Your search found 24 Results

  1. 1

    Family building in Kenya: new findings from period measures of marriage and fertility.

    Ng TS

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the 1994 Southern Demographic Association Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, October 20-22, 1994. [3], 40, 10 p.

    This analysis uses two different measures of the parity progression ratio (PPR) in a period analysis of fertility and the impact of the family planning program on fertility in Kenya. The study is part of a UNFPA project including 14 other developing countries. Survey data from the 1978 World Fertility Survey and the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey provide data for the analysis. PPR is calculated first by a life table technique using birth probabilities specific for parity and birth interval in a period. PPR in the second calculation is an age-parity-adjusted progression based on schedules produced by Feeney. Results are presented for marital unions, first birth, birth intervals, parity progression, the impact of the family planning program, and socioeconomic differences. The results show an increase in age at first birth during the 1970s and 1980s. There is also a decrease in first births among adolescents between the 1960s and the late 1980s. A new finding is a reverse trend; a 1 year decrease in median age at first marriage occurred in urban areas between 1981-85 and 1985-89. The decrease is attributed to an increase in adolescent marriage in the late 1980s. By the 1980s families were being built at older ages, and births were being spaced farther apart. Adolescent first births and high parity births declined between the 1960s and 1980s. The trends reflect a clear and consistent pattern of modernization and better health with decreased population growth. Fertility is expected to reach replacement level soon. The family planning program contributed to the decline in progression to 6th and higher parities by 5% over 30 years. Higher marriage age and later age at first birth were related to higher educational status, although rural marriage age was higher by 0.7 years than urban marriage age. There was a high rate of adolescent marital unions, particularly informal unions, in urban areas. Teenage births were higher in rural areas. Urban women had a lower PPR in all birth orders than rural women. Median birth interval did not vary with educational level. A shorter than 24 month birth interval for 2nd and low order births occurred among the most educated and those in urban areas.
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  2. 2

    Levels, age patterns and trends of sterility in selected countries South of the Sahara.

    Larsen U

    In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 1, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 593-603.

    Using data collected in cooperation with the World Fertility Surveys (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) the aim was to determine the levels, age patterns, and trends of sterility in benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda. In sub-Saharan Africa, 10 countries completed a WFS survey from 1977 to 1982. From 1986 to 1991 a DHS survey was carried out in 13 countries. In Sudan, Lesotho and Mauritania only ever married women were eligible for interview. All women (generally age 15-49) were eligible in the rest of the sub-Saharan countries. The selected samples included women who had been sexually active at least 5 years. Subsequently the levels and range patterns of sterility were estimated for each country and by produce within each country. The inhibiting effect of sterility on fertility was also assessed. Age-specific rates of sterility were estimated by the subsequently infertile estimator. At age 34, the proportions sterile reached .41 in Cameroon, .11 in Burundi, and intermediate levels in the rest of the countries. Burundi had the lowest prevalence of sterility at all ages, Cameroon had the highest up to about age 42, and at older ages Sudan and Lesotho ranked highest. In general, sterility rose moderately up to age 35 and then more rapidly after age 40. Sterility was particularly prevalent along major rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. Sterility was relatively high around Lake Victoria as well as in the Coast region of Kenya in 1977-78. Primary sterility was less than 3% in Burundi, Ghana, Kenya, Togo, and in Ondo state, Nigeria; 3-5% in Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, and Nigeria (1990), Senegal, Sudan (1989-90) and Uganda; and 5% or more in Cameroon, Nigeria (1981-82), and Sudan (1978-79). Differential disease patterns caused the most variation in age-specific rates of sterility. Under the hypothesis of Burundi levels of age specific sterility and unchanged fertility, and African woman in the age range from 20 to 44 would have an additional .5 to 2 children.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Contraception and women's health.

    Fathalla MF

    BRITISH MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1993 Jan; 49(1):245-51.

    Currently, more than 50% of married women of childbearing age are using a form of contraception. Between 1960-65 and 1985-90, the number of contraceptive users in all developing countries increased from 31 to 381 million, in East Asia from 18 to 217 million, in Latin America from 4 to 44 million, in South Asia from 8 to 94 million, and in Africa from 2 to 18 million. WHO has recently estimated that over 500,000 women die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. With a worldwide estimate of 36-53 million induced abortions performed each year, between 125,000 and 170,000 women die each year because of unsafe abortions. According to data from the World Fertility Survey, short spacing between births raises the average chances of offspring dying in infancy by 60-70% and the chances of dying before the age of 5 years by about 50%. WHO's minimal estimate for yearly incidence of bacterial and viral STDs (excluding HIV infection) is 130 million. Most STDs have more serious sequelae in women than in men and lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), permanent infertility, and the risk of ectopic pregnancy. African countries with high incidence of STDs have the lowest prevalences of contraceptive use. A recent examination of the WHO international data base of 22,908 IUD insertions and 51,399 woman-years of follow-up indicates that the occurrence of PID in IUD users is most strongly related to the insertion process and to background STD risk and suggests that PID is an infrequent occurrence after the insertion period. A WHO Scientific Working Group review confirmed the beneficial effects of oral contraceptives in reducing the risk of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and biopsy-proven benign breast diseases. A WHO collaborative study in 5 centers in Kenya, Mexico, and Thailand provided assurance that women who used DMPA for a long time and who initiated use many years previously are not at increased risk of breast cancer.
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  4. 4

    Socio-economic development and fertility decline: an application of the Easterlin synthesis approach to data from the World Fertility Survey: Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka and Tunisia.

    McHenry JP

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. ix, 115 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/101)

    The relationship between fertility decline and development is explored for Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia. The study applies Richard Easterlin and Eileen Crimmins; theoretical and empirical approach to analyzing World Fertility Survey (WFS) data in a comparative context. The paper specifically questions the strengths and weaknesses of the Easterlin-Crimmins framework when applied to developing country data, and what the framework implies about comparative fertility in these countries. 3 stages in all, an analyst 1st decomposes a couple's final number of children ever born through an intermediate variables framework. Stage 2 emphasized understanding the determinants of contraceptive use, while stage 3 explains the remaining stage-1 and stage-2 variables. A model linking the supply of children, the demand for children, and the cost of contraceptive regulation results. Stage 1 results were promising, stage 2 results were less encouraging, while stage 3 revealed a theoretically incomplete approach employing empirically weak WFS data. While the Easterlin-Crimmins approach may be promising, econometric, theoretical, and data quality and collection improvements are necessary. Among stage-3 variables open to manipulation, higher socioeconomic status was associated with delayed age at 1st marriage, lower infant and child death rates, lower numbers of children desired, increased knowledge of contraception, and reduced levels of breastfeeding. Apart from regional differences, the educational and occupational roles of women in the countries studied were of primary importance in understanding differential fertility.
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  5. 5

    [Data and analysis methodology] Donnees et methodes d'analyse.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Secretariat

    In: Infant and childhood mortality and socio-economic factors in Africa. (Analysis of national World Fertility Survey data) / Mortalite infantile et juvenile et facteurs socio-economiques en Afrique. (Analyse des donnees nationales de l'Enquete Mondiale sur la Fecondite), [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations, ECA, 1987. 7-26. (RAF/84/P07)

    Technical problems and methods associated with the analysis of differential child mortality data for a conference of representatives from 8 African countries, sponsored by the UN Economic Commission for Africa and the International Statistical Institute are described. The data being interpreted were from the World Fertility Surveys, conducted between 1977 and 1981, including complete birth histories of women up to 50 years of age. A core questionnaire contained 7 sections on woman's background, maternity history, contraceptive knowledge and marriage history, fertility regulation, work history and husband's background. Mortality was measured by Brass methods and the cohort approach with analysis of determining factors. No adjustment was made for omission of births and of dead children: since underreporting is more likely to occur in the past, current mortality estimates can be considered fairly accurate. Methods of correcting for misreporting are described. The extent of potential bias due to lack of data on children whose mothers were deceased at the time of survey is unknown. Another source of bias is truncation due to loss of data on older children born to older women. Generally the quality of the World Fertility Survey mortality data is reasonably good, compared to other studies.
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  6. 6

    [Introduction] Introduction.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Secretariat

    In: Infant and childhood mortality and socio-economic factors in Africa. (Analysis of national World Fertility Survey data) / Mortalite infantile et juvenile et facteurs socio-economiques en Afrique. (Analyse des donnees nationales de l'Enquete Mondiale sur la Fecondite), [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations, ECA, 1987. 1-4. (RAF/84/P07)

    After completion of the World Fertility Survey, the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) held a workshop for representatives from 15 African countries to utilize the SPSS program for demographic data analysis to prepare reports on their own countries' infant and child mortality trends. The introduction to the report on the workshop highlights findings which include infant mortality rates around 90/1000 births in Kenya, Nigeria and Cameroon, and 100 or more in Benin, Ivory Coast, and Senegal. Mortality was less than 80 in Sudan and Mauritania, possibly reflecting serious deficiencies in the data. Childhood mortality was over 100/1000 in Benin, and lowest in Kenya and Ivory Coast, around 70. There were clear indications of decline in mortality in the last 20 years in Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal. Among the variables examined for their influence on mortality, maternal education and birth intervals clearly were the strongest, suggesting directions for policy.
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  7. 7

    Women's work and fertility, research findings and policy implications from recent United Nations research.

    Lloyd CB

    [Unpublished] 1986. Paper presented at the Rockefeller Foundation's Workshop on Women's Status and Fertility, Mt.Kisco, New York, July 8-11, 1986. 23 p.

    Using World Fertility Survey data from the developing countries, it has been found that the interval between 1st and last birth varies from roughly 14 years in several of the more developed countries of Latin America and Asia (Republic of Korea, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago) to 20 years in several African countries (Kenya and Senegal). In most of these countries childbearing begins between ages 18 and 20 with the lowest median age of 1st birth found in Bangladesh (17 years old) and the highest in Yemen (22 years old). Ages at last birth vary more widely from 33 in Trinidad and Tobago to 40 in Yemen. At the age of last birth, life expectancy varies from 27 in Benin and Senegal to 44 in Trinidad and Tobago and 42 in Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Panama. Life expectancy at last birth varies with level of development with developing countries at the highest level of development having an average life expectancy at age of last birth of 40.5 ranging on down to 36.8 at a middle-high level of development, 32.6 at a middle-low level, and 29.7 at the lowest level of development. This is compared with a life expectancy at last birth which is now as high as 52.6 in Japan for women born in 1950-1959 and 51.6 in the Netherlands for women born in 1940-1949. Thus, the actual childbearing period is 2 to 5 times longer in the developing countries than it is in the developed countries. A life cycle approach to women's employment and childbearing is essential for a full understanding of the interrelationship between women's status and fertility. While work opportunities can improve women's status and create the motivation for low fertility, fertility control is essential to women's status. As long as the events of conception, pregnancy, and childbirth have a significant element of chance, the incentives for societal and individual investment in women's educational and job opportunities will remain limited.
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  8. 8

    An epilogue to the World Fertility Survey.

    Zarkovich SS


    The author reviews the experience gained from the World Fertility Survey, which was conducted between 1972 and 1984. The author is particularly critical of the project's failure to develop the capacity of the United Nations to undertake such statistical surveys and to contribute to statistical development in developing countries. (SUMMARY IN GER) (ANNOTATION)
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  9. 9

    Some thoughts on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys.

    Brackett J

    In: Asia. Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys Regional Workshop. Proceedings. [Columbia, Maryland], Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981 Feb. 4-7. (Contraceptive Prevalence Studies 2)

    This paper presents the views of the Agency for International Development (AID) on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, focusing on why the agency supports them, what the agency wants to get out of them, and how they fit into the AID program. Both the developing countries and the donor community needed data bases that serve several purposes. There was a clear need for data on what was happening in countries with active family planning programs. Fairly substantial resources were being programmed into efforts to slow population growth, and it was important to ensure that these resources were used effectively and efficiently. There were also obvious time pressures. The longer the delay before slowing population growth, the more serious the problem would become. Clearly, timely data were needed. To respond to the varied data needs, early in its history AID's Population Office initiated a broad program of support for data collection, including censuses, surveys, civil registration systems, and family planning program statistics. There was also support for efforts to ensure that these data were evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted to facilitate their use. In 1971, AID along with the UN and the International Statistical Institute, began to develop what became the World Fertility Survey (WFS). The effort was launched more as a research than an administrative tool. During the course of developing the WFS, there was much reluctance on the part of many demographers and social scientists to clarify the link between fertility change and family planning action programs. In 1976, WFS carried out some field trials on a series of questions on perceived family planning availability and accessibility and thereafter developed a set of questions on availability, which were added to the core questionnaire. When the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) project was initiated with Westinghouse, AID asked that availability information be collected for all methods requiring a source. These data have been very valuable as a means of gaining insight into the role of availability in contraceptive use. The CPS was specifically designed to collect a limited set of highly program-relevant data quickly and to make these data available to program administrators and policy makers. First, CPS has been an important data source for documenting trends in contraceptive knowledge and use. Second, since many of the WFS, as well as the CPS, have included questions on perceived availability of family planning, it is possible to examine trends in availability. Regarding how the CPS might be improved, the CPS Workshop provides a good opportunity for an exchange of ideas. A description of the Workshop objectives are outlined.
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  10. 10

    Female employment and fertility in developing countries

    Brazzell JF

    In: Quantitative approaches to analyzing socioeconomic determinants of Third World fertility trends: reviews of the literature. Project final report: overview, by Indiana University Fertility Determinants Group, George J. Stolnitz, director. [Unpublished] 1984. 79-91.

    Simple no-work/work distinctions are an unreliable basis for estimating causal linkages connecting female employment/work-status patterns to fertility. World Fertility Survey (WFS) data show about 3/4, 1/2, and 1/4 child differentials for over 20, 10-19, and under 10 years marital duration grouss respectively, for women employed since marriage. Effects on marriage seem strongest in Latin America and weakest in Asia. Controlling for age, marital duration, urban-rural residence, education, and husband's work status. But from the results of a number of WFS and other studies, it seems relationships of work status and fertility are difficult to confirm beyond directional indications, even in Latin America. A UN study using proximate determinants such as contraception and work status including a housework category indicated differentials in contraceptive practice were not significant net of control for education. Philippine data indicates low-income employment might increase fertility by decreasing breastfeeding, while WFS data from 5 Asian countries indicated pre-marital work encourages increased marriage age, without being specific about effects. Also, female employment must affect a large population to have a real impact on aggregate fertility, since female labor force activity is likely to change slowly if at all. Data presently available do not cover micro-level factors that may be important, such as effects of work on breastfeeding, nor do they lend themselves to examination by multi-equation analysis. More work is needed to isolate effects of work-status attributes like male employment, and to analyze intra-cohort mid-course fertility objective changes, as well as new theoretical process models such as competing time use and maternal role incompatibility.
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  11. 11

    Fertility and family.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 476 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    The Expert Group on Fertility and Family was one of 4 expert groups assigned the task of examining critical, high priority population issues and, on that basis, making recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action. The report of the Expert Group consisted of 6 topics: 1) fertility response to modernization; 2) family structure and fertility; 3) choice with respect to childbearing, 4) reproductive and economic activity of women, 5) goals, policies and technical cooperation, and 6) recommendations. Contained in this report are also selected background papers with discuss in detail fertility determinants such as modernization, fertility decision processes, socioeconomic determinants, infant and child mortality as a ddeterminant of achieved fertility in some developed countries, the World Fertility Survey's contribution to understanding of fertility levels and trends, fertility in relation to family structure, measurement of the impact of population policies and programs on fertility, and techinical cooperation in the field of fertility and the family.
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  12. 12

    The World Fertility Survey: a basis for population and development planning, statement made at the World Fertility Survey Conference, London, England, 7 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 5 p. (Speech Series No. 54)

    The World Fertility Survey (WFS) is the largest social science research survey undertaken to date. From its inception in 1972 the WFS has received the full support of the UN and the UNFPA. This program has not only enhanced considerably our knowledge of fertility levels and fertility regulation practices in developing as well as developed countries but has also provided the UN system with internationally comparable data on human fertility on a large scale for the 1st time. The methodology developed by the WFS has made it possible to collect data on the individual and the household as well as the community. Information has become available not only on fertility levels, trends and patterns but also on fertility preferences and nuptiality as well as knowledge and use of family planning methods. Initial findings document the rather dramatic fertility decline taking place in many developing countries under various socioeconomic and cultural conditions. They also show the magnitude of existing unmet needs for family planning in the developing world which must be continuously brought to the attention of the governments of all countries. A most encouraging effect of the program, however, has been the fact that 21 industrialized countries have carried out, entirely with their own resources, fertility surveys within the WFS framework and in accordance with its recommendations, making it truly an internationally collaborative effort.
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  13. 13

    WHO Meeting on Maternal and Child Health Indicators for Health for All by 2000: Evaluation of Alternatives, Geneva, 8-12 November 1982.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [1983]. 27 p. (WHO/HS/NAT.COM/83.383)

    The main objectives of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Family Planning (FP) Indicators meeting, held in Geneva from November 8-12, 1982, were to: evaluate and critically review past data collection experiences; systematically review existing and new indicators for the evaluation and monitoring of MCH/FP programs; and to discuss the problems and alternative methods of obtaining the necessary data for indicators. The major part of the meeting was devoted to a review of indicators for assessing the progress of MCH/FP programs at the global, regional, and national levels and the consideration of possible sources of information for obtaining the data upon which to base these indicators. On the basis of this review, the meeting sought to arrive at a consensus on the types of information that might be collected for monitoring and evaluting MCH/FP programs under various health circumstances. Information is presented on the following: the experience of the World Health Organization (WHO) ad hoc surveys on infant and childhood mortality; other data collection experiences (World fertility Survey program, international MCH/FP Program of the Population Council, National Household Survey Capability Program, and a study of levels and trends of infant mortality in Mauritius); MCH/FP indicators (global and regional indicators, factors affecting national indicators, mortality and morbidity indicators, positive health indicators MCH and family planning, and sources of information); and future directions (health modules of household surveys and population censuses, innovative techniques, cluster sampling, record keeping systems, vital registration, training of all health workers, and MCH audit). With regard to the ad hoc surveys on infant and childhood mortality conducted in 5 countries in the early and mid 1970s and other data collection experience, the evaluation background paper found that the surveys were too ambitious. The goals were unclear, and the program was not well planned and managed. The shortcomings of these particular surveys were not intended to reflect on the ability of surveys to serve as important vehicles in development of databases for health planning purposes. The meeting heard from various national project directors who emphasized some of the more positive results of the survey for their country. The work of the WFS was particularly encouraging in showing how surveys can provide a whole set of complex data through household interviews. The meeting recognized the need to address the technical problem of data development, particularly the development of indicators for MCH/FP purposes and suggested several directions for the future. The approaches range from using health supplements and modules to national surveys and population censuses, to innovative approaches in the use of synthetic indirect estimation systems and expanded use of cluster sampling, to increased opportunities for training personnel in various aspects of data collection, use, and management.
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  14. 14

    Evaluation report of the World Fertility Survey.

    Smith TE; Berquo E; Fisek NH; Knodel J; Ordonez-Plaja A; Presser HB

    [Unpublished] 1980 Dec. 183 p. (ADSS AID/DSPE-C-0053)

    A general report follows the "Executive Summary" of this evaluation of the World Fertility Survey (WFS). The general report covers the following: previous evaluations, terms of references, and composition and itinerary for the Evaluation Mission; background and objectives of WFS (origin of the program; objectives, priorities, and strategies); organization aspects of the WFS program (headquarters, country participation, operating procedures, survey organization, and coordination); inputs (scope of support to the program, procedures for provision of funds, headquarters costs, costs of country surveys, and complementary support to the program); methodological aspects of the program (sampling procedures; questionnaires, survey procedures, and basic documentation; data processing and archives; and production of the 1st country report); execution of national surveys (nature, character, and significance of WFS assistance; implementation of survey procedures); analysis (evaluative, illustrative, 2nd stage, and comparative analyses); building the national capability (contribution to survey taking capability, contribution to data processing capability, and contribution to analatical capability); dissemination of survey results (national meetings, limits of WFS participation in national dissemination activities, actual and potential audience for WFS survey results, and libraries in the WFS despository system); and use of WFS survey results. Conclusions are reported, recommendations are made, and country reports are included for the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, and the Philippines. The 1st objective of the WFS is to help countries acquire scientific information that will allow them to describe and interpret their populations' fertility, to identify meaningful differentials in patterns of fertility and fertility regulation, and to provide improved data in order to facilitate efforts in economic, social, and health planning. As of July 1980, a total of 36 less developed countries had completed fertility survey fieldwork, and of these 21 had published their First Country Report. The following were among the conclusions reached concerning this 1st objective: the sampling, training, field supervision, editing, and data processing standards set by the WFS for the national executing agencies were higher than those which characterized previous surveys; data processing was the major bottleneck in the participating countries during the surveys; and at all stages of the survey there was a conflict between the time constraints on completing the survey and getting the report out and the desire to rely as much as possible on local personnel. As far as utilization of WFS data, at this stage the Mission was able to evaluate only the short range use of the results.
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  15. 15

    The United Nations programme for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey data.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1980. 169 p.

    Research plans for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey (WFS) data of the Population Division of the UN are discussed. Introductory notes are on the aim and scope of the project, on the plan itself and on considerations concerning regional analysis. An exhaustive list of possible research topics which would use the WFS data is provided. The research plan is then described in detail. The 2nd section is entitled "Review of Characteristics, Measures and Other Indicators" and is a critical review of information considered for use as variables in the comparative analysis of WFS data. A glossary of variables is included. Both dependent and independent variables are explored. The 3rd section is entitled "Research Objectives, Hypotheses and Minimum Tabulation Plan." It consists of a critical review of the research objectives of each topic of the minimum program agreed on by the UN Working Group on Comparative Analysis of WFS Data. Hypotheses relevant to each topic are examined and a minimum tabulation plan appropriate for testing these hypotheses, which draws on the variables presented in Part 2, is proposed. The final part of this volume is called "A strategy for the comparative analysis of WFS data." A possible multivariate statistical approach to analyzing the WFS data is illustrated. Included are 1) a framework for comparative analysis using the WFS; 2) a discussion of the relationship of this model to the UN Minimum Research Program; 3) comparative analysis of parity by educational attainment by years since 1st marriage; 4) analysis of likelihood of contracepting among women who say they want no more children.
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  16. 16

    Comparative data analysis.

    Tabah L

    Populi. 1981; 8(3):63-6.

    Governments are only able to determine that their national fertility rate is too high or that the population growth rate is in excess of what should or could be tolerated by viewing their own statistics in the context of comparison with those in other similar and dissimilar countries. Comparative data analysis helps abstract figures take on meaning. In fact, such comparative population data analysis has provided the foundation of theories of demographic transition. Observation of the transition from high mortality and fertility, through high fertility, lowering mortality, and rapidly growing population, until a state of equilibrium between a low fertility and low mortality level could be achieved in country after country led to the predictions of population problems in underdeveloped countries where the transition was not seeming to occur as fast as it had previously. The U.N. Population Division has devoted most of its work over the past 35 years to comparative data analysis. Such work included comparative studies, organization of world population conferences, and bienniel monitoring of population trends and policies worldwide. Analysis of WFS (World Fertility Survey) data has not reached the stage of comparative analyses yet. Such international comparative analysis will yield understanding of world population policies and trends.
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  17. 17

    The United Nations programme for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey data: a project of the United Nations carried out in collaboration with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1979. 480 p.

    These documents, which were items on the agenda of the Second Meeting of the United Nations Working Group on Comparative Analysis of World Fertility Survey Data, are introduced by a report about that meeting and include the following: 1) Minimum Research Program (list of research topics); 2) Comparative Analysis with World Fertility Survey, prepared by Albert I. Hermalin and William M. Mason of the Population Studies Center of the University of Michigan; 3) Programs of Comparative Analysis of WFS Data Proposed by the United Nations and the Specializing Agencies, prepared by the Population Division of the United Nations; 4) Research Objectives and Hypotheses, prepared by George T. Ascadi; and 5) Review of Characteristics, Measures and Other Indicators, prepared by George T. Ascadi. Item 2) had the following goals, as explained by its authors: 1) to establish a framework within which discussion of comparative analysis using the WFS can take place; 2) to illustrate strategies for analysis using data available in published WFS First Country Reports (FCRs); 3) to indicate the more serious problems of conducting comparative analysis with the WFS; 4) to illustrate selected statistical procedures for multivariable analysis and discuss similarities accross seemingly different modes of analysis; and 5) to link the attainment of these goals to the content of the United Nations Minimum Integrated Program for Comparative Analysis of WFS Data by Population Division and Regional Commissions (1978). Item 3) explains that studies proposed by the United Nations are designed to show comparative levels of fertility and to explain the basis for these levels and the conditions for their change. Item 4) is devoted to an exploration of methodological issues and substantive aspects of comparative analysis based on First Country surveys. Item 5) contains a review of demographic, economic, social, cultural, and other characteristics and of their measures, indices, or other indicators that have been utilized as variables in comparative fertility analyses.
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  18. 18

    World fertility survey.

    International Statistical Institute [ISI]. Information Office

    Voorburg, The Hague, Netherlands, ISI, 1973 May. 8 p.

    This brochure describes the World Fertility Survey (WFS) project. WFS, sponsored by the UN, the International Statistical Institute and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, aims to provide an international research program dealing with human fertility behavior. The WFS program will assist individual nations to conduct scientific sample surveys in fertility which will yield nationally representative and internationally comparable results. A common core of questions will be included in every country with possibilities of also including modules suited to local circumstances. It is hoped that improved data on human fertility, its determinants and trends, will aid national development planners. The individual countries will process and tabulate the data and write their national reports as far as possible. The WFS will publish a newsletter to publicize ongoing results. WFS personnel are listed.
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  19. 19

    Screening procedures for detecting errors in maternity history data.

    Brass W

    In: United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, World Fertility Survey, and International Institute for Population Studies. Regional Workshop on Techniques of Analysis of World Fertility Survey data: report and selected papers. New York, UN, 1979. 15-36. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 44)

    The World Fertility Survey provides data from national maternity history inquiries. Detecting trends and differentials is only as accurate as the data collected. Where evidence suggests error, the analysis may be restricted to obtaining only a measure of fertility level. The basic data is the date and order of birth of each live born child for a sample of women in the reproductive period, according to the current age of the women and their duration of marriage. The cohort marker is usually separated into 7 5-year classes determined by age at interview; sample of women is representative of the female population of childbearing age. Total births for each cohort are allocated to different periods preceding the survey date. Reading down the columns gives the births to different cohorts over different ranges in the same time interval preceding the survey. To detect omissions, check the overall sex ratio and the sex ratios by periods; examine the trends of infant mortality by cohorts and periods; an excess of male mortality over female indicates poor reporting of dead female children and/or of sex (a common omission). From data on age of mother and number of surviving children at the survey and estimates of mortality level, the numbers of births at preceding periods may be calculated.
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  20. 20

    World Fertility Survey (five-year extension).

    International Statistical Institute [ISI]

    Proposal submitted to Research Division, Office of Population, Agency for International Development, Wash., D.C., Feb. 1976. 60 p

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  21. 21

    Population anthropologists at work.

    NAG M

    Current Anthropology. 1975 Jun; 16(2):264-266.

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  22. 22

    New population information as a contribution to World Population Year.

    BAUM S

    In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference, Association for Population/Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers, New York City, April 1974. K.H. Speert, et al., eds. Wash.,D.C., APPLIC, Dec.1974, pp.31-44

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  23. 23

    Annual report 1981.

    World Fertility Survey [WFS]

    Voorburg, Netherlands, International Statistical Institute, [1982]. 143 p.

    During 1981 no new countries were recruited to the World Fertility Survey (WFS) program; 28 developing countries are still active in the project and 20 developed countries have participated. At the end of the year, 2 countries were at the fieldwork stage, 11 were involved in data processing, and 29 had completed their First Country Report. The London based WFS staff continues to provide assistance and coordination to the developing country surveys. A workshop evaluating the quality of WFS surveys was completed in early 1981; so far 28 country surveys have been evaluated, 17 through workshops. Work on the 11 illustrative analysis studies and 4 cross national summaries has also been completed. WFS continues to provide data processing support for country surveys; the format of the WFS dictionary has been extended to allow flexible description of raw data files as well as analysis files. During 1981 standard tapes have been prepared or revised for 13 country surveys, bringing the total to 28. A total of 167 data sets were distributed during 1981 to support research projects in different parts of the world. A handbook providing information on the data archive has been made available. WFS publications during the year comprised 9 scientific reports, 2 cross national summaries, the annual report for 1980 and a report entitled "The World Fertility Survey and its 1980 Conference" by E. Grebenik. During 1981 summaries of First Country Reports were published: 4 in English, 5 in French, and 1 in Spanish. WFS work in data analysis is carried out in close coordination with the UN's population division and the UN Statistical Office. On March 31, 1981, Dr. Milos Macura relinquished the post of Project Director and Dr. Dirk J van de Kaa assumed his duties in July 1981 after Mr. V. C. Chidambaran had served as acting director. The report provides details of the current situation of: 1) the surveys in each country, 2) technical assistance and coordination, 3) country reports, 4) data archives, and 5) meetings such as the Program Steering Committee, the Andean Seminar, the Seminar on the Analysis of WFS Family Planning Module, and the IUSSP 12th General Conference. An appendix provides a table illustrating the details of participation of developing countries in the WFS.
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  24. 24

    Birth spacing and childhood mortality.

    Sathar ZA

    Ippf Medical Bulletin. 1983 Aug; 17(4):2-3.

    Recent evidence from developing countries indicates that there is a relationship between the length of the interval between consecutive births and the survival of the younger sibling. This relationship has long been observed in the developed world. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in 9 largely metropolitan locations in developing countries found a reverse J-shaped pattern, with mortality rates initially falling with increased intervals but showing an upturn for the longest intervals of 5-6 and 6 or more years. The birth interval-mortality link tended to be stronger for postneonatal rather than neonatal and child mortality. A World Fertility Survey (WFS) cross-national analysis found a longer birth interval substantially improved the survival chance of the youngest child in all 29 countries studied. This advantage persisted to 5 years of age. The ratio of the infant mortality rate of children born within an interval of less than 2 years to that of those born after an interval of 4 years ranged from 1.26 in Venezuela to 3.91 in Syria. A 2nd WFS study found that the birth interval-mortality link persisted when maternal education was controlled. More detailed analysis of data gathered for this study from Pakistan revealed that the association between birth interval and mortality of the younger sibling was unaffected by the early death of the older sibling. Although it has been hypothesized that competition between children for food and attention is the major causal mechanism in the birth interval-mortality link, this finding suggests that maternal depletion (giving rise to low birth weights and inadequate breast milk) plays a role. However, the additional finding that survivorship of order 5 and more births was unaffected by average spacing patterns once the length of the immediately preceding birth interval was controlled suggests that maternal depletion may not be cumulative. The data from Pakistan further show interval length to have the same effect on mortality of the older sibling, even when length of breastfeeding was controlled, suggesting that involuntary weaning because of the next pregnancy is the critical explanatory factor. This research points to the need for a renewed emphasis on contraception for spacing purposes.
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