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  1. 1

    Zika virus infection. Step-by-step guide to risk communication and community engagement.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Washington, D.C., PAHO, 2017. 38 p.

    This document provides technical content on ZIKV, its manifestations, complications, modes of transmission, and prevention measures to be used in answering frequently asked questions and conveying messages in information and communication materials, community talks, press conferences, etc. Recommendations for the preparation of risk communication and action plans to respond to ZIKV are included. This guide to activities and recommendations for managing risk communication on ZIKV is designed for spokespersons, health authorities and health workers, other sectors, and partners inside and outside the health sector to assist them in tailoring communication initiatives to the needs of each country and target audience. The elimination of mosquito breeding sites remains the most important strategy for the prevention and control of ZIKV (as well as dengue and chikungunya) infection. Therefore, communication plans for the response to ZIKV should include intersectoral action and community engagement to modify behaviors and encourage sustained practices to eliminate breeding sites and control the mosquito, as well as to inform and educate target audiences about the steps they can take to prevent ZIKV transmission. The fourth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations agreed that, “due to continuing geographic expansion and considerable gaps in understanding of the virus and its consequences, Zika virus infection and its associated congenital malformations and other related neurological disorders, ZIKV continues to be a public health emergency of intenational concern.
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  2. 2

    Communication: a guide for managers of national diarrhoeal disease control programmes. Planning, management and appraisal of communication activities.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, 1987. vii, 78 p.

    When the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) began in 1978, it concentrated on producers and providers of oral rehydration salts. Communication efforts were directed at informing health care providers and training them to treat patients. The time has come for CDD programs to put more emphasis on enduser-oriented approaches, and it is to facilitate that aim that this guide for CDD program managers on enduser-directed communication has been developed. The guide is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 deals with nature and scope of communication in a CDD program. The 1st step is research and analysis of the target population -- find out what the target audience does and does not know and what are some of their misconceptions about the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the Litrosol packets. Communication can teach mothers how and when and why to use ORT, but it cannot overcome lack of supply and distribution of the salts; it cannot be a substitute for trained health care staff; and it cannot transform cultural norms. Part 2 deals with the communication design process. Step 1 is to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of both the endusers and the health care providers; to investigate what communication resources are available; and to investigate the available resources in terms of cost, time, and personnel. Step 2 is communication planning, in terms of: 1) definition of the target audience; 2) identification of needed behavior modification, and 3) factors constraining it; 4) defining the goals of the communication program in terms of improving access to and use of the new information; 5) approaches to change, e.g., rewards, motivation, and appeal to logic, emotion, or fear; 6) deciding what mix of communications methods is to be used, i.e., radio, printed matter; 7) identifying the institutions that will carry out the communicating; 8) developing a feasible timetable, and 9) a feasible budget. Step 3 is to develop the message to be communicated and to choose the format of the message for different communications media. Step 4 is testing, using a sample of the audience, whether the messages are having their intended effect in terms of acceptance and understanding by the target audience, and revision of the messages as necessary. Step 5 is the actual implementation of the communication plan in terms of using a media mix appropriate to the audience, phasing the messages so as to avoid information saturation; and designing the messages so that they are understandable, correct, brief, attractive, standardized, rememberable, convincing, practical, and relevant to the target audience. Step 6 is to monitor the program to be sure the messages are reaching their intended audiences, to evaluate the program in terms of its actual effects, and to use the results of the monitoring and evaluation to correct instances of communication breakdown. Part 3 deals with the CDD manager's role in communication. The manager must select a suitable communications coordinator, who will have the technical expertise necessary and the ability to call upon appropriate government and private information resources and consultants. The manager must brief the coordinator in the scope and objectives of the CDD program; and he must supervise and monitor the work of the coordinator.
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  3. 3

    Communicating family planning in reproductive health: key messages for communicators.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Suport). Family Planning and Population

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support), Family Planning and Population, 1997. xxi, 56 p. (WHO/FRH/FPP/97.33)

    Communication to individuals, communities, and policymakers about the benefits of family planning can be a first step toward improving the quality and accessibility of such services. This booklet, prepared by the World Health Organization, seeks to provide health care workers and communication specialists with tools they need to increase awareness of the need for family planning services and advocate for service improvement and expansion. Detailed information is presented to support 8 key IEC statements: 1) family planning saves women's lives and improves their health; 2) using contraception to delay first births and space births at least 2 years apart saves children's lives and improves child health; 3) family planning provides special social and economic benefits for the couple, family, and community; 4) a variety of safe and effective contraceptives exist, each with different characteristics to meet users' varied needs; 5) contraceptives are safe and offer many health benefits; 6) condoms provide significant protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); 7) adolescents face serious physical, social, and economic consequences from pregnancy and STDs, but can be helped to make responsible choices through sexuality education; and 8) men can support their sexual partners by sharing responsibility for family planning, disease prevention, and child rearing.
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  4. 4

    Summary of the Working Group on Media Strategies.

    Fadope CM

    In: Reproductive Health and Justice. International Women's Health Conference for Cairo '94, January 24-28, 1994, Rio de Janeiro. New York, New York, International Women's Health Coalition, 1994. 29-30.

    The Media Working Group at the International Women's Health Conferences for Cairo 1994 called the participants' attention to the need to increase coverage of women's issues and women's perspectives on population issues through innovative new strategies. Before and during the Cairo conference, existing media assets should be identified, relationships with new journalists and media managers cultivated, and the official media of international organizations should be sensitized on women's issues. Statistics on women's status should be collected to counter the media exclusive emphasis on population growth. Existing audiovisual materials can be used to promote feminist concepts of social development. Also recommended in publicization of international agreements denouncing discrimination against women in signatory countries that have failed to act on their commitments. After the conference, an emphasis should be placed on disseminating relevant information, cultivating relationships with journalists who can promote women's views, and maintaining media momentum toward the Social Development Summit and 1995 Women's Conference in Beijing.
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  5. 5

    Women journalists facing population policies.

    Lovera S; Casas Chousal Y


    Journalists who cover population issues search out information on official policies, demographic rates, scientific positions, and shocking trends. In the process, individuals vanish into the collective. A women's journalism project in Mexico, Women's Information and Communication Center (CIMAC), is endeavoring to change this pattern of reporting, especially in the area of reproductive rights. CIMAC journalists note that it is in discussion with individuals that the real effects of development policies can be understood, not through reliance on official statistics. In addition, CIMAC is stimulating public debate on issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, the effort toward decentralization through the creation of 100 new cities, labor migration, and environmental destruction. Another focus will be to large participants at the 1994 International Conferences on Population and Development to validate the rights of women.
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  6. 6

    Broadcasters' questions and answers on AIDS.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. [4], 55 p. (WHO/GPA/HPR/89.1; AIDS Prevention Through Health Promotion)

    This document was prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS as a resource for radio broadcasters. Radio broadcasters are in an ideal position to increase public knowledge about AIDS and reduce misconceptions; however, to play this role, they must themselves to be well informed. The information in this manual is organized into 13 topics: what is AIDS, AIDS background, AIDS and nightlife, AIDS and you, AIDS next door, AIDS on the street, AIDS at work, AIDS and pregnancy, insects and AIDS, AIDS and travel, international AIDS, national AIDS, and AIDS radio serial. The presentation of each of these topics includes questions and answers, as well as a brief scenario that places the information in the context of daily life. The information can be used by radio broadcasters for shows that cover health topics, question and answer programs, plays, stories, short talks, public service announcements, and radio spots. It is expected that broadcasters will adapt the material to local languages, use scenarios relevant to local high-risk populations, respect local customs and values, use familiar characters and place names, and prepare dialogue and narratives.
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  7. 7

    As child survival and development advocates: the PFA/UNICEF experience.

    Tirol VG

    INTEGRATION. 1989 Jul; (20):28-30.

    The Press Foundation of Asia was founded in 1968 by editors and publishers in Asia and the Pacific. Its activities include an editorial program which publishes several editions of DEPTHnews and a training program for training journalists and other communicators in the skills needed to report news stories in different fields, including child survival and development. The Press Foundation's programs are coordinated by the Foundation secretariate in Manila in coordination with national and regional associates throughout Asia and the Pacific. The UN Childrens Fund selected the Asian Press Foundation as its partner in the Communication Training Project in Support of Child Survival and Development. The objectives of the Project are to make journalists aware of child survival issues, to win the involvement of governments and nongovernmental organizations in child survival, and to create a desire for more information on the subject. The Project conducted a total of 21 workshops for training communicators and produces a monthly newsletter "Asian Women and Children." The workshops concentrate on the presentation of facts related to child survival, the conduction of discussion groups and field trips, and exercises in writing features for newspapers and radio, based on what was learned and seen. As a result of the Foundation's efforts, the city of Tacloban in the Philippines achieved 80% child immunization coverage, and comic book editors and publishers in the Philippines began running health features in comic book format. In order for the media to help in child survival, they must know of the plight of mothers and children, they must be given information in ready-to-use format, they must be dealt with openly, they must be made aware of contrary messages in the media, such as those of the milk companies, they must be given recognition and acknowledgment of their contributions, and they must get feedback.
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  8. 8

    A grand alliance.

    Allan D

    DEVELOPMENT FORUM. 1988 Mar-Apr; 16(2):11, 14.

    Facts for Life is a 50-page compilation of priority messages focussed on infant and child health and designed to reach parents directly, so that they will have the facts they need to keep their children alive and healthy. The "Facts for Life" initiative is expected to reach the parents through a grand alliance of communicators -- nongovernmental organizations and individuals -- who come directly into contact with parents. The initiative has the backing of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is also supported by nongovernmental networks such as the Children, Rotary, and Junior Chambers of Commerce as well as officials of the International Pediatrics Association, London University Institute of Child Health, and the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Topics covered in the "Facts for Life" messages include safe motherhood, breast feeding, immunization, acute respiratory infections, malaria, timing births, promoting child growth, diarrhea, home hygiene, and AIDS. The booklet is available in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic for 25 cents (US) a copy from UNICEF.
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  9. 9

    Management training for IEC.

    Bhatia B; Mathur KB

    POPULATION MANAGER: ICOMP REVIEW. 1987 Jun; 1(1):19-22.

    Communication plays an essential role in creating the necessary social climate for the development and adoption of population policies and in supporting actions undertaken to implement these policies. To be effective, however, there must be integrated communication for population and development programs. In addition to knowledge of the mass media and community organizations, communicators in the field of population must have the ability to collaborate with other development programs in an intersectoral effort, Toward this end, UNESCO, in collaboration with the Asia-Pacific Institute for broadcasting Development, has organized specialized courses in the management of population communication programs. A review of the situation at the time this program was initiated revealed that IEC directors had minimal knowledge and understanding of the role of IEC in family planning programs, little practical experience in planning and managing multimedia, community-based, interpersonal communication activities, and these programs had no scientifically established data base. As result, a pilot 2-week course comprised of o modules was held in India in 1983. Module 1 focused on a systematic problem-solving approach to IEC program situations, Module ii emphasized human resource management, and Module III was designed to impart specific communication skills. The course was subsequently expanded to 3 weeks, and has in the past 3 years involved 54 persons from 20 countries. Unesco has also developed a population communication course in collaboration with the Arab States Broadcasting Union.
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  10. 10

    Report of Experts Meeting 18-22 September 1978.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa. Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa

    Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, [1978]. 19, [16] p. (XA/01471/00)

    The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
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  11. 11

    Meeting information needs for population education: using materials for population education, Booklet 1. Trial edition.

    UNESCO. Population Education Programme Service

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 95 p.

    This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials service, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it deals with some basic techniques of using and processing population education materials. The focus of the booklet is on activities that usually lie within the domain of librarians, documentalists and information officers, which nevertheless are useful to others involved in this field; for example staff of population education programs are frequently required to respond to requests for information. The 3 learning modules contained here are: 1) Assessing the quality of population education materials; 2) Literature searches, bibliographies and request for materials; and 3) Writing abstracts for population education materials. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. This booklet has a sequel, Booklet 2, which deals with other areas of population education information.
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  12. 12

    Meeting information needs for population education: information services for population education, Booklet 2. Trial edition.

    UNESCO. Population Education Programme Service

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 96 p.

    This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials services, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education programme Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it focuses on the wide range of supplementary information activities that are provided to promote the success of the program. The supplementary activities include preparation of a newsletter and the distribution of background information to key leaders. The booklet contains 5 learning modules. The 1st module deals with the processing or transformation of materials, the 2nd examines more sophisticated materials services such as the selective dissemination of information and production of packages as well as basic survey technics, the 3rd examines methods of popularizing population education programs, the 4th analyses the nature and potential of networks as distribution and communication channels, and the 5th touches upon the evaluation of an information program and development of training workshops or materials for these programs. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. The preceding booklet, Booklet 1, covers other areas of population education.
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  13. 13

    The dialogue goes on.

    Salas RM

    Unfpa Newsletter. 1975 Jan-Feb; 1(1):1.

    A worldwide dialogue on population began in 1974, World Population Year, in Bucharest. Although there was a general awareness among the delegates at the World Population Conference that the population issue is beyond the ideological background, no consensus on the definition of the problem was reached. Some saw it as a currently unsustainable increase in the number of people dependent on available resources; some viewed it as a question of density; others believed it to be a "national pride" issue relating to insufficient hands available to develop national resources to their full potential; politicians spoke of the issue as a political matter; technicians saw it as a need for programs of action through which information and equipment for limiting fertility could be available to those who sought it; and the economic planners regarded the problem as a need for a balance between people and resources. It has become necessary to view the population issue as an integral and essential factor in development planning and programming. A 2-way line of communication between people and planners is crucial. This was the reason for the Fund's support of continuing programs of training and briefing communicators interested in effecting social change. The Year allowed several hundred editors, writers and broadcasters to commit themselves as individuals and professionals to the urgent population question. Several thousand members of nongovernmental and other institutions and private individuals were also given the opportunity to search for the ideas, techniques, values and priorities that will lead to solutions. The newsletter acts as a communication vehicle to sustain public commitment. It is also a measure of the responsiveness that UNFPA has adopted as one of its cardinal principles.
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  14. 14

    Communication for population and family welfare programmes: the role of Unesco.


    Paris, France, Unesco Press, 1981. 29 p.

    UNESCO's population program involves communication. Since 1974, the program has stressed the importance of studying the interrelationsihps between demographic and socioeconomic factors and of integrating population activities with overall development efforts. The Regional Advisor's Offices play a vital role in the program. These advisors and their staff are currently in Bangkok, Thailand; Beirut, Lebanon; Dakar, Senegal; Nairobi, Kenya; and Santiago, Chile. 2 groups require training in population communication; those who are communications and media specialists, and those who are in population-related activities. To train these people, UNESCO organizes courses and workshops; inserts courses into the curricula of universities that train communication specialists; sends people abroad on fellowships; and organizes study tours. UNESCO supports research with implications for population communication. The agency's assistance in planning, administration and evaluation areas takes 2 main forms: providing advisory services; and issuing publications on the subject. Publications and films are listed at the end. UNESCO is involved in experimentation with: 1) communication materials and techniques in pilot projects; 2) development of communication materials aimed at general or target audiences in specific countries; and 3) development of communication materials for use in training programs. In the area of communication, several women's projects are under way. Another form of UNESCO support for population communication is the diffusion and exchange of information and materials. UNESCO should continue to expand its support for population communication activities; training will remain a pressing need. Particular groups will need to be addressed and specific issues dealt with, as will population distribution, and the relationship between population concerns and human rights. Specific suggestions are given as to when, where, and how UNESCO can be useful.
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