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The role of the traditional midwife in the family planning program. Report of National Workshop to Review Researches into Dukun Activities related to MCH Care and Family Planning.
[Jakarta], Indonesia, Department of Health, 1972. 83 p.A number of studies conducted already have revealed that there are possibilities of using dukuns as potential helpers in the family planning programme. Bearing in mind that the number of dukuns at the present time is large, it is easy to imagine that they are capable of contributing a great deal towards progress in our family planning programme provided that the dukuns are assigned a role which is appropriate. In this respect, I am only referring to dukuns whose prime function is helping mothers during pregnancy and immediately afterwards, and who have close contact therefore, with the target of the family planning programme, i.e. the eligible couples. It would indeed be very helpful, if we could find out from the available data and from the results of applied research what exactly is the scope and usefulness of dukuns in the family planning programme. It seems to me that in this project we have to consider a twofold problem. The first aspect of the problem is that the dukuns are mostly of an advanced age and they are illiterate. The second aspect is that in spite of relationships with MCH centers extending over a period of years most of the dukuns still prefer their own way of doing things and they remain unaffected by modern ways of thinking. (excerpt)
AMBIO. 1992 Feb; 21(1):112-5.The UN can set standards and provide a framework for collaborative projects, but sustainable development will require the full participation of many sectors of society, both public and private. This review of sustainable development considers the role of UN-sponsored special conferences in the past 20 years, identifies a conceptual tool for assessing options, and suggests a global action plan that radically restructures the UN, based on popular sovereignty. The concern is for the protection of popular rights and welfare that could be ignored by powerful governments and powerful transnational corporations beyond government control; responsibility for the environment, natural resources, technologies, and other global issues cannot be overlooked. The concept is to develop an "international public sector for the management of interdependence" which can correct, as necessary the "international market process and ensure equitable distribution of resources." The Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 marked the beginning of special conferences dealing with sustainable development. The UN General Assembly in 1974 adopted a mandate and programs for increasing the pace of economic and social development. In 1980 and 1990 further UN development strategies were adopted. The most recent strategy incorporated much from the Brundtland Commission Report but did not urge the change in attitudes and orientation of political and economic institutions. The Assembly of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) adopted strategies for conservation and development in 1990. Nongovernmental organizations have united to cooperate in the global effort to achieve sustainable development. However, there are 5.4 billion people and an increase of 2 billion expected in 20 years. Bureaucratic rivalry and the inherent weakness of the UN has lead to splintering of objectives and irrelevant decision making. After concept development, which is a noteworthy effort, there must be negotiation with government delegates and policy planners and decision makers. The priorities are to shift from economic development to social development, to shift from maximum use of inappropriate technologies to resource efficient and saving technologies, and integration of population with national environmental strategies.