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Progress of implementation of the World Health Organization strategy for HIV drug resistance control in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Revista Panamericana De Salud Publica. 2011 Dec; 30(6):657-62.By the end of 2010, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) achieved 63% antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. Measures to control HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at the country level are recommended to maximize the efficacy and sustainability of ART programs. Since 2006, the Pan American Health Organization has supported implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for HIVDR prevention and assessment through regional capacity-building activities and direct technical cooperation in 30 LAC countries. By 2010, 85 sites in 19 countries reported early warning indicators, providing information about the extent of potential drivers of drug resistance at the ART site. In 2009, 41.9% of sites did not achieve the WHO target of 100% appropriate first-line prescriptions; 6.3% still experienced high rates (> 20%) of loss to follow-up, and 16.2% had low retention of patients (< 70%) on first-line prescriptions in the first year of treatment. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred at 22.7% of sites. Haiti, Guyana, and the Mesoamerican region are planning and implementing WHO HIVDR monitoring surveys or threshold surveys. New HIVDR surveillance tools for concentrated epidemics would promote further scale-up. Extending the WHO HIVDR lab network in Latin America is key to strengthening regional lab capacity to support quality assured HIVDR surveillance. The WHO HIVDR control strategy is feasible and can be rolled out in LAC. Integrating HIVDR activities in national HIV care and treatment plans is key to ensuring the sustainability of this strategy.
Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1013-1015.Although substantial progress has been made in addressing the burden of communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries, the burden of diseases that are surgically treatable is increasing and has been neglected. Both morbidity and mortality from surgically preventable (eg, elective hernia repair) or treatable (eg, strangulated hernia) disorders can be greatly decreased through simple surgical interventions. Why should a child die from appendicitis, or a mother and child succumb to obstructed labour, when simple surgical procedures can save their lives? Why should patients suffer permanent disability because of congenital abnormalities, fractures, burns, or the sequelae of acute infections such as septic arthritis or osteomyelitis? Many complications of HIV infection (eg, abscesses, fistulas, Kaposi sarcoma) are also amenable to simple surgical interventions. Available epidemiological information and experiential evidence lend support to the conclusion that basic surgical and anaesthetic services should be integrated into primary health-care packages. (excerpt)
The Maputo report. WHO support to countries for scaling up essential interventions towards universal coverage in Africa.
Brazzaville, Congo, WHO, 2006. 33 p. (WHO/CCO/06.02)The African region accounts for 10% of the world's population yet is confronted with 20% of the global burden of disease. African nations are faced with high levels of poverty, with 39% of the population below the poverty line; and slow economic growth, with annual per capita expenditure on health in most countries limited to between US$ 10 and US$ 29. Other well-documented challenges to the region include limited financial and human resources, uncoordinated and inconsistent policy action on the determinants of health, limited use of knowledge and evidence to inform policies, and frequent occurrences of natural and man-made disasters. Although much has happened, WHO requires radical new approaches for how it does business in the region. The 21st century presents extensive opportunities for improving health in the region -- building on the momentum of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), resolutions of the WHO World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Regional Committee, coordinated work of the African Union, and the strategic framework of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) -- offering opportunities for the mobilization of political, technical and other resources for the region. In addition to health investments from national, bilateral and multilateral sources, commitments are being crystallized in distinct initiatives such as the Millennium Challenge Account, the Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Report on the Commission for Africa, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI). These initiatives come at a time when international agreements such as the Paris Declaration reaffirm the importance of countries taking the lead in their own health agendas in regards to international development assistance. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], . 70 p.Achieving gender equality and equity through the empowerment of women is a crucial strategic goal of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). As population and development thinking has evolved to include a sound understanding of gender, so, too, have the UNFPA mandate, policies, programmes and organizational structure. Numerous publications and training materials produced by UNFPA organizational units have aimed at facilitating an understanding of gender-related concepts. Yet, the subject of gender remains challenging for UNFPA staff. Many reviews and evaluations mention the need for more clarity and practical guidance on gender mainstreaming (see glossary) in programming. This assessment set out to help meet that need. Its objectives were as follows: To assess the quality, packaging and design of gender-related messages being communicated to UNFPA staff; To assess the utility and utilization of these materials by interviewing stakeholders in UNFPA headquarters and the field; To identify good practices to improve the communication of gender concepts and their mainstreaming into all UNFPA materials; and To promote a common understanding of what should be done at the organizational level to institutionalize strengths and achievements in current practice. (excerpt)
One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Bureau of Strategic Planning, Section for Youth, 2004.  p. (BSP.2004/YTH/001)UNESCO's involvement in the field of youth stems from the creation of the organization in 1946. After the Second World War, UNESCO (with only 20 Member States at that time) helped organize international volunteer youth work camps to aid in the reconstruction of Europe. Almost fifty years later in November 1996, 186 Member States at the 29th Session of the UNESCO General Conference reaffirmed and stressed their unanimous commitment to youth as a priority for the whole Organisation. The current policy, i.e. the promotion of 'youth' as a mainstreaming issue of the Organisation in all its activities, is guided by the World Action Programme for Youth to the year 2000 and beyond, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1995. It has also been inspired and informed by a number of recommendations, declarations and plans of actions of diverse regional and international youth meetings and forums held in recent years. (excerpt)
New Courier. 2005 Nov; 5-6.Many ministry staff battling to improve girls' education in Asia are highly motivated but isolated within their own countries, as their governments barely acknowledge the importance of "mainstreaming" gender issues into all aspects of policy. "Oft en officials say we don't have gender problems because all girls are in school but in terms of equality and opportunities there are many problems," says Ochirkhuyag Gankhuyag, from UNESCO's Bangkok bureau. Girls must not only be given the chance to finish school, they must be able to get jobs without facing discrimination, he says. The UN's Gender in Education Network in Asia (GENIA) programme was launched in 2002 to provide support and training to those who can make a difference. Based in Bangkok, GENIA identified "Gender Focal Points" (GFPs) - ministry of education officials responsible for promoting equality - in 11 Asian countries* and organises workshops for them so that they can learn from each other. (excerpt)
New Courier. 2005 May; 44-46.In the market square of Manga, a town located 105 kilometres east of Ouagadougou, vendors close their shops one after another as the sun dips lower. In the middle of cabarets selling dolo, the local millet beer, the troupe from the Burkinabe Theatre Workshop (ATB) starts setting up its performance area in front of an impatient crowd. In next to no time, the stage is set. The evening's show: The Cough of the Serpent, a play to heighten awareness of tuberculosis - an illness often linked to HIV/AIDS - that is being presented at the request of the National Tuberculosis Programme and the regional health authority. At the start of the play, a malfunctioning microphone prompts vocal protests from the audience members. And they continue to make their presence felt throughout the performance. Spectators shout out their disapproval of a "patient" who refuses to follow his treatment properly, or respond to questions from the actors, who keep them involved. At the end of the rowdy show, queries fly from all sides. The actors, joined by healthcare professionals, answer them. (excerpt)
Adapted for use in former Soviet countries, WHO/US government PMTCT protocols are introduced in three Russian cities.
Connections. 2005 Aug-Sep;  p..HIV/AIDS is called a women's disease in African countries because almost 60 percent of the people infected with the virus are women. This comparison may soon also be relevant for Russia where the relative share of women among people with HIV is rising steadily. In some regions it is already in excess of 40 percent. Russian experts attribute this situation to the development of the commercial sex trade, as well as to a rising rate of transmission through sexual contact with drug users. The gravest situation is the escalating incidence of HIV/AIDS among women of childbearing age, especially those between 15 and 30. More and more cases of the disease are being reported in this group. Many of them are diagnosed during pregnancy, which translates to a corresponding increase the number of HIV-infected children in Russia. At the start of 2005, approximately 10,000 such children had been registered, whereas in 1996 there were only 18 of them. While it is practically impossible to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among adults, mother-to-child transmission of the virus can be controlled. The question, "How?" is complex and multifaceted. It was discussed in detail by participants in a series of workshops sponsored by UNICEF and AIHA in three Russian cities-- Magnitogorsk, Orenburg, and Chelyabinsk--between May and August this year. (excerpt)
Odessa workshop helps build capacity among Ukrainian clinicians who care for people living with HIV / AIDS.
Connections. 2004 Jan;  p..A recent Anti-retroviral Therapy Training Workshop held in Odessa, Ukraine, marked the start of an ongoing collaboration between AIHA and the Los Angeles-based AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF). It was the first training hosted under the aegis of the newly established World Health Organization Regional HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Knowledge Hub for which AIHA is the primary implementing partner. This Knowledge Hub was created in response to the burgeoning HIV/AIDS pandemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to serve as a crucial capacity-building mechanism for reaching WHO's "3 by 5" targets for the region. (excerpt)
Working in partnership to boost reproductive health commodity security. [Trabajar en sociedad para mejorar la seguridad de los productos de salud reproductiva]
Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):10-11.As USAID, through its sub-contracted American NGO John Snow Incorporated (JSI), continues to phase out support to developing countries for reproductive health commodities— contraceptives and essential drugs—the UN Population Fund and interested donor bodies are concerned with how best to marshal and direct commodity assistance for the future. The current focus is on nine countries in the Latin American region: Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. To ensure a smooth transition and to help these countries to eventually achieve reproductive health commodity security, or RHCS, USAID and JSI are working closely with partners, including UNFPA, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Bank. (excerpt)
Strategy to involve rural workers in the fight against HIV / AIDS through community mobilisation programs. Draft for review.
[Unpublished] 2000 May 1. 58 p.The Rural HIV/AIDS Initiatives (RAIDS) is a contribution of the rural sector to the Bank’s multisectoral effort designated as AIDS Campaign Team (ACT- Africa) launched in 1999. Starting in 1998, RAIDS attempted to involve rural communities in HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation through rural frontline workers especially extension workers and/or local RAIDS consultants in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Malawi, Niger and Nigeria. RAIDS commissioned a team of consultants from the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) and Tanzania Netherlands Support for AIDS (TANESA) to review rural AIDS activities in SSA and to develop a framework of strategies to involve rural workers and rural communities in HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation efforts. This report is the outcome of their work, and is based on literature review, field visits and KIT/TANESA’s experience on district level approach to HIV/AID prevention and mitigation in Africa. (excerpt)