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Prevention of HIV / AIDS and Drug Abuse. Final report of the regional workshop, Beijing, 25-29 August 1997.
[Unpublished] 1997.  p.This is a report of the Workshop on "Prevention of HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse through Quality Improvement of Curriculum and Teaching/Learning Materials in Asia and the Pacific" held from 25 to 29 August 1997, in Beijing, China. The Regional Strategy, which is considered the most important outcome of the Workshop, is published in a separate document. The Regional Strategy aims to inform policy on "Preventive Education against HIV/AIDS" in the school setting. Participants to the Workshop were from several Asian countries-China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand and representatives of several organizations, e.g. the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health Network (SEAMEO-TROPMED); UNDCP and UNESCO Bangkok and Jakarta. In total twenty-two (22) participants and one (1) resource person were present at the workshop. The involvement of UNDCP represents a deliberate strategy to coordinate and streamline activities of common interest across HIV/AIDS and drug use prevention issues. The workshop outcomes are: the Situation Analysis on Preventive Education Against HIV/AIDS in seven countries; the identification of 'best practice' from the region; the formulation of a regional strategy framework and the regional and country plans for follow-up actions. According to the participants, this project is a 'milestone' on preventive education, because in addition to the professional outcomes it has a value-added component which has encouraged the desire to mobilize resources and expertise among partners. The participatory process of the workshop created strong teamwork and encouraged motivation for further work. (excerpt)
Talking about AIDS in schools: an AIDS workshop design for school principals, administrators and teachers.
New Delhi, India, UNESCO, 1997 May.  p.As the lead United Nations agency for education, UNESCO's aim in the field of AIDS preventive education is to encourage the development of effective educational strategies, internationally and regionally. These strategies have been adapted to various sociocultural contexts in ways which provide the means for young people to protect themselves from HIV infection. The complex nature of the problems connected with HIV/AIDS calls for a knowledge of the sociocultural, ethnic and scientific aspects of the disease, as well as mastery of communication techniques. In addition, AIDS prevention through education goes hand in hand with the ethics of human relations and with the struggle for human rights, for it is often fear and ignorance that lead to ostracism of, and discrimination against, people living with HIV/AIDS. Over the past years, UNESCO New Delhi has worked extensively for the promotion of HIV/AIDS preventive education within the formal school system in South Asia. Addressed mainly to educational decision-makers, UNESCO's approach enjoys the whole-hearted co-operation of the Ministers of Education, specialised institutes and non-governmental organisations such as professional teachers' organisations parent-teacher associations. The rapid spread of HIV/AIDS and the increasing evidence that younger people, including adolescents risk getting infected with HIV makes it imperative that they be educated on how to protect themselves. Schools have an important role to play in disseminating education to a large number of young people. This advocacy workshop design has been developed to initiated a process in New Delhi schools, by which preventive education on AIDS/STD for adolescents will have acceptance and the full support of school principals, administrators, teachers and parents of secondary school students. We would like to acknowledge the crucial support of the Chanakyapuri Rotary Club - District 3010 for introducing this approach to Rotary Interact member schools, and the Naz Foundation (India) Trust for providing the essential training resources. We believe that preventive education on HIV/AIDS can help young people acquire health-related knowledge, values, skills and practices, to be able to pursue a healthy lifestyle and also to work as agents of change for the health of their communities. School-based AIDS preventive education will continue to have our highest consideration. (excerpt)
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Oct; 3(4):3-4.The Alliance held its first Regional Seminar in Central America July 2-5,1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. This was the first meeting held within the framework of the two- year Alliance program in Latin America supported by the Commission of the European Union. The theme was "Civil- Military Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean." (excerpt)
Strengthening midwifery within safe motherhood. Report of a collaborative ICM / WHO / UNICEF pre-Congress workshop, Oslo, Norway, 23-26 May 1996.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1997. , 29, xxix p. (WHO/RHT/MSM/97.3)This report presents an overview of the World Health Organization workshop held during May 23-26, 1996, which included country reports, program activities for strengthening action for safe motherhood, and country action plans for strengthening midwifery for safe motherhood. The nine appendices include a participant list, presenters list, workshop timetable, group work tasks, background paper on maternal mortality and the role of midwives, sponsors, references, data sheets, and model action plan format. The aim of the workshop was to strengthen midwives' capacity to take leadership roles in the development and implementation of their countries' National Safe Motherhood Action Plans. Other objectives included the exploration of global issues related to maternal mortality and midwifery, identification of strategies for active midwife participation in political processes that involve action plans, understanding of the need for life-saving and risk reduction skills for managing obstetric complications, and definitions of concepts of critical thinking skills among midwives and health workers. Further aims were to create an awareness of the need for appropriate regulation of midwife practice that would allow for autonomy and a full range of functions and to develop action plans to strengthen midwifery within national strategies. The first conference on Safe Motherhood was held in the Hague in 1987 following the Nairobi Conference on Safe Motherhood. It was recognized that midwives, as front-line caregivers, were in a key position to develop the competency to handle eclampsia, obstructed labor, hemorrhage, and sepsis. The following workshop in Kobe, Japan, focused on developing community-based education that would strengthen maternity services within existing primary health centers. The third workshop in Vancouver in 1993 addressed how midwives could contribute to improved safe motherhood.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 1997 Sep; 1(2):108-9.Over the years, the poor state of human welfare in sub-Saharan Africa has been an issue that has received much attention from researchers and scholars throughout the continent and beyond. Various reports have shown that most African countries cluster at the bottom end of the human development scale. Unhealthy economic and political policies in many SSA countries have resulted in the deterioration of basic social services, affecting the health and education sectors seriously. The response of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the issue led to the implementation of various structural adjustment programs in these countries. Despite the claims of the World Bank and IMF concerning the improvement of economic performance in Africa, it is still unclear if such improvement is translated into the improvements of African families' well-being. A workshop sponsored by the Harvard Committee for African Studies analyzed the various problems confronting human welfare in Africa. The workshop suggested future research directions and highlighted research needs; it also encouraged collaboration among researchers for continued understanding of the welfare state in the continent.
A changing emphasis for feeding choices for HIV seropositive mothers in East, Central and Southern Africa.
SOCIETES D'AFRIQUE ET SIDA. 1997 Jul-Oct; (17-18):12-4.Since the first descriptions that HIV-1 can be transmitted from mother to infant by breast-feeding, infant feeding practices in HIV-1 seropositive mothers had to be re-evaluated. In developed countries, public health policies recommend artificial feeding. A workshop sponsored by the South African Department of Health and the World Bank in collaboration with the Department of Pediatrics & Child Health, University of Natal and the Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat for East, Central and Southern Africa was held in Durban, South Africa (May 20-21, 1996) to address the question on breast-feeding infants with seropositive mothers. The presentations of the program included the epidemiology of mother to infant transmission of HIV with special emphasis on breast-feeding, the biological aspects of HIV transmission through breastmilk, a review of international studies on breast-feeding and mother to infant transmission of HIV and an exploration of the potential impact of breast-feeding on interventions against mother to child transmission of HIV by antiretrovirals. Thus, a shift in emphasis on the question of feeding choices for HIV seropositive women in developing and intermediate income countries has occurred. However, this statement has yet to be converted into policy.
The management of childhood illness: rationale for an integrated strategy, July 14-19, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)Childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, malaria and malnutrition continue to be major contributors to child mortality in the year 2020 unless significantly more effort is applied to their control. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm is considered by the WHO to be one of the most effective strategies in the control of these diseases. A workshop was conducted in July 14-19, 1997, which brought together clinical experts from the concerned countries to discuss the practical aspects of IMCI adaptation as well as to continue the discussion on the feasibility of implementation of the IMCI algorithm in the selected region. This report summarizes the outcome from the workshop discussions based on the information collected through the circulated questionnaires and data from other available sources. These include possible adaptations of IMCI guidelines to consider, identification of areas where additional information is needed, technical points to consider in individual country adaptations, recommendations of the meeting in this regard, and recommendations for steps to be taken with regard to implementation of IMCI strategy. Overall recommendations for the further action for IMCI course adaptation and implementation are presented at the end of this report.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. , 8,  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)This trip report pertains to consultant visits to Niamey (Niger), Bamako (Mali), and Geneva (Switzerland) during June 1 to July 4, 1997, in order to participate in several workshops on integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) in French-speaking African countries. The First Regional IMCI Orientation Workshop, which was held during June 3-4, 1997, in Niamey, was attended by the consultant and a BASICS Regional Director. This workshop included an introduction to IMCI concepts and advocacy for its implementation. The consultant and Regional Director met separately with key decision-makers from Mali, Senegal, Niger, and Togo about IMCI planning. The meeting with Senegal decision-makers aimed to develop a regional IMCI strategy and assess a BASICS role in early implementation. The consultant attended the First IMCI Adaptation Workshop in Mali during June 16-20, 1997. The workshop aimed to adapt the IMCI strategy to Mali; to decide about potential research for adapting the food box; and to help create an adaptation staff with specific jobs and timelines. The consultant attended the WHO IMCI Planning and Adaptation Course in Geneva during June 23 to July 4, 1997. Issues for discussion included planning for IMCI at the country level; the technical basis for adaptation; follow-up after training; and monitoring and evaluation. The World Health Organization is collaborating with 5 countries in Francophone Africa on IMCI implementation. BASICS has 4 trained staff who should be able to provide extensive technical assistance to Francophone and Anglophone African countries and Latin America and the Caribbean.
Participation in World Health Organization technical briefings, Geneva, Switzerland, October 13-24, 1997.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)This trip report pertains to a consultant visit to the World Health Organization's Technical Briefings on Child Health and Development and Immunization in Geneva, Switzerland, during October 13-24, 1997. Three BASICS technical officers, 2 operations officers, a regional child survival advisor, and a regional immunization coordinator attended the technical briefings. The aim was to allow BASICS staff to obtain an up-to-date overview of the 2 divisions' programs, approaches, and methods that are used in planning and management in developing countries. The briefings provided an opportunity for BASICS staff to meet WHO staff, discuss activities of mutual interest, and obtain technical materials. The workshop included lectures by WHO staff and some problem-solving exercises in small groups. Discussions occurred during presentations and in separate meetings. Other participants included members of government agencies, universities, multilateral organizations, and nongovernmental organizations worldwide. Appendices provide a full list of conference participants by name and organization or agency also provide the schedule of activities.
Planning for a multi-site study of health careseeking behavior in relation to IMCI, November 4-11, 1997.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)This trip report pertains to a 1-week workshop held during November 4-11, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was to plan a study of healthcare-seeking behavior in Mexico, Ghana, and Sri Lanka. The study would develop a community and facility link as part of the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) initiative. The theoretical framework identifies four types of maternal behavior (recognition, labeling, resorting to care, and compliance) and four types of channels (paid community health workers, volunteer health workers, mother support groups, and informal support from family and others). Project funding would be supplied by WHO. BASICS has the opportunity to collaborate with WHO and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine on the study, which is highly relevant to its work with behavior change and IMCI. The workshop was attended by about 18 persons and included teams from the three study sites. The workshop included presentations, plenary discussions, and small group sessions. The organizing committee prepared a review of the literature on healthcare-seeking behavior, evaluation techniques, WHO protocols for multi-center studies, targets, and budgets. Representatives from the sites prepared an overview of health conditions at their sites and some ideas for the study plan and intervention. The subgroups developed specific draft study plans, which were presented to the plenary. Final proposals are due in Geneva by November 30, 1998. BASICS will develop a review of mother support groups and provide position papers to sites.
SAFE MOTHERHOOD. 1997; (24):3.This article identifies key features of a June 1997 seminar held among delegates from French-speaking African countries on the World Health Organization's Mother-Baby Package. This package aims to strengthen, integrate, and speed up national efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Multidisciplinary teams met in subregions. The first group met in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; another group met a week later in Libreville, Gabon. WHO's Regional Office for Africa organized the meetings. Participants included representatives from UNDP, UNICEF, and UNFPA and representatives from Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. The meetings were conducted in French. Some participants pointed out the needs of countries that recently emerged from periods of armed conflict. It was understood that a minimum level of political stability was required in order for health systems to function effectively and to reduce maternal deaths. Countries are trying to restore health services to be able to respond to obstetric emergencies at any time or place. Information was provided on country-specific experiences with initiatives and problems, such as lack of funding and human resources. Midwife skills are particularly deficient at the local level. Some participants viewed a reproductive health emphasis as slowing safe motherhood efforts, while some viewed reproductive health as the foundation for safe motherhood and a way to strengthen support. Participants agreed on methods of mobilizing resources, identifying appropriate indicators, and collaborating intersectorally. They were committed to using World Health Day 1998 as a way to focus national celebrations on safe motherhood.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 1997 Mar; 1(1):97-9.Since 1994, a series of workshops, held under the auspices of the World Health Organization, has led to creation of an operational network in southern Africa, which would foster rational use of country, regional, and international resources to strengthen national health development in areas of common interest. A recent workshop considered country needs in the development of policies and programs to integrate reproductive health services within primary health care and the need to develop networks to support reproductive health services, training, research, and advocacy. This workshop resulted in the following: 1) endorsement of the concept of reproductive and sexual health; 2) a commitment to foster this understanding of reproductive health at the country level and to identify needs and strategies to address the needs; 3) a recommendation that national authorities adjust existing programs to reflect a reproductive and sexual health perspective; 4) agreement that in-country networking and coordination must be strengthened; 5) a recommendation that global, regional, and national collaboration should increase; and 6) a recommendation that all efforts should be made to strengthen networking. This workshop has resulted in significant reproductive health activity in the region.