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In: United Nations. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East [ECAFE]. Report of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Programmes and selected papers. Held at Singapore, 5-15 September 1967. Bangkok, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, . 1-68. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 3)The objective of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Planning Programs, meeting during September 1967, was to collate, examine, and evaluate the collective experience in the region of the use of communications media in family planning programs and to try to develop a basic model for using communications to provide information and motivation in family planning programs as an aid to governmental action in this field. Other purposes were: to evolve appropriate guidelines for operational research and evaluation of family planning communication programs; to discuss the best ways in which the family planning communication work can be strengthened through regional cooperation under the aegis of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE); and to seek practical methods of continuing the exchange and pooling of data in the communication effort within the region and from other areas. 20 participants from 13 member countries participated. This report of the Working Group covers the following: national development and family planning; communications in the context of family planning programs (types of communication; objectives of family planning communications; specific functions of family planning communications; target audiences, groups, and individuals; messages; media and materials; staff; and costs); general guidelines for family planning communication programs; communication programs in countries of the ECAFE region (Ceylon, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand); communications media and methods (radio and television, films, newspapers and other printed materials, hoardings and display signs, posters, exhibitions, campaigns, mailings, face to face communications); communication aspects of special significance; practical aspects of a communication organization; production and distribution of communication materials; specialized training for communications; and research and evaluation. Generally, communications about family planning are of 2 types: informal, characterized as being spontaneous, unplanned; and formal communications, those that are planned, organized, intended to serve specific purposes. Family planning communications serve several purposes. Among them are those of informing, educating, motivating, and reassuring large numbers and varieties of people and of legitimating the practice of family planning. The information component of family planning communications will be directed toward individuals, groups, or the public both within the family planning organization and outside it.
Geneva World Health Organization, 1968.Guidelines established by the World Health Organization Scientific Group on Principles for the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs (Geneva, 1967) are summarized. Clinical introduction of druggs developed from work with laboratory animals should be preceded by carefully planned human investigations within several scientific disciplines including biochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, clinical pharmacology, clinical medicine, and medical statistics. Formal therapeutic trial should begin only after an initial therapeutic potential has been established through close study of a few individuals. Improved human evaluation of drugs requires better laboratory facilities and more highly trained personnel and might be achieved by the creation of more clinical pharmacology units within medical centers. Future emphasis should be placed on developing better techniques for measuring absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs and their metabolites, and for accurate detection of toxic effects. The ethical and technical complexities of drug evaluation require thorough planning discussions with a local medical and scientific committee, rather than an official control organization, before initial investigation is begun. Methods should be established for compensating subjects suffering ill health or injury during the course of experimentation, even where there is no question of legal liability for negligence. Prompt dissemination of all relevant information concerning new drugs should be included as an integral part of every investigation. Monitoring of adverse reactions to drugs in widespread use requires extensive, additional research which should focus on the elaboration of methods that will provide early warning of drug-related toxicity as well as incidence figures that can be used to quantify associated risks.
[Unpublished] 1968 Dec. 5 p. (HR/FS/68.5)Add to my documents.
Health aspects of population dynamics: report by the Director-General to the 21st World Health Assembly.
[Unpublished] 1968 Apr 24. 8 p. (A21/P and B/9)Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1968. vii, 355 p.The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) reaches back some 20 years. ISCO has been developed to provide 1) a systematic basis for presentation of occupational data relating to different countries to facilitate international comparisons; and 2) an international standard classification system that countries may use in developing their national occupational classifications, or in revising their existing classifications, with the aim of achieving convertibility to the international system. Since many countries have made use of ISCO, either for reporting occupational data or as a basis for development of national occupational classification systems, a conversion table has been included in this edition. The ISCO classification structure has 4 levels: 1) major groups, 2) minor groups, 3) unit groups, and 4) occupational categories. The major groups include 1) professional, technical, and related workers; 2) administrative and managerial workers; 3) clerical and related workers; 4) sales workers; 5) service workers; 6) agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen, and hunters; 7) production and related worked; 8) transport equipment operators; 9) laborers; 10) workers not classifiable by occupation; and 11) armed forces.
Victor-Bostrom Fund Report. 1968 Fall; (10):24-6.As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than in the previous year. Beginning in 1964 an attempt was made to quantify the needs and the costs of bringing birth control services to all who need it in the US. The partnership with government has been more intimate than simple parallelism of effort. Planned Parenthood initiated or helped to administer nearly half of the family planning projects sponsored by the War on Poverty. It has served as a consultant on family planning programs to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare and assisted affiliates and other community agencies in developing project applications for federal funds totalling about $4 million, of which about $2 million for 25 projects has been funded. Planned Parenthood World Population has undertaken the planning function and has for that purpose established a national technical assistance center and program.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1968 May 28. 77 p. (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Economics Department Working Paper No. 16)All country economic reports prepared by the World Bank are required to include reference to the demographic situation in the country. This working paper consists of documents prepared by the Applied Quantitative Research Division related to the treatment of population in the country economic work of the Bank. Part I provides guidelines for an economic analysis of population trends. It is noted that the interrelationships between population growth and economic development emerge only in the longterm, and then chiefly through the influence of population factors on the ability of the economy to save and invest efficiently. The conditions under which a country can be said to have a population problem are defined, and it is asserted that the population growth rate is a more central indicator than population density in this regard. Part II offers guidelines for the evaluation of family planning programs. Such evaluation should consider the effect of these programs on the birth rate and devise measures of the extent of substitution. Prospects for the future success of a family planning effort can be evaluated through analysis of both the demand for contraceptive services in the population and the supply of such services by the government. The supply and demand framework can further be used to explain regional variations in performance within a country. Factors such as contraceptive supply, communications, administration and organization, advertising and motivation, medical and paramedical personnel, and adequate clinics may be responsible for these variations. An appendix to the paper provides a case study of the application of this type of evaluation to Taiwan's family planning program and details the benefits of fertility control for economic growth. Part III consists of a glossary of terms used in demographic analyses.
In: Brass W, Coale AJ, Demeny P, Heisel DF, Lorimer F, Romaniuk A, Van de Walle E. The demography of tropical Africa. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1968. 515-27.There is no information on fertility or mortality representative of numbers of Nigerian people. Vital statistics are registered in Lagos but are not representative of the country. The first census was taken in 1952-53 but contained no information of fertility and mortality. The 1962 census was invalidated. The political confusion surrounding the 1963 census will probably invalidate it. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The 1963 census of 56 million is an overestimate, but is much larger than the other countries. According to UN estimates based on the 1953 census, the gross reproduction rate was 3.7 and the crude birth rate between 53 and 57. Age data for boys is recorded systematically as lower than those of girls of the same real age until age 15. Slower physical development and the desire to avoid taxation may account for the discrepancies. Certain tribes tend to conceal their number of children, particularly the first born. Among Moslems it is impossible to check the number of married women who are in "purdah." Migration from and to areas of Nigeria probably affected the young adult male and was not reported. The area of highest fertility was estimated to be in Western Nigeria, particularly in the Yoruba region. The eastern region includes one low-fertility area, Cameroons Province, with a gross reproduction rate under 3.
In: Brass W, Coale AJ, Demeny P, Heisel DF, Lorimer F, Romaniuk A, Van de Walle E. The demography of tropical Africa. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1968. 3-11.Census figures for Africa were irrelevant until after colonialization. The United Nations estimated the population of Africa to be 155 million in 1930. In 1949 the UN estimated the population at 198 million but cautioned that the figure was probably underestimated since census data was lacking in almost all provinces except South Africa and a few North African countries. In the 1950's innovative demographic surveys were conducted in Guinea, the Congo, and the Sudan. In Ghana, East Africa, and Gabon sampling inquiries were used to complement the results of enumerations. The only large area that remains unenumerated is Ethiopia. Official estimates for large areas of Africa are of dubious validity and are often the results of administrative counts without statistical value. In Niger, comparison of the 1953 census figures with 1963 figures show gross deficiencies revealing an unusually large increase in population. Registration systems are maintained efficiently in Lagos and in 12 urban centers in Ghana. Future demographic studies must be developed without any dependence on vital statistics registration. Estimates of vital trends should be based on cross-sectional reports of population status at a particular time or at several specified times, and/or retrospective reports during a specified period, or during the whole previous experience of individuals.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: report of the special committee of experts on the definition of UNESCO's responsibilities in the field of population.
Studies in Family Planning. 1968 Apr; 1(28):12-15.In accordance with para. 1237 of the Approved Programme and Budget of UNESCO for 1967-1968 a Special Committee of Experts with limited membership was convened from 6 to 12 July 1967 "to advise the Director-General in defining UNESCO's responsibilities in the population field, and to consider, in particular, the following fields for possible UNESCO action: (i) to carry out sociological studies on social, cultural and other factors influencing attitudes for family planning, taking into consideration the economic aspects of population problems; (ii) to function as a clearing house for exchange of sociological research and knowledge in the field of family planning." (excerpt)
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The role of family planning in African development. Proceedings of a seminar held at University College, Nairobi, Kenya, December 13-16, 1967. London, England, IPPF, 1968. p. 56-61Family planning could contribute to the betterment of African society in 2 ways: 1) by improving the health and economic prospects of individual families, and 2) by contributing to national economic development. Voluntary organizations have a role to play in these 2 objectives. The affiliate associations of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believe that all parents have a right and a responsibility to practice responsible parenthood. IPPF seeks to propagandize in favor of family planning, to encourage the establishment of family planning facilities, and to heighten public awareness of the interrelatedness of population and development issues so that governments will adopt a responsible role in this field. Both the proselytizing and promotional roles of IPPF will be needed for a long time to come. Even when governments take over total responsibility for a national family planning program, there is still a role for voluntary associations to play. These associations can humanize mass programs and provide public feedback to the government planners. Obstacles to family planning remain on the world scene. Among them are the shortage of medical personnel and the gap between human attitudes and human behavior.
In: Family Planning Association of India [FPAI]. Sixth All India Conference on Family Planning. Report of the proceedings, Chandigarh, November 30-December 5, 1968. Bombay, FPAI, . 251-3.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the only voluntary organization in the world concerned specifically with the problem of world overpopulation, is composed of 60 national family planning associations organized into 8 regions. The history of worldwide interest in family planning before the start of the IPPF in 1952 is summarized as well as the organizational system and history of the IPPF since then. IPPF aims at persuading national governments to establish family planning programs as part of their health care systems for maternal and child care. IPPF also offers national voluntary associations help with field work, organization, and financing. Duties of the central office in London are outlined. IPPF also serves in a consultant capacity with many agencies of the United Nations.
In: Family Planning Association of India (FPAI). Sixth All India Conference on Family Planning. Report of the proceedings, Chandigarh, November 30-December 5, 1968. Bombay, FPAI, (1968). p. 257-260The General Assembly of the U.N. discussed the question of world overpopulation in 1962 and the U.N. Economic and Social Council came out in support of greater aid to governments in the family planning field in 1964. In 1966 the General Assembly unanimously endorsed the idea of aid in family planning to governments that requested it. Several of the U.N. agencies, in addition to the U.N. itself, are involved with various aspects of the population problem. This specific work is summarized. The U.N. itself sponsors international research in 4 priority areas: fertility, mortality, internal migration and urbanization, and demographic aspects of economic and social development. The U.N. also runs regional demographic research and training centers and gives direct aid to individual national family planning programs.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, (1968). (Working Paper No. 1) 34 pThe report covers all the main points pertaining to an IPPF questionnaire about mobile family planning units in 1967. An account is given of activities of the units in: 1) Korea, 2) Fiji, 3) pakistan covering 2 units in East and West Pakistan, 4) Rhodesia covering educaitonal and a clinic unit, 5) Sarawak, and 6) Hong Kong, 9 branch affiliates of the Planned Parenthood of America used mobile units in 1967, and details are given of those in: 1) Rochester and Munroe County, New York State; 2) Kansas City, Missouri; 3) Delaware League for Planned Parenthood, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware; 4) Planned Parenthood of St. Paul, Minnesota; and 5) Planned Parenthood of Cleveland, Inc., Maternal Health Association, Ohio. Korea also has some urban units used to serve the new suburbs. 1 of the most helpful factors in operating a mobile unit is cooperation with local family planning workers. Usually in that case there is a government family planning program, but without national suport the unit benefits from availability of premises and amenities such as water and electricity. Some of the factors operating againist the units are: 1) lack of local workers, 2) lack of premises and amenities, 3) geographical conditions and lack of roads, 4) climate, and 5) staff and maintenance costs. Appendix 1 is a report of the mobile unit in Lahore district, West Pakistan, and Appendix 2 contains instructions to the staff of an urban mobile clinic.
In: Family Planning Association of India (FPAI). Sixth All India Conference on Family Planning. Report of the proceedings, Chandigarh, November 30-December 5, 1968. Bombay, FPAI, (1968). p. 277-278The programs and activities of UNESCO are determined by representatives of the governments of member states. In 1966, approval was given to study the relationship between educational development and the evolution of population. The analysis of the effects of improvement of educational levels on fertility rates and internal migration will be published shortly. Further studies will attempt to determine whether a kind of ''critical mass'' exists which is quantitatively and qualitatively necessary in education or literacy to ensure the institutionalization of family planning. Another study will examine the interaction between the fertility rate and the status of women and their role in society. New financial possibilities may allow us to aid in developing curriculum and teaching materials for schools and adult education programs, and assist in the use of mass communication for these programs.
[The tasks of family planning in the European Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation - IPPF] Aufgaben der Familienplanung in der europaischen Region der Internationalen Foderation fur geplante Elternschaft - IPPF.
In: Mehlan, I.H., ed. Arzt und Familienplanung. (The doctor and family planning.) (Proceedings of the Third Rostock Continuing Education Convention on the Problems of Marriage and Sex Counseling, October 23-25, 1967. Rostock-Warnemunde). Berlin, Veb Verlag, Volk und Gesundheit (People and Health), 1968. p. 177-178The summary of an address on the historical development of the problem of family planning in Eastern Europe is presented. The task is not only limitation of family size, but also child development, marital harmony, and maternal and child health. The German Democratic Republic, the youngest member country of IPPF, sent the speaker to the 1967 Congress, where she participated in the ''Marriage and Family'' workshop. As president of the European and Near Eastern region, she gave an instructive summary of their specific problems. Taboos must be dispelled, from physicians as well as laymen. Doctors must have a positive attitude toward family planning as well as technical expertise. The minister of health in East Germany is involved in these problems. The speaker summarized the work of IPPF in holding international congresses, training personnel, publishing instructions in many languages, and its relationships with other organizations such as WHO and UNESCO. She concluded with the thought that family planning will not only benefit the individual family, but also the family of the world.
In: Family Planning Association of India (FPAI). Sixth All India Conference on Family Planning. Report of the proceedings, Chandigarh, November 30-December 5, 1968. Bombay, FPAI, (1968). p. 261-262The Resolutions of the World Health Assemblies in the last 4 years have defined the role of the Organization in the field of family planning. WHO advises governments, on request, as to development of family planning programs coordinated with general health care systems. Requests from governments have increased and activities of WHO have included organization, administration of programs, training, evaluation, and encouragement of research. Expanded work in the field is envisioned for the future.
In: World Health Organization (WHO). The second ten years of the World Health Organization. 1958-1967. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1968. 37-77.The direction of activities relating to the organization of health services of WHO during the period of 1958-1967, has been influenced by the emergence of many newly independent countries, an informed and demanding public, the cost of health care and the concept of balanced economic and social development. The Organization has been called upon to assist the national authorities in the formulation of national programs. Reorganization of health services and changes of emphasis in their development are closely associated with the need to evaluate both the technical and administrative aspects of the programs, manpower and financial resources. The work of WHO in the last 10 years is presented and includes; planning, administration of public health, medical care, health laboratory services, occupational health, health education, maternal and child health, nursing and health statistics.
In: Family Planning Association of India (FPAI). Sixth All India Confere nce on Family Planning. Report of the proceedings, Chandigarh, November 30-December 5, 1968. Bombay, FPAI, (1968). p. 267-276International help in controlling population has become necessary due to recent rapid growth rates, though because of the controversial nature of the subject such help has often been slow in coming. Availability of international help came about 1st through efforts to provide more accurate demographic data. The U.N. and UNESCO were involved in that field early on with the formation of the Population Commission in 1946. Universities, foundations, and national governments supported research in reproductive biology. Next, the field was advanced by communication studies, including KAP surveys, promoted by such bodies as IUSSP and the Population Commission since 1966. In the 4th area of international aid, that of service programs and advice and a ssistance in operations, U.N. agencies have been most hesitant in offering help. Since most service programs are part of national health services, WHO has been the agency most involved, though up until 1963 strong opposition from Roman Catholic countries prevented its active participation in population control. By 1966, however, population pressures were becoming so acute in some countries that through the urgings of UNESCO, ECAFE, FAO, and even UNICEF policies were liberalized and the Secretariat was given a definite mandate to fully cooperate with member nations which requested aid in development of population programs. International agencies having special concern with population control are of 2 main types; governmental and private/voluntary. Government agencies include multilateral bodies like the U.N. and the World Bank, and bilateral assistance bodies like USAID, SIDA, and programs in Great Britain, Canada, Australia, Japan, Chile, Colombia, West Germany, Norway, and Denmark. Private/voluntary agencies are private in that they are responsible only to their members and to public opinion and voluntary in that they are supported by contributions. Typically such agencies have been involved in pioneering and research, demonstrations, edcuation, supplementing the work of official agencies, advancing legislation, and cooperating with other agencies. IPPF, Ford Foundation, Milbank Memorial Fund, Rockefeller Foundation, Population Council, IUSSP and various universities are among the most notable examples.
In: Wright, H. Contraceptive technique: a handbook of practical instruction. 3rd edition. London, J. and A. Churchill, 1968. p. 84-86The history and activities of IPPF is briefly reviewed. The groundw ork for the IPPF was laid at an International Conference in England in 1948, with representatives of Family Planning Associations from the U.S., Sweden, Holland, and Great Britain in attendance. By 1967, 50 countries were members of the IPPF, and 8 International Conferences have been held in various countries. The international medical committee has established world standard tests for spermicides and rubber materials. Contraception research is being encouraged, and large-scale clinical trials are being conducted to assess the efficacy and acceptability of current contraceptive methods. Addresses of regional offices are given for those seeking advice or information.
In: World Health Organization (WHO). The second ten years of the World Health Organization, 1958-1967. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1968. 78-93.The education and training programs provided for medical and other health personnel by WHO from 1958 to 1967 are reviewed in the context of general policies established by the Executive Board and World Health Assembley. The programs are categorized into the following areas: 1) basic education in medicine; 2) postgraduate education in medicine and public health; 3) training auxiliaries for the health professions; 4) fellowships and training grants, courses and educational meetings; and 5) further training of professional staff. A subordinate discussion of the emergency fellowships program for the Democratic Republic of the Congo is included.
In: World Health Organization (WHO). The second ten years of the World Health Organization, 1958-1967. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1968. 159-167.A large malaria eradication program has been undertaken with the assistance of WHO. Progress has varied greatly, however, from region to region. In the African Region there has been little valid progress. A WHO scientific group continues to do research in the field of malaria. The infections associated with parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, filariasis, hookworm, onchocerciasis, ascariasis, and Chagas' disease, affecting hundreds of millions of people, are important causes of morbidity and mortality. WHO's program asseses the public health importance of the major parasitic infections so that the proper implementation of control is made possible. A single solution to the insecticides will require attention to formulation and application, to toxiciological research on hazards to humans, and ecological research on possible side effects on the evironment. The progress achieved thus far offers a reasonable assurance that effective vector-borne disease control programs can be undertaken despite the resistance phenomenon.
In: World Health Organization (WHO). The second ten years of the World Health Organization, 1958-1967. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1968. 94-158.WHO's activities within the last decade in the field of communicable diseases have included assistance in connection with epidemiological surveillance and the international Sanitary Regulations. Areas such as smallpox eradication, virus rickettsial and related diseases, endemic treponematoses and venereal infections, tuberculosis, leprosy and other bacterial diseases and zoonoses, veterinary public health, and food hygiene have been placed under surveillance, have been quarantined, have been eradicated, and have been studied. A collaborative study to determine levels of antibody to rubella virus in different age categories in different countries has been undertaken under WHO's guidance. Attention has also been focused on promoting the widest possible use of effective new drugs and epidemiological methods against the endemic treponematoses, venereal syphilis, and other venereal infections. In addition, programs have been created to educate students in the areas of veterinary medicine, food hygiene, and nutrition.
Co-ordination of medical research, programme co-ordination and evaluation, cooperation with other organizations.
In: World Health Organization (WHO). The second ten years of the World Health Organization, 1958-1967. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1968. 268-284.Coordination of medical research within WHO and with other organizations that cooperate with WHO, program coordination and evaluation in the field and cooperation by WHO with other organizations are discussed in the context of WHO's general public health function. In the last named, specific mention is made of a recent affirmation by the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee to strengthen the health aspects of family planning. A statement on the particular nature of WHO's coordination with 14 organizations is included.
In: World Health Organization (WHO). The second ten years of the World Health Organization, 1957-1968. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1968. 285-296.The publications and library services designed by WHO for health authorities and the books, periodicals, films, photographs, exhibits, radio programs, stamps, and television mterial produced by WHO for the general public between 1957 and 1968 are surveyed. The main titles in various categories are named, and general publication policies are outlined.