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Are the goals set by the Millennium Declaration and the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development within reach by 2015?
Asia Pacific Population Journal. 2008 Aug; 23(2):3-9.This article discusses the likelihood of countries in Asia and the Pacific in reaching their 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). It touches on malnourishment, the reduction of child mortality, and the improvement of maternal health and stresses that the benefits of development must serve everyone, and not just favor the wealthy.
Population and Environment. 2007 May; 28(4-5):274-282.Full transcript of Dr. Goodall's keynote address at the Bixby symposium on Population and Conservation, held at the University of California, Berkeley on May 6, 2006. Dr. Goodall contrasts population growth amongst chimpanzees and human beings and discusses current conservation efforts of the Jane Goodall Institute in the Gombe region of Tanzania and the development of the TACARE (take care) program. (author's)
Compendium of recommendations on international migration and development: the United Nations Development Agenda and the Global Commission on International Migration compared.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2006. 122 p. (ESA/P/WP.197)This report has two objectives. The first is to provide the elements of the United Nations framework on international migration by extracting from the outcome documents of the various conferences and summits those parts that relate to international migration. Hence, this report presents a compilation of all the relevant principles, guidelines, commitments and recommendations for action in the area of international migration that have been adopted so far by Member States of the United Nations. Such a set constitutes the solid foundation on which the high-level dialogue on international migration and development can build. The United Nations conferences and summits considered include: (a) the two world summits held since 2000; (b) all the intergovernmental conferences on population held since 1974, and (c) other major United Nations conferences and summits held since 1990 that contain recommendations relative to international migration. In extracting text from the outcome documents of conferences and summits, the aim has also been one of comprehensiveness. All parts of the outcome documents dealing with international migration issues have been included in this report. In addition, parts that provide useful guidance regarding the formulation of policies in general, the organization of partnerships for development, the pursuit of technical cooperation or research, the conditions for action at the national or international levels, or the variants of international cooperation, and that may be relevant in addressing international migration issues, have also been included. The second objective of this report is to compare the recommendations made by the Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) with recommendations or commitments that Member States of the United Nations have already adopted by consensus in the various United Nations conferences and summits. (excerpt)
SCN News. 2006; (31):49-50.Many circumstances around the world are working against the provision of health care to those in greatest need: the US occupation of Iraq; the Israeli wall isolating Palestinian communities; widespread spraying of herbicides in Colombia in the war against drugs, and before that in Vietnam; genocide in Sudan's Darfur region; discrimination against aboriginals in Australia, against tribal peoples in Asia, and indigenous populations in the Andes; millions of HIV-infected people, particularly in Africa; and the lack of health insurance coverage for underprivileged Americans. These populations suffer from one common effect--they experience serious health and nutritional consequences, particularly for children and women. In July 2005, as a WABA delegate, I attended the second People's Health Assembly held in the beautiful historic city of Cuenca, Ecuador. The first Assembly in Bangladesh in 2000 recognized the goals embodied in the "Declaration of Alma Ata." This latter international assembly, held in the former Soviet Union, was sponsored by WHO and unanimously called for "Health for All by 2000." (excerpt)
Realizing the right to adequate food and achieving the Millennium Development Goals challenges facing the nutrition community.
SCN News. 2006; (31):47-48.An SCN workshop addressing the realization of the right to adequate food and achieving the MDGs was held during the International Union of Nutritional Sciences' 18th International Congress of Nutrition in Durban, South Africa, September 2005. The meeting was jointly chaired by former SCN Chair, Dr Namanga Ngongi, and Professor Arne Oshaug of Akerhus College in Oslo, Norway. Six presentations were organized into three blocks related to: realizing the human right to adequate food (HRAF); national nutrition plans and poverty reduction programmes; and human-rights based nutrition capacity building. Some 70 participants took part in the four hour workshop. The lessons learnt from the SCN country case studies on integrating human rights into national approaches-- prepared for the SCN 32nd Session, Brasilia, March 2005--were presented by Roger Shrimpton. The case studies were developed in a participatory fashion, with country teams facilitated by SCN consultants. Workshops were held in Angola, Bolivia, Brazil and Mozambique to facilitate the understanding of nutrition causality and the right to adequate food, in order to strengthen national development plans for poverty reduction and realize the HRAF. In all countries there was a lack of common understanding among development actors about the programme components needed to ensure both food and nutrition security. Recommendations included the development of a food and nutrition policy framework to help define the interventions that will enhance the realization of the HRAF, together with a strategy to communicate a common vision among the UN agencies on how to promote the realization of HRAF and the right to be free from hunger and malnutrition. (excerpt)
Population / development / environment trends in a globalized context: challenges for the 21st century.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):247-278.This paper begins with a brief review of ongoing trends in development patterns and population dynamics, with emphasis on the impacts of globalization. This assessment suggests that, in the foreseeable future, the most pertinent PDE questions will relate to the distribution of population over space and leads to the question - how can we best address the issue of environment and space? The sustainable use of space is posited here as a helpful approach and its usage is exemplified with respect to the main PDE problem of the 21st century, namely - urban growth. Finally, the paper addresses the question - what are the environmental implications of unparalleled growth in towns and cities, and what issues need to be addressed in this connection? (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):215-246.Since the Rome Population Conference the perceptions of the relationship between population dynamics and food security have undergone significant changes, ranging from fear of unyielding famines caused by explosive population growth to strong confidence in the capacity of the world to stand up to the challenge of growth. Many novel factors, unpredictable at the time, radically changed the scene throughout the half century. Unprecedented population growth happened during times of growing incomes and soaring agricultural production. Emerging actors such as the international agricultural research system played an important role, while emerging factors such as the AIDS epidemic have changed the parameters of the equation. With a world population that will significantly increase in the twenty first century, and that will, for the first time in history, be more urban than rural, not only will the total demand for food be greater than it has ever been, but the nature of that demand will be different. In many countries, changes have been taking place in dietary habits, as well as in methods of food production, processing and marketing, while international trade in raw commodities and processed foods has also grown substantially. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):185-192.I was asked by the organizers of this international conference to discuss, in my presentation, the effects of ageing on competitiveness. I will start by arguing that the key economic issue involved by ageing is growth rather than competitiveness per se, as ageing may reduce the growth potential of nations. I will however point out that there is nothing unavoidable about this effect of ageing on growth. Reforming pensions and labour market institutions in order to better exploit returns from experience, it is possible to counteract the effects of a declining workforce on growth and sustain a relatively high rate of capital accumulation even under older societies. But there are strong political obstacles to these reforms. These political obstacles should be fully understood, it is still a matter of positive economics, and possibly counteracted (the domain of normative economics). (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):167-184.This paper intends to comment on some of the connections between demographic patterns and poverty reduction that have been sufficiently tested, and are now widely accepted. The first section of it gives an overview of the different conceptions of poverty that are currently considered. The second deals with poverty measurement, and with the availability of data, both in developed and developing countries, pointing at some of their problems and limitations, particularly for their use in international comparisons and macro-economic analysis. The third describes briefly how theories relating demography and poverty have evolved from the time that this issue was aroused by Malthus, and reviews the current state of the art. In the following section, some aspects of the incidence of poverty on fertility and mortality are explored. The dynamics of the demographic changes and their effects on economic development are the subject of the fifth section. Finally, the last section is devoted to the controversial role that the massive migration inflows that are a trait of our times can play in the eradication of poverty. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):141-163.World demographic growth at the time of the Rome Conference in 1954 was characterized by unprecedented high rates of natural increase. This was the consequence of the combined effect of faster declines in death rates and sustained high birth rates. As a result, world population would double from three to six billion between 1960 and 1999 and from 5 to 6 billion in just 12 years (1987-1999), while it had taken the world four times as much to double from 1.5 to 3 billion and nearly a millennium to reach the first billion. What triggered this growth were primarily unprecedented mortality declines, a better control of major killer diseases and increases in survival particularly in the developing countries (life expectancy increased from 41 to 65 years on average over the last three decades). With such unprecedented growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the late 1950s to raise a serious concern about the impact of current and projected growth rates both within countries and internationally at the economic, social and geopolitical levels. This theory would soon become the driving force behind all population policy objectives aimed at third world countries where governments were encouraged to formulate population policies, establish policy institutions and programme structures to implement family planning programmes, bring about smaller-sized families and help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):111-140.At the end of 1951, in the first issue of the Population Bulletin, the United Nations published an article on the past and future growth of world population (United Nations, 1951). The article provided a "long-term view" of future population growth by projecting the population by groups of countries from 1950 to 1980. According to this first set of estimates and projections issued by the United Nations, the world population, which was estimated to be 2.4 billion in mid-1950, would increase by at least half a billion and at most 1.2 billion over the next 30 years, producing for 1980 a range of 3 billion to 3.6 billion people, with a "medium" value of 3.3 billion. A further scenario obtained by maintaining constant the vital rates estimated for the late 1940s produced a world population of 3.5 billion (table 1), The proceedings of the 1954 World Population Conference held in Rome included another set of population projections, updating the work published in 1951. The major difference between the two sets lies on an upward adjustment of the 1950 population of Asia that resulted in a world total closer to 2.5 billion and led to a larger population in 1980 (3.6 billion in the medium variant). Today, with the benefit of hindsight, we estimate that the world's population in 1950 was slightly over 2.5 billion and that it increased by 1.9 billion over the next 30 years, to reach 4.4 billion by 1980, a value higher than the highest projected at the time of the 1954 Conference. In reviewing past demographic trends, this paper will compare them with those expected by United Nations demographers in the 1950s and 1960s in order to understand better their assessment of how the demographic transition would proceed. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):69-90.For most of human history, life was especially brutal. The growth of world population was kept in check largely by famines, deadly diseases and wars. Living conditions were poor and death rates were high. Infant and child deaths and maternal mortality were common, and few reached 60 years of age. And prior to 1800, centenarians, those aged 100 or older, are not believed to have lived. As a result of high birth and death rates, world population grew slowly for most of the past. Two thousand years ago, world population is believed to have been around 300 million people. Near the close of the 15th century world population was approaching the half billion mark. And when Malthus wrote his essay on population at the end of the 18th century, world population had not yet reached the one billion mark. Up until the modern era, nearly all of the world's population lived off the countryside. A thousand years ago, a few percent of the world's population of roughly 300 million lived outside rural areas. Even in 1700, the proportion urban had changed little and only five cities had more than a half a million inhabitants: Istanbul, Tokyo, Beijing, Paris and London. By 1800, about three percent of the world's population of some 1 billion lived in cities or urban places. By 1900, about 15 percent of the world's population of 1.6 billion resided in urban areas and the number of cities with more than a half a million inhabitants had increased eight-fold. (excerpt)
From Rome 1954 to Rome 2005 and beyond. Introductory remarks on the past and future of population problems.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):49-68.50 years on, Rome is once again at the centre of the scientific, and therefore political, debate on population problems. It is a great pleasure and a great honour to introduce here, in this prestigious Academy together with a small but highly qualified scientific and technical/political community, a Conference in order to discuss population problems with a holistic approach. An Irish colleague wrote to congratulate me on this initiative, highlighting how it will once again make it possible to discuss substantial population-related problems on an international level. Indeed when examining political and operative directives, this subject has been frequently neglected in the recent sessions of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, whose once large number of experts participation is gradually falling. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):27-48.The International Conference Trends and Problems of the World Population in the 21st Century. 50 years since Rome 1954, was held in Rome, under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic, at the "Accademia dei Lincei" on the 26th and 27th of May 2005 and at University of Rome "La Sapienza" on the 28th of May 2005. Organized by the Accademia dei Lincei, the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and its Department of Demograpy, the Conference was financially supported by the Banca d' Italia and the Compagnia di San Paolo. After the five fundamental United Nations Conferences on Population - held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, and the following, intergovernmental, held in Bucarest in 1974, Mexico City in 1984 and in Cairo in 1994 - this Conference has been a new, important occasion for the analysis and the debate on population problems bringing them back to Rome after the first pionieristic, merely academic, Conference organized by the United Nations in Rome in September 1954. At that time in Rome the debate highlighted trends and problems that would have characterized the world population during the second half of the 20th century and that have contributed in defining the population policy carried out by the UN and by the single countries. This time, once again in Rome, the aim has been to identify trends and problems that are likely to affect the world population in the first half of the 21st century and to provide cues able to define and build population policies. In one word to revitalize the debate on population issues which have been, for some time, languishing both in the UN and in many countries. (excerpt)
Statement by Regional Director Carmen Barroso at the 36th Session of the Commission on Population and Development, United Nations, New York, 2 April 2003.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region [WHR], 2003 Apr 2.  p.In a speech before the 36th Session of the U.N. Commission on Population and Development in New York on 2 April 2003, Carmen Barroso, Regional Director of IPPF/WHR, emphasized the paramount importance of comprehensive sexuality education for young people, and urged the United Nations to give it much greater attention in its future program of work in the area of population. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4): p..According to the 1998 revised estimates and projections of the United Nations, the world population currently stands at 5.9 billion persons and is growing at 1.33 per cent per year, an annual net addition of about 78 million people. World population in the mid-twenty-first century is expected to be in the range of 7.3 to 10.7 billion, with a figure of 8.9 billion by the year 2050 considered to be most likely. Global population growth is slowing, thanks to successful family planning programmes. But because of past high fertility, the world population will continue to grow by over 80 million a year for at least the next decade. In mid-1999, the total will pass 6 billion-twice what it was in 1960. More young people than ever are entering their childbearing years. At the same time, the number and proportion of people over 65 are increasing at an unprecedented rate. The rapid growth of these young and old new generations is challenging societies' ability to provide education and health care for the young, and social, medical and financial support for the elderly. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Jun-Aug; 42(2): p..We have the opportunity in the coming decade to cut world poverty by half. Billions more people could enjoy the fruits of the global economy, and tens of millions of lives could be saved. The practical solutions exist. The political framework is established. And for the first time, the cost is utterly affordable. Whatever one's motivation for combating extreme poverty--human rights, religious values, security, fiscal prudence, ideology--the solutions are the same. All that is needed is action. The United Nations Millennium Project is an independent advisory body commissioned by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to develop a global plan for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. If the world achieves these Goals, more than 500 million people will be lifted out of poverty and 250 million will no longer suffer from hunger, while 30 million children and 2 million mothers who might reasonably have been expected to die will be saved. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2004 Jun-Aug; 41(2): p..Poverty to a great extent has been a thorn in the side of the road to progress and development for many nations across the globe, and economists would agree. Its scourge has been driving many researchers over the past few decades to study poverty-related topics and increase attention to poverty alleviation by Governments. Tackling the global effort head-on is one of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls for reducing by the year 2015 the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day to half of the 1990 level. Such initiatives are encouraging, but many researchers say that a shift in focus and policy stance has yet to take shape while addressing income inequality. "Inequality matters", said Anthony Shorrocks, Director of the World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University (UNU/WIDER), in introducing three new studies on growth, inequality and poverty at UN Headquarters in New York. "Inequality is important and should be given more attention when you are designing economic development policies for poverty alleviation." (excerpt)
What the United Nations should be about our ageing world - opinion - UN Second World Assembly on Ageing - development, health, supportive environments.
UN Chronicle. 2002 Jun-Aug; 39(2): p..Rapid population ageing in the developing world presents a special challenge to the United Nations and the international community. Older people in resource-poor countries have the same rights as other sectors of the population, yet violation of their rights due to chronic poverty still has to be addressed. All UN Member States need to make a commitment to address population ageing and its consequences, in the same spirit that they have acted to promote the rights of the child and protection of the environment. As the world ages, poverty and isolation of those who live into older age frequently undermine the benefits of a long life. Population ageing is a critical issue in the twenty-first century. It is imperative that the implications of global population ageing for poverty reduction and for development be acknowledged and acted upon. (excerpt)
International thinking on population policies and programmes from Rome to Cairo: Has South Africa kept pace?
South African Journal of Demography. 1996; 6(1):49-56.This paper reviews global thinking on population policy expressed at the world conferences on population matters from 1954 to 1994. The review is complemented by an overview of trends in South Africa that constituted a de jure population policy during the apartheid era. There is also a brief discussion of the Population Green Paper tabled in 1995, aimed at the establishment of a national population policy for South Africa. This is evaluated against the Programme of Action decided on at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. There is an indication that finally, South Africa can be said to be genuinely moving in the direction of respect for human rights in its population policies in harmony with global convention. In a sense, it is catching up with global trends in the population field after years of isolation resulting from sanctions against the apartheid government. (author's)
Population Index. 1954 Oct; 20(4):241-248.As most demographers know, a World Population Conference was held in Rome from August 31 to September 10 this year under the sponsorship of the United Nations, its interested specialized agencies and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. In terms of scope of subject matter, amount of documentation and breadth of geographic distribution in attendance it proved to be much the largest population conference ever held. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2003 Dec; 5(4):7, 8-9.Close to half of all of the world’s citizens are under the age of 25. Nearly 20 per cent are adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Eighty-seven per cent of these adolescents live in developing countries. The status of their education and health, their readiness to take on adult roles and responsibilities, and the support they receive from their families, communities and governments will have a profound effect on their future. Young people today face varied – and changing – political, economic, social and cultural realities. For many, the certainties of rural traditions are giving way to the complexities of city life. Family structures are gradually changing. Young people are being exposed to new risks and demands. More and more they are obtaining their information about the world and how to behave from their peers and the mass media. A common hope among young people is the wish for a better life. This wish is bolstered by the Millennium Development Goals agreed to by the world leaders in 2000 to decrease extreme poverty and hunger, slow the spread of HIV/AIDS, reduce maternal and child mortality, ensure universal primary education and improve sustainable development by 2015. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2003 Jun; 5(2):7.Secretary-General Kofi Annan's Special Advisor on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, Jeffrey Sachs, said the current unprecedented population explosion is one of the greatest challenges the world faces in achieving sustainable development. “Success in population policy will translate into success in many other areas we care about,” Mr. Sachs said in the Rafael Salas Memorial Lecture at U.N. Headquarters in New York. The lecture series was initiated in 1989 in tribute to Mr. Salas, who headed the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) from its creation until his death in 1987. According to Mr. Sachs, countries with high fertility and mortality are often stuck in extreme poverty. Speeding transition in those countries to low mortality and fertility rates should be a central pillar of their development strategies if they are to meet the Millennium Development Goals - a set of time-bound and measurable goals endorsed by all U.N. member states in September 2000. (excerpt)
Progress in Reproductive Health Research. 1995; (35):8.Emergency contraception should be available to all women who wish to use it, according to a recent conference of reproductive health specialists. In a consensus statement the group asserted that “millions of unwanted pregnancies could be averted” if emergency contraceptives were widely accessible. The conference called for further research on antiprogestogens for emergency contraceptive use. Emergency contraceptives are methods that women use after intercourse to prevent pregnancy. Several methods are known to be safe and effective, including higher doses of regular combined ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel contraceptives (the Yuzpe regimen) and the copper intrauterine device (IUD). Levonorgestrel may also be used, and mifepristone (an antiprogesterone drug that supresses ovulation and can inhibit implantation of the fertilized ovum in the uterus wall) is currently being studied to ascertain the optimal dose. “Any woman at risk of unwanted pregnancy may need these methods occasionally,” conference delegates agreed. (excerpt)
Our Planet. 2004 Oct;  p..Are women part of the problem or part of the solution? Ten years ago at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, 179 countries agreed that—when it comes to families and health, education and development, population and the environment, in every country, whether rich or poor—women's health and rights are key to the solution. Participants recognized that the world's most pressing challenges—poverty, ill health, ignorance, environmental destruction —could be solved only by addressing the needs and rights of every girl and woman, especially the disenfranchised, at the most personal level. They confirmed each individual's right to health, education and, yes, the ability to control her sexual and reproductive decisions. These were not utopian notions, motivated by idealism, although idealism abounded. The underlying premise was that, by investing in each woman's education and health—step by step, woman by woman—her empowerment would enable her to make choices that would profoundly benefit her family, her community and her world. Her decisions and those of millions of others like her around the globe would lead to slower population growth, increased prosperity and less pressure on the environment. (excerpt)