women using oral contraceptives in the United Kingdom appears to be of the order of 3 per 100,000 per year. Further studies should be undertaken in other parts of the world before accepting the above rate generally. The risk to life due to thrombo-embolic disease must be weighed against the mortality of pregnancy and childbirth, which ranges from about 20 deaths per 100,000 pregnancies in developed countries to 300 or more in developing countries." (FULL TEXT)
WHO Chronicle 23: 163-168. 1969.The problem of nutrition requires an interdisciplinary approach involving the educator, the agriculturalist, the social worker, the family planner, the public health worker and others. Although the instruction in the correct principles of child nutrition continues to require the guidance and technical supervision of health personnel, comm unity development and agricultural extension workers as well as other agents should be used to spread the message in the community. The failure of mothers to use the foods actually available to them and the fact that young children and pregnant and nursing mothers receive less of the available protein food than others are the primary deficits in the present infant feeding practices in developing countries. The statistics suggest that increasing urbanization and changes from breast to artificial feeding of infants have resulted in the earlier development of malnutrition, in the 1st rather than the 2nd year of life. The artificial feeding will undoubtedly result in the child receiving a watery and over diluted milk heavily contaminated with bacteria and missing his/her major source of consumer tested protein food, mother's milk. Instruction continues to support breast feeding as desirable in the attempt to stop the practice of artificial feeding. Al though protein remains a primary concern, the current trend is to mixtures emphasizing the calorie content along with the protein composition. In the future as now the majority of the world's population will receive most of their protein from their staple foods, p articularly from cereals. During the last 15 years, preventive measures against infections of nutritional importance have become an integral part of any nutritional program; awareness has grown of the need to modify and develop methods of prevention that are acceptable to the customs, beliefs, attitudes and cultural patterns of a particular community; and the necessity of demonstrating to parents that severe mal nutrition is curable by means of correct feeding has been recognized. Essential to all efforts directed toward the prevention of malnutrition is the education of medical personnel.