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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2018. 91 p.he Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 is a visual guide to the trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas features maps and data visualizations, primarily drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN’s seventeen Sustainable Development Goals related to: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Mar. 36 p. (CGD Policy Paper 077)This paper seeks to determine the degree to which a gender lens has been incorporated into World Bank projects and the success of individual projects according to gender equality-related indicators. We first examine the World Bank’s internal scoring of projects based on whether they encompass gender analysis, action, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) components, as well as project development objective indicators and outcomes according to these indicators. We conclude that when indicators are defined, targets are specified, and outcomes are published, gender equality-related results appear largely positive. However, many projects (even those possessing a gender “theme” and perfect scores for the inclusion of gender analysis, action, and M&E components) lack gender-related indicators, and when such indicators are present, they often lack specified target goals. The paper concludes with a recommendation for increased transparency in gender-related project data (including data on the funding of gender equality-related components of projects) from donor institutions and a call for an increased number of gender-related indicators and targets in donor projects.
An Investment Framework for Nutrition: Reaching the Global Targets for Stunting, Anemia, Breastfeeding, and Wasting.
Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017 Apr. 258 p.The report estimates the costs, impacts and financing scenarios to achieve the World Health Assembly global nutrition targets for stunting, anemia in women, exclusive breastfeeding and the scaling up of the treatment of severe wasting among young children. To reach these four targets, the world needs $70 billion over 10 years to invest in high-impact nutrition-specific interventions. This investment would have enormous benefits: 65 million cases of stunting and 265 million cases of anemia in women would be prevented in 2025 as compared with the 2015 baseline. In addition, at least 91 million more children would be treated for severe wasting and 105 million additional babies would be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of life over 10 years. Altogether, achieving these targets would avert at least 3.7 million child deaths. Every dollar invested in this package of interventions would yield between $4 and $35 in economic returns, making investing in early nutrition one of the best value-for-money development actions. Although some of the targets -- especially those for reducing stunting in children and anemia in women -- are ambitious and will require concerted efforts in financing, scale-up, and sustained commitment, recent experience from several countries suggests that meeting these targets is feasible. These investments in the critical 1000 day window of early childhood are inalienable and portable and will pay lifelong dividends -- not only for children directly affected but also for us all in the form of more robust societies -- that will drive future economies.
Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017 Apr. 302 p.Gender equality is a core development objective in its own right and also smart development policy and business practice. No society can develop sustainably without giving men and women equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. And yet, critical gender gaps continue to exist in all countries and across multiple dimensions. The gender module of the World Bank’s ADePT software platform produces a comprehensive set of tables and graphs using household surveys to help diagnose and analyze the prevailing gender inequalities at the country level and over time. This book provides a step-by-step guide to the use of the ADePT software and an introduction to its basic economic concepts and econometric methods. The module is organized around the framework proposed by the World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. It covers gender differences in outcomes in three primary dimensions of gender equality: human capital (or endowments), economic opportunities, and voice and agency. Particular focus is given to the analysis and decomposition techniques that allow for further exploring of gender gaps in economic opportunities.
Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017. 131 p.The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017 uses maps, charts and analysis to illustrate, trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas primarily draws on World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank's compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people's lives Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank's Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN's seventeen Sustainable Development Goals: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships. Between 1990 and 2013, nearly one billion people were raised out of extreme poverty. Its elimination is now a realistic prospect, although this will require both sustained growth and reduced inequality. Even then, gender inequalities continue to hold back human potential. Undernourishment and stunting have nearly halved since 1990, despite increasing food loss, while the burden of infectious disease has also declined. Access to water has expanded, but progress on sanitation has been slower. For too many people, access to healthcare and education still depends on personal financial means. To date the environmental cost of growth has been high. Accumulated damage to oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems is considerable. But hopeful signs exist: while greenhouse gas emissions are at record levels, so too is renewable energy investment. While physical infrastructure continues to expand, so too does population, so that urban housing and rural access to roads remain a challenge, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile the institutional infrastructure of development strengthens, with more reliable government budgeting and foreign direct investment recovering from a post-financial crisis decline. Official development assistance, however, continues to fall short of target levels.
[The results of implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Loan Project "Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "tuberculosis" component]
Tuberkulez I Bolezni Legkikh. 2010; (3):10-7.Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.
Entebbe, Uganda, NBI, 2015 May.  p. (Briefing Note 9)Women and girls often risk being left behind in development, not being fully informed or involved in decision making about issues that can have a real impact on their lives. Sometimes, they are already disadvantaged by cultural and legal norms that affect their rights to resources. Working together to develop the Nile resource, the 10 countries involved in the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are making it ‘business as usual’ to ensure gender equality in the economic benefits emerging from their shared efforts.
Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, World Bank, 2013 Jun. 19 p.In Africa, women are subjected to discriminatory practices that keep them in a vulnerable situation. Their limited access to land, in a continent where the majority of the population depends on agriculture, reduces their access to credit and their capacity to undertake sustainable economic activities to generate income. They hold only 18 percent of agricultural lands and are not better off in administrations. In Cote d'Ivoire, the woman remains marginalized, with a status that is increasingly weakened today by the socio-political situation. Data from the National Statistics Institute highlight their extreme poverty: 75 percent of rural women are living below the poverty line. And they are often deprived of basic social services. Some socio-cultural factors perpetuate traditions that are harmful to girls and women. This report is the culmination of the process initiated by the World Bank as part of the establishment of its program of strengthening the role of women in Ivorian society. It reports summary proposals from the various consultations held both nationally and regionally. Designed in a participatory and decentralized approach, these consultations have made it possible to gather factual and contextual data on the four (04) themes selected for the workshops, as well as proposals that, if translated into actions, would help develop an action plan. This is, and it must be stressed, a study that has the merit of giving the floor directly to hundreds of Ivorian women from all socio-professional categories to develop themselves a roadmap based on their own daily experiences.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2008 Jan. 4 p. (en breve No. 114)In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18% and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58% in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living below the poverty line and impacting –in a disproportionate manner- the most vulnerable and poverty stricken families. The crisis also had a tremendous impact on Argentina’s middle-class. Increased unemployment and the freezing of wages and bank deposits forced many families to face poverty for the first time, and to seek new survival strategies. The crisis caused the rupture of traditional roles within the household, forcing many women into the workforce, many young people to leave school in search of a job, and many tradtional breadwinners to remain at home. In many cases, these changes challenged not just the economic viability of households but the role of families. Recognizing the potential impact of the situation, the Government of Argentina approached the World Bank for a small loan ($5 million), aimed at promoting gender equity and the development of families through the Family Strengthening and Social Capital Promotion Project (PROFAM). (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 Feb.  p. (From Evidence to Policy)Poor children face barriers to healthy development even before they are born. Their mothers may not have nutritious food or proper prenatal care, which can harm a baby s brain development when it needs it most. Mothers may not deliver in a health facility nor have a skilled birth attendant present, increasing the risk of complications and ultimately putting their life and that of the baby at risk. In Argentina, the World Bank supported a government program, Plan Nacer, to improve maternal-child health outcomes through increased coverage and quality of health services. The program gives provincial authorities financial incentives for enrolling pregnant women and children in the program and for achieving specific primary health care goals. An impact evaluation found that Plan Nacer improved the birth weight of babies and reduced newborn deaths, while improving access to public health facilities and boosting the quality of care. The evidence from this evaluation will equip policy makers in low and middle income countries with additional information when designing health programs aimed at improving specific outcomes. As governments around the world look for ways to create effective programs to help their poorest citizens, the results from this impact evaluation provide an example of how health sector reforms can give children the right start in life.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015. 32 p.The adolescent girl’s initiative (AGI) was motivated by the idea that vocational training and youth employment programs tailored to the needs of girls and young women can improve the economic empowerment and agency. By putting that idea into practice in a number of ways, the AGI pilots are making it possible to learn about the demand for such programs and whether in their current form they are a feasible and (in some cases) cost-effective means of meeting their objectives. Adolescent females in lower-income countries face a difficult environment in their path toward economic empowerment, a critical dimension of adulthood. Females, especially from low-income countries, want to participate in programs to support their economic empowerment. Effective programs shared certain features that made it possible for them to reach adolescent girls and young women and successfully assess and impart the skills that they needed.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016.  p.This pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. The book presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 economies in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book’s summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.
What can we learn from nutrition impact evaluations? Lessons from a review of interventions to reduce child malnutrition in developing countries.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010 Aug.  p.This paper reviews recent impact evaluations of interventions and programs to improve child anthropometric outcomes- height, weight, and birth weight-with an emphasis on both the findings and the limitations of the literature and on understanding what might happen in a non-research setting. It further reviews the experience and lessons from evaluations of the impact of the World Bank-supported programs on nutrition outcomes. Specifically, the review addresses the following four questions: 1) what can be said about the impact of different interventions on children's anthropometric outcomes? 2) How do these findings vary across settings and within target groups, and what accounts for this variability? 3) What is the evidence of the cost-effectiveness of these interventions? 4) What have been the lessons from implementing impact evaluations of Bank-supported programs with anthropometric impacts? Although many different dimensions of child nutrition could be explored, this report focuses on child anthropometric outcomes-weight, height, and birth weight. These are the most common nutrition outcome indicators in the literature and the ones most frequently monitored by national nutrition programs supported by the World Bank. Low weight for age (underweight) is also the indicator for one of the Millennium Development Goals.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004 May.  p. (Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) Discussion Paper; World Bank Report No. 69106)This paper argues for more nuance in the interpretation of progress towards the Nutrition Millennium Development Goal indicator (halving the prevalence of underweight children, under 5 years old, by 2015). Interpretation of a country's performance based on trends alone is ambiguous, and can lead to erroneous prioritization of countries in need of donor assistance. For instance, a country may halve the prevalence by 2015, but will still have unacceptable high malnutrition rates. This paper analyses which countries are showing satisfactory and unsatisfactory progress using the Annual Rate of Change (ARC), and then introduces the World Health Organization-classification of severity of malnutrition in the analysis to provide more nuance. It highlights that a little less than half of the Bank's client population is likely to halve underweight by 2015. Although the paper uses national data only, it flags the risks and recommends that countries take regional disparities into their needs-analysis. The paper also argues for more attention to the other important nutrition indicators, stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, which remain enormous problems, and briefly discusses solutions to reducing underweight malnutrition.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2010 Jun. 4 p. (en breve No. 157)Children in Haiti are born into some of the harshest conditions on the planet, and are left at a disadvantage in terms of growth, development, and potential to thrive. Malnutrition rates in Haiti are among the worst in the LAC region. Nearly one-third of all children under-five suffer from stunted growth and three-quarters of children 6-24 months are anemic. Malnutrition takes a serious and irreversible toll, making children more susceptible to disease and death and compromising their cognitive and physical development, which results in low human capital and diminished lifetime earnings. Yet, scaling up ten key nutrition interventions in Haiti is estimated to cost only $46.5 million per year, which is less than 1% of Haiti’s total GDP. (excerpt)
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2012 Jun. 4 p. (en breve No. 177)The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region fares well on achievement of the MDG targets when compared with other regions, but the region has great disparities between and within countries on these goals. The region is also performing better than the rest of the developing world in relation to child mortality, having achieved more than 70% of the progress needed to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds. However, LAC still faces serious challenges regarding maternal mortality, achieving good public and individual health and alleviating poverty. For LAC, the MDGs are a historic opportunity to address all forms of inequality and attain the political will needed to achieve these goals. (excerpt)
Maintaining momentum to 2015? an impact evaluation of interventions to improve maternal and child health and nutrition in Bangladesh.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2005 Aug.  p. (World Bank Report No. 34462)Improving maternal and child health and nutrition is central to development goals. The importance of these objectives is reflected by their inclusion in poverty-reduction targets such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Bangladesh’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, supported by major development partners, including the World Bank and the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID). This report addresses the issue of what publicly supported programs and external assistance from the Bank and other agencies can do to accelerate attainment of such targets as reducing infant mortality by two-thirds. The evidence presented here relates to Bangladesh, a country that has made spectacular progress, but needs to maintain momentum in order to achieve its own poverty-reduction goals. The report addresses the following issues: (1) What has happened to child health and nutrition outcomes and fertility in Bangladesh since 1990? Are the poor sharing in the progress being made? (2) What have been the main determinants of maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes in Bangladesh over this period? (3) Given these determinants, what can be said about the impact of publicly and externally supported programs—notably those of the World Bank and DFID—to improve health and nutrition? (4) To the extent that interventions have brought about positive impacts, have they done so in a cost-effective manner? (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006.  p. (Health, Nutrition, and Population Series)The prevalence of child undernutrition in India is among the highest in the world, nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa, with dire consequences for morbidity, mortality, productivity, and economic growth. Drawing on qualitative studies and quantitative evidence from large household surveys, this book explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India and examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, India’s main early child development intervention, in addressing it. Although levels of undernutrition in India declined modestly during the 1990s, the reductions lagged behind those achieved by other countries with similar economic growth. Nutritional inequalities across different states and socioeconomic and demographic groups remain large. Although the ICDS program appears to be well designed and well placed to address the multidimensional causes of undernutrition in India, several problems exist that prevent it from reaching its potential. The book concludes with a discussion of a number of concrete actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2005.  p. (World Bank Working Paper No. 68)In recent years, Europe and Central Asia has experienced the world’s fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Yet, in the Western Balkan countries the HIV prevalence rate is under 0.1 percent, which ranks among the lowest. This may be due to a low level of infection among the population—or partly due to inadequate surveillance systems. All major contributing factors for the breakout of an HIV/AIDS epidemic are present in the Western Balkans. HIV/AIDS disproportionably affects youth (80 percent of HIV-infected people are 30 years old or younger). Most of the Western Balkan countries have very young populations, which have been affected by the process of social transition, wars, unemployment and other factors. Among youth, there is generalized use of drugs and sexual risk behavior. Therefore, the number of cases of HIV has been increasing, especially in Serbia, and the incidence of Hepatitis C has clearly increased, which suggests that sharing of infected needles is practiced by injecting drug users. Apart from human suffering, an HIV/AIDS epidemic can have a significant impact on costs of care for individuals, households, health services and society as a whole. This study has found weak public health systems and gaps in financing and institutional capacity necessary to implement evidence-based and cost-effective HIV/AIDS Strategies. Political commitment must increase for action to occur promptly. Prevention interventions are cost effective and, in the short term, affordable with own-country resources. Medium- and long-term interventions would require donor assistance. Longer-term interventions would aim at preventing poverty, exclusion and unemployment, for example, by empowering young people to participate in the regional and global labor market.
Characterizing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa: time for strategic action.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010.  p. (World Bank Report No. 54889)This study is a continuation of the previous sector review, conducted in 2004. The 2008 review had two main objectives. This review is primarily an update on the situation. In its development strategy, Benin gave considerable importance to the health of its population. This effort is part of the long-term vision of the country. Improving health status, especially for the poor, is one of eight strategic directions for that vision. Similarly, on a more operational level, this objective is reflected in the current Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction (GPRS 2007-2009). Benin is particularly committed towards the Millennium Development Goals, including 3 on the health sector. This review was also an opportunity to further analyze the constraints in the health system, consistent with the new strategy Health Nutrition and Population World Bank, Strategy adopted in 2007. But this exercise was not intended merely to be analytical. It also aimed to enrich the political dialogue between, on one hand, the actors in health and, secondly, the World Bank and other development partners. This effort relates more specifically to some themes such as governance, private sector involvement and alignment of partners' efforts (called technical and financial partners in Benin or PTFs). From this perspective, the journal is also a contribution to Benin's efforts to advance the IHP (International Health Partnership Plus). This initiative is now the main tool for implementing the Paris Declaration. In practice, the journal has sought to contribute to the consensus between the Ministry of Health and the donor group on the diagnosis of the health system and the changes needed to strengthen it. Several guidelines have emerged stronger from this discussion, particularly in the area of governance of the health system. Beyond the reinforcement of the various components of the health system, two fundamental principles should guide the transformation of this system: 1) A principle of corporate governance: through decentralization of the health system, health facilities must have their basic needs better taken into account (hence the need for bottom-up planning) and especially as more independent financially administrative; and 2) A principle of individual governance: health workers should be strongly encouraged to improve their performance (competence, productivity and compliance of patients). Given the limited success of measures to strengthen inspections and other controls "top-down, this incentive can only come from clients, either directly (i.e., bonuses based on cost recovery), or preferably indirectly with a mechanism for payment by results funded by the state and possibly partners.
Breastfeeding Medicine. 2015 Oct; 10(8):385-8.Add to my documents.
Republic of India - Health, nutrition and population technical assistance to North East States (India).
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 Jun 16. 9 p.The eight states in India’s North-East region are connected to the rest of the country by a narrow corridor and (until recently) were classified by the Indian government as special category states. This non-lending technical assistance (NLTA) was requested by the governments of Nagaland and Meghalaya, stemming from previous engagements with the World Bank Group - the state human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) program (supported by International Development Association (IDA) financing) in the case of Nagaland, and International Finance Corporation (IFC) advisory services for private sector involvement in government health insurance program and investment in medical education in the case of Meghalaya. Both state governments show commitment to improving health and nutrition services and outcomes and look to the World Bank to provide support. The state governments requested the Bank for technical assistance in specific areas for which other sources of support, particularly the national health mission, were not available, and improvements in which held the potential to leverage the effectiveness of existing government financing. The development objective of this activity is to support development of health system strategies, policies, and management systems in North East states.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015. 199 p.The sustained benefits of early childhood interventions are well established in developed countries. Early development plays a major role in subsequent school performance, health, socialization, and future earnings. For children born into poverty, the equity enhancing impact of early childhood interventions hold the promise of overcoming social disadvantages and breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty. The World Bank’s support to early childhood development (ECD) is well aligned with the Bank’s twin goals of reducing extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity. This evaluation by the Independent Evaluation Group examines the Bank’s design and implementation of projects across sectors supporting ECD interventions to inform future operations and provide inputs to the new Global Practices and Cross-Cutting Solutions Areas.
World Development Indicators 2016. Highlights: Featuring the Sustainable Development Goals. Extracted from the full version of WDI 2016.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016.  p.These WDI Highlights are drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) 2016 - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. WDI is regularly updated and new data are added in response to the needs of the development community; the 2016 edition includes new indicators to help measure the Sustainable Development Goals. World Development Indicators is the result of a collaborative partnership of international agencies, statistical offices of more than 200 economies, and many more.
Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. Disease control priorities. Third edition. Volume 2.
Washington, D.C., World Bank Group, 2016.  p.The Russian Federation's population has been declining since 1992, but recently the decline appears to be over. Although fertility has risen since the 2007 introduction of the family policy package, which focused on stimulating second and higher-order births, total fertility rates still remain significantly below replacement rate. Unlike some Western European countries, low overall fertility in Russia can be explained predominantly by a high prevalence of one-child families, despite the two-child ideal family size reported by the majority of Russians. This paper examines the correlates of Russian first-time mothers' desire and decision to have a second child. Using the 2004–12 waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, the study focuses on the motherhood-career trade-off as a potential obstacle to higher fertility in Russia. The preliminary results indicate that among Russian first-time mothers, being in stable employment is positively associated with the likelihood of having a second child. Moreover, the desire to have a second child is positively associated with the first child attending formal childcare, which suggests that the availability, affordability, and quality of such childcare can be important for promoting fertility. These results are broadly consistent with previous studies in other European countries that indicate that the ability of mothers to combine work and family has important implications for fertility, and that pro-natalist policies focusing on childcare accessibility can offer the greatest payoffs. In addition to these factors, better housing conditions, being married, having an older child, and having a first-born boy are also positively associated with having a second child.