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  1. 1

    Short-term training in the demographic aspects of population ageing and its implications for socio-economic development, policies and plans. Report of the Expert Group Meeting held in Malta, 6-9 December 1993.

    United Nations. International Institute on Ageing

    Valletta, Malta, United Nations, International Institute on Ageing, 1994. 127 p.

    The International Institute on Aging (INIA), an autonomous body within the UN, was established by the UN Secretary General in 1988 in order to fulfill the training needs on aging within developing countries. INIA developed training courses on Social Gerontology, Geriatrics, Income Security, and Physical Therapy and has trained 485 persons from 76 countries. This INIA expert group meeting report presents background papers and presentations from a workshop held on December 6-9, 1993, and recommendations. Nine papers by separate authors are reported in this article. The topics include 1) demographic aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, 2) demographic trends in aging and economic conditions in Poland, 3) consideration of aging issues among a young population in Mexico, 4) the demographic and socioeconomic implications of aging in China, 5) the demographic implications of aging among Mediterranean countries, 6) the social implications of aging in developing countries, 7) the demography of aging and economic implications, 8) selected aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, and 9) essentials of short-term training in the demography of aging. Training courses should be directed to anyone involved in planning, formulating, and implementing national/regional policy and in research design on population aging. Courses should also apply to those who directly influence socioeconomic decision making processes related to aging issues. Applicants for training should have a statistical or demographic background, working knowledge of computers, work in or planned work in the field of aging, and proficiency in the language in which the course is taught. It is recommended that courses offer a variety of educational techniques and off-site visits and that the training group not exceed 20 persons. Participants should represent no more than two geographic regions, and the materials used in the course should be compiled and given to INIA upon course completion.
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  2. 2

    Report of the National Seminar on Environment and Sustainable Development, Aden, 25-27 February 1989.

    Democratic Yemen; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    [Unpublished] 1989. iv, 131 p.

    The 1989 final report on the environment and sustainable development includes a summary of events an a summary of types of participants in attendance. The purpose of the seminar was to provide senior national experts, policy makers, planners, and executives (in conjunction with UN representatives) with a forum for examination of issues and to propose recommendations and solutions. The level of awareness must be raised among officials and the public. Policy instruments and action must be identified in order to contribute to sustainable growth and the alleviation of poverty. The principle components of a national environmental strategy were to be outlined. The National Council for Environmental Protection needed to be reactivated. After the opening statements, the topics included in this presentation were the organization and agenda for 5 working groups, development projects and environmental considerations, environmental legislation and institutions, marine and coastal areas environment and resources, environmental awareness and education and human resources, policies and future trends, the seminar declaration and recommendations, and closing statements. The full text is provided for the opening statements, the closing statements, and the background papers. Lists of additional background papers and the seminar steering committee members are also given. The seminar declaration referred to the interlocking crises of development, environment, and energy. Population growth threatens world survival, particularly in the poorest countries. Expected economic growth will further deplete environmental resources and contribute to pollution. The world is bound together by these concerns. International debt forces poor countries to overexploit resources and destroy their production base. Developing countries are still in economic disarray. Economic reform hasn't worked for poor countries, and the resource gap is widening between countries. The answer is sustainable development, which is based on an equitable and rational exploitation of natural resources. International cooperation and peace must be strengthened dialogue and understanding and support for the UN.
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  3. 3

    Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF.

    REPROWATCH. 1998 Nov 16-30; 17(4):5.

    A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence.
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  4. 4

    ICPD follow-up: post ICPD shifts in policy and programme direction in Thailand.


    This news brief identifies workshops and meetings related to the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action in Thailand and some changes in Thai policy and program direction. The 8th National Economic and Social Development Plan for 1997-2001 uses a people-centered human development approach. The Plan emphasizes extending compulsory primary education to 9 years for all children initially and eventually to 12 years. The second major change is to accelerate the extension of primary health care in rural areas and to carry out a Five-Year National AIDS Prevention and Control plan. The new Plan aims to promote family planning in target groups with high fertility, to improve the quality of family planning methods and services, to promote small family size among target groups, to improve quality of life and community self-sufficiency, to promote family planning as a means of ensuring healthy children and improved quality of life, and to promote the development of agricultural industry in rural areas. The government priority will be to develop rural areas, the skills of rural residents, and small and medium sized cities, in order to slow the flow of migration from rural to large urban areas. Local administration will be upgraded and directed to solving environmental problems. The Plan aims to expand social services and to train rural people to meet the needs of the labor market. Several workshops and seminars were conducted during 1995 and 1996 that related to reproductive health and reproductive rights. In 1994, and shortly following the ICPD, Thailand government officials, members of nongovernmental groups, UN representatives, and media staff participated in seminars on the implementation of the ICPD Plan of Action in Thailand and seminars on Thailand's population and development program.
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  5. 5

    International Conference on Population and Development: year-end update.

    Chasek P; Goree LJ 6th

    EARTH NEGOTIATIONS BULLETIN. 1993 Dec 21; 6(14):1-4.

    This report is an update for the period during September-December 1993 on the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The report summarizes the UN General Assembly's annotated outline of the Cairo document on the preamble, responsibilities, and implementation. A brief history of the ICPD is given as well as a summary of the roundtable discussions among a number of governments and agencies (Germany, Switzerland,UNFPA, ESCAP, the International Academy of the Environment, the UN Environmental Program, the Vienna Institute for Development and Cooperation, and the nongovernmental organization (NGO) planning committee of the ICPD). The General Assembly identifies the topic of responsibility as the recognition of the link between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; gender equality and empowerment of women; the family composition; population growth and structure; reproductive rights and health and family planning; health and mortality; population distribution; and international migration. Implementation concerns include IEC, capacity building, technology, national action, international cooperation, partnerships between NGOs and private or community groups, and follow-up. During the Second Committee meeting comments are reported to have been solicited about the outline. Dr. Nafis Sadik, as ICPD Secretary General, helped 92 countries prepare national population reports and to establish public awareness of population and development issues. 50 countries have population reports. Delegates are being asked to endorse the ECOSOC resolution 1991/93 (A/48/430) and the annotated outline of the final document (A/48/430/Add.1). The annotated outline debates are summarized. Dr. Sadik summarizes 15 points on improvements to the document. A draft incorporating improvements is expected to be ready in January 1994 and discussed at the third session of the ICPD preparatory committee meeting in April 1994. The ICPD Preparatory Committee is incorporated as a subsidiary body into the General Assembly by adoption of resolution A/C.2/48/L.11/Rev.1.
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  6. 6

    Women and children on the environmental front line.


    In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, [1991]. 3 p..

    The focus of this article is on the impact of environmental degradation on women and children. The position is taken that the poor in developing countries, most of whom are women and children, are the most vulnerable to environmental disasters and depletion of natural resources. Children are the most susceptible to the effects of environmental degradation in terms of disease, malnourishment, and pollution and toxic chemicals. The task of collecting fuelwood contributes to wastage of time and energy and loss of schooling, health care visits, child care, and food quality. If animal dung or other agricultural products are used as replacement fuel sources, soil nutrient loss results. When land is sufficiently degraded, household food production becomes impossible. Migration as a solution to environmental depletion results in urban slums. One solution is identified as empowerment of communities and satisfaction of basic needs. Social mobilization campaigns are useful for promoting use of latrines and safe sanitation. Promotion of sanitation is facilitated by the inclusion of ideas about privacy and convenience. Oral rehydration therapy and immunization are useful in controlling and preventing disease. A shift to smoke-free, efficient stoves reduces deforestation. Food security problems can be alleviated with improved crop varieties, nitrogen-fixing plants, small-scale irrigation, and appropriate technologies. UNICEF is associated with a people-centered approach, which is considered the most hopeful prospect for preserving the global environment and achieving more equitable and sustainable development.
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  7. 7

    The people's road to Rio.

    Bayon R

    In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, [1991]. 5 p..

    This article previews the potential for the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and community participation in preparation for the 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development (the Earth Summit or UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. A significant feature of this Summit is identified as the opportunity for individuals and nongovernmental groups to affect the process from both within the conference and from outside pressure groups. This appears to be a new way for conducting global politics. The public and nongovernmental groups are involved in preparatory meetings for the Summit, in preparatory national government meetings, and as delegates to the Summit. Input could be directed at the international level to the Secretariat, the PrepCom and its meetings, the negotiating process for a convention on climate change, and the negotiating process for a convention on biodiversity. The Singapore diplomat Tommy Koh chaired the PrepCom committee. Maurice Strong, a Canadian businessman and environmentalist and prior Stockholm secretariat, chaired the UNCED secretariat, which provided all the research requested by PrepCom and required for the UNCED. The secretariat subcontracted to experts on certain issues. PrepCom identified the issues for the Summit. The fourth and final PrepCom meeting was held during March 2-April 3, 1992. Lobbying this fourth meeting and attending the 1992 Global Forum, a nongovernmental event running concurrent with the Summit, were the last opportunities for international lobbying before the Summit. The most effective lobbying was considered to be that which occurred in a national context. National reports were required to include statements about each country's environmental and development conditions and to include the opinions of nongovernmental experts. The third avenue for participation in UNCED is identified as affiliation with the multitude of nongovernmental preparatory events and organizations.
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  8. 8

    Cairo work schedule, procedures outlined in letter to governments.

    ICPD 94. 1994 Jun; (16):1, 4-5.

    A brief description of key points of a May 25, 1994, letter from Dr. Nafis Sadik to countries participating in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was provided. The letter indicated the draft provisional rules of procedure for the ICPD and included some comments and suggestions. The UN General Assembly resolution 47/176 stipulated that the head of each delegation should be a government minister or higher public official. Heads of State and Foreign Ministers were asked to provide the names of each delegate well in advance of the ICPD and to submit credentials at least a week beforehand. On August 25, 1994, delegates will be formally registered on site. Dr. Sadik strongly urged that delegations be gender-balanced and include representatives of nongovernmental organizations, various sectors, and national groups involved with population and development strategies. The traditional agenda includes preliminary meetings on September 3 and 4 for discussion of procedural and organizational issues. The provisional agenda includes opening remarks, election of the president, adoption of rules of procedure, adoption of the agenda, election of other officers, organization of work, credentials of representatives to the ICPD, experiences in population and development strategies, Programme of Action of the ICPD, and adoption of the report of the ICPD. The general debate will be conducted during plenary sessions from September 5-9, with a focus on item 8 of the provisional agenda. The Main Committee will meet concurrently to complete negotiations on the Programme of Action (item 9), and then submit its report to the plenary. The report adopted at the ICPD will be submitted to the UN General Assembly one week after the conference ends. The draft Programme of Action was a result of PrepCom III deliberations among the delegations and countries represented. Dr. Sadik expects the Egyptian President and the UN Secretary General to address the plenary session of the ICPD.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    The roles of international institutions in promoting sustainable development.

    Kunugi T

    AMBIO. 1992 Feb; 21(1):112-5.

    The UN can set standards and provide a framework for collaborative projects, but sustainable development will require the full participation of many sectors of society, both public and private. This review of sustainable development considers the role of UN-sponsored special conferences in the past 20 years, identifies a conceptual tool for assessing options, and suggests a global action plan that radically restructures the UN, based on popular sovereignty. The concern is for the protection of popular rights and welfare that could be ignored by powerful governments and powerful transnational corporations beyond government control; responsibility for the environment, natural resources, technologies, and other global issues cannot be overlooked. The concept is to develop an "international public sector for the management of interdependence" which can correct, as necessary the "international market process and ensure equitable distribution of resources." The Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 marked the beginning of special conferences dealing with sustainable development. The UN General Assembly in 1974 adopted a mandate and programs for increasing the pace of economic and social development. In 1980 and 1990 further UN development strategies were adopted. The most recent strategy incorporated much from the Brundtland Commission Report but did not urge the change in attitudes and orientation of political and economic institutions. The Assembly of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) adopted strategies for conservation and development in 1990. Nongovernmental organizations have united to cooperate in the global effort to achieve sustainable development. However, there are 5.4 billion people and an increase of 2 billion expected in 20 years. Bureaucratic rivalry and the inherent weakness of the UN has lead to splintering of objectives and irrelevant decision making. After concept development, which is a noteworthy effort, there must be negotiation with government delegates and policy planners and decision makers. The priorities are to shift from economic development to social development, to shift from maximum use of inappropriate technologies to resource efficient and saving technologies, and integration of population with national environmental strategies.
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