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NGO's Role and Involvement in the Prevention and Control of AIDS, New Delhi. Report of a regional workshop, 30 October - 1 November 1990.
[Unpublished] 1991 Feb 19. , 19 p. (SEA/AIDS/22; WHO Project: ICP GPA 511)This regional workshop aimed to exchange information, inform nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) on the epidemiology and control of AIDS, share the experience of NGOs, identify improvements in the involvement of NGOs in AIDS control programs, and understand the impact of discriminatory measures. Topics for discussion were the global and the southeast Asian regional AIDS/HIV situation and control, the role of NGOs in control, the legal, ethical, and human rights issues in AIDS prevention and control, and the involvement of NGOs in prevention and control of AIDS. participants represented Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, India, and the WHO secretariat. NGOs provide information, education, policy advocacy, training, counseling, and assistance to those affected by HIV/AIDS. The methods used were culturally-sensitive mass media; a positive, holistic, and flexible approach; promotion of self esteem and confidence in target groups; target group representation; maintenance of direct contact and education for specific groups; policy advocacy; research and monitoring functions; peer group formation support; public awareness creation; and provision of medical services. Recommendations were made to NGOs to collaborate with one another and with governments, to help strengthen international and national cooperation for AIDS prevention and control, to monitor media information for reliability and uniformity and contextual relevance and lobby for necessary changes, and to set an example of human and compassionate treatment and respect the rights of AIDS/HIV and marginalized groups to medical and social services and treatment, education, employment, housing, social life, freedom of movement, freedom of choice on blood testing, and freedom from discrimination. NGOs involved need to mobilize other NGOs in AIDS prevention. Governments should include NGOs on national AIDS committees, particularly those which are community-oriented, and not politically affiliated and those which work with women and marginalized groups. Governments need to update curricula and provide family life education including education on AIDS for formal and informal groups and government officials. Governments should also set an example of responsible behavior which respects the human rights of people with AIDS, fund NGOs to train trainers, and use mass media. WHO should be more sensitive to the needs of NGOs and work to keep NGOs in the information loop of international and national governments.
Strengthening of management of maternal and child health and family planning programmes. Report of an intercountry workshop, New Delhi, 27-31 August 1990.
[Unpublished] 1991 Feb 14. , 20 p. (SEA/MCH/FP/99; Project No. ICP MCH 011)>20 participants from UNFPA/UNICEF/USAID and 23 participants from 10 countries from the WHO Southeast Asia Region attended the Workshop on Strengthening of Management of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Family Planning (FP) Programmes in New Delhi, India in August 1990. The workshop consisted of presentations and discussions of country reports, technical papers, dynamic work groups, and plenary consensus. The WHO/SEARO technical officer for family health presented a thorough overview on strengthening MCH/FP services in a primary health care setting. Issues addressed included regional status on population growth, urban migration and development. MCH status, management of MCH/FP services, strategic planning, and management information. In Bangladesh, the government integrated MCH services with FP services, but other child programs including immunization, control of diarrheal disease program, nutrition, acute respiratory infection remained with the health division. Obstacles of the MCH/FP program in the Maldives were shortage of trained human resources, preference of health providers to work in urban areas, inadequate logistics, and insufficient supervision in peripheral health centers. A nomadic way of life among the rural peoples posed special problems for the delivery of MCH services in Mongolia where large family size was encouraged. Other country reports included Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. A case study of the model mother program in Thailand and the local area monitoring technique in Indonesia were shared with participants. District team work groups identified key MCH/FP management problems including organization, planning, and management; finance and resource allocation; intersectoral action; community participation; and human resource development. The workshop revealed the national health leaders with hopes for WHO technical assistance were developing a rapid evaluation methodology.
In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, . 3 p..The focus of this article is on the impact of environmental degradation on women and children. The position is taken that the poor in developing countries, most of whom are women and children, are the most vulnerable to environmental disasters and depletion of natural resources. Children are the most susceptible to the effects of environmental degradation in terms of disease, malnourishment, and pollution and toxic chemicals. The task of collecting fuelwood contributes to wastage of time and energy and loss of schooling, health care visits, child care, and food quality. If animal dung or other agricultural products are used as replacement fuel sources, soil nutrient loss results. When land is sufficiently degraded, household food production becomes impossible. Migration as a solution to environmental depletion results in urban slums. One solution is identified as empowerment of communities and satisfaction of basic needs. Social mobilization campaigns are useful for promoting use of latrines and safe sanitation. Promotion of sanitation is facilitated by the inclusion of ideas about privacy and convenience. Oral rehydration therapy and immunization are useful in controlling and preventing disease. A shift to smoke-free, efficient stoves reduces deforestation. Food security problems can be alleviated with improved crop varieties, nitrogen-fixing plants, small-scale irrigation, and appropriate technologies. UNICEF is associated with a people-centered approach, which is considered the most hopeful prospect for preserving the global environment and achieving more equitable and sustainable development.
In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, . 5 p..This article previews the potential for the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and community participation in preparation for the 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development (the Earth Summit or UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. A significant feature of this Summit is identified as the opportunity for individuals and nongovernmental groups to affect the process from both within the conference and from outside pressure groups. This appears to be a new way for conducting global politics. The public and nongovernmental groups are involved in preparatory meetings for the Summit, in preparatory national government meetings, and as delegates to the Summit. Input could be directed at the international level to the Secretariat, the PrepCom and its meetings, the negotiating process for a convention on climate change, and the negotiating process for a convention on biodiversity. The Singapore diplomat Tommy Koh chaired the PrepCom committee. Maurice Strong, a Canadian businessman and environmentalist and prior Stockholm secretariat, chaired the UNCED secretariat, which provided all the research requested by PrepCom and required for the UNCED. The secretariat subcontracted to experts on certain issues. PrepCom identified the issues for the Summit. The fourth and final PrepCom meeting was held during March 2-April 3, 1992. Lobbying this fourth meeting and attending the 1992 Global Forum, a nongovernmental event running concurrent with the Summit, were the last opportunities for international lobbying before the Summit. The most effective lobbying was considered to be that which occurred in a national context. National reports were required to include statements about each country's environmental and development conditions and to include the opinions of nongovernmental experts. The third avenue for participation in UNCED is identified as affiliation with the multitude of nongovernmental preparatory events and organizations.
In: Tradition and transition: NGOs respond to AIDS in Africa, edited by Mary Anne Mercer, Sally J. Scott. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Institute for International Programs, 1991 Jun. 59-63.In January 1990 Experiment in International Living founded the AIDS Information Center (AIC) with a consortium of 10 groups: WHO, Experiment in International Living, The AIDS Support Organization, the main blood bank in Kampala, InterAid, USAID, and Red Cross. The AIC incorporates pretesting for HIV and post-test counseling. In post test counseling clients discuss safer sex, watch videos, or talk individually with a doctor about symptoms of the disease. The commercial condom promotion of SOMARC, the social marketing group, was welcome. Case Western Reserve University is tracking people who have been tested in the AIC to ascertain if their sexual behavior is altered radically. The key to sustainability is the local nongovernmental organization (NGO) status and the commitment from the consortium. Current plans call for opening 4 more centers throughout the country within 3 years. Issues in Ministry of Health (MOH) collaboration with an NGO were raised by a district medical officer. The World Vision HIV/AIDS prevention project started in 1989 in the Marondera district. Attempts were made not to restrict the project to AIDS activities alone and to set up a monitoring system in agreement with the host government policy. Both MOH and World Vision staff were trained in health education, and counselors on the MOH staff also underwent training. A World Vision representative responded to these concerns stating that Zimbabwe has a sophisticated system and substantial numbers of trained personnel. Sustainability is influenced by tensions between the government and NGOs, finances and technical capacity. World Vision will collaborate with the MOH to ensure that the expertise of social scientists brought into the medical field in Marondera will remain over the long term. In some countries community-based condom distribution systems are already in places. However, a condom distribution should be awarded to the most qualified parties.
In: Tradition and transition: NGOs respond to AIDS in Africa, edited by Mary Anne Mercer, Sally J. Scott. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Institute for International Programs, 1991 Jun. 15-22.Many people at risk of HIV infection are changing their behavior drastically when they are referred for HIV testing, as a result of more access to information. Featured as a theme for World AIDS Day, women are particularly vulnerable, since they have less power than men to influence their interpersonal relationships. Women with HIV/AIDS often are asked to make the unrealistic decision to avoid childbearing, but the status of a women in Africa depends on her reproductive ability. The traditional role of women as caregivers both as professional health workers, or in home care, is critical in HIV/AIDS disease. Preservation of the health of the 5-14 age group, who is uninfected, is a priority. Adolescents must be specially targeted in preventive counseling on the consequences of early sexual activity such as teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Sex education in the schools should start at a much earlier age. Studies in Zimbabwe show that women are being infected 5-10 years earlier than men, and there are even cases in 15, 16, and 17 year old women. Most HIV-infected people are afraid of being ostracized or fired from jobs. Women have lost their jobs when their HIV status became known, although the Minister of Health has issued a directive that HIV infection is not a valid reason for discharging an employee. Women are especially vulnerable because they may be rejected by their families and their partners, while having small children who also may be infected. Empowerment of women is needed so that destructive relationships do not continue only because of economic dependence. Ministries of Health, Labor, and Social Welfare need to develop strategies with NGOs to cope with demand to find resources for increasing numbers of desperate people. Community-based care is ideal, and positive trends are emerging to combat the destructive effects of AIDS that divide families leaving the most vulnerable uncared for.
IAP-IPA-WHO-UNICEF Workshop on Strategies and Approaches for Women's Health, Child Health and Family Planning for the Decade of Nineties, 22nd-23rd January 1991, Hyderabad.
INDIAN PEDIATRICS. 1991 Dec; 28(12):1481-2.In 1991, health professionals attended a workshop to develop strategies and approaches for women's health, child health, and family planning for the 1990s in Hyderabad, India. The Ministry of Health (MOH) of India should improve and strengthen existing health facilities, manpower, materials, and supplies. It should not continue vertical programs dedicated to 1 disease or a few problems. Instead it should integrate programs. The government must stop allocating more funds to family planning services than to MCH services. It should equally appropriate funds to family planning, family welfare, and MCH. The MOH should implement task force recommendations on minimum prenatal care (1982) and maternal mortality (1987) to strengthen prenatal care, delivery services, and newborn care. Health workers must consider newborns as individuals and allot them their own bed in the hospital. All district and city hospitals should have an intermediate or Level II care nursery to improve neonatal survival. In addition, the country has the means to improve child health services. The most effective means to improve health services and community utilization is training all health workers, revision of basic curricula, and strengthen existing facilities. Family planning professionals should use couple protection time rather than couple protection rate. The should also target certain contraceptives to specific age groups. Mass media can disseminate information to bring about behavioral and social change such as increasing marriage age. Secondary school teachers should teach sex education. Health professionals must look at the total female instead of child, adolescent, pregnant woman, and reproductive health. Integrated Child Development Services should support MCH programs. Operations research should be used to evaluate the many parts of MCH programs. The government needs to promote community participation in MCH services.
Report. Seminar on Maternal and Child Health / Family Planning Programme Management, convened by the Regional Office for the Western Pacific of the World Health Organization, Nadi, Fiji, 29 April - 10 May 1991.
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1991 Jul. , 67 p. (Report Series No. RS/91/GE/08(FIJ); (WP)MCH/ICP/MCH/001-E)12 national coordinators of UNFPA funded maternal and child health/family planning projects attended the Seminar on Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Programme Management in Nadi, Fiji between April 19-May 10, 1991. The Regional Office for the Western Pacific of Who organized the seminar. Participants came from Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Republic or Marshall Islands, Republic of Palua, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Seminar leaders concentrated on having participants use the UNFPA project formulation guidelines and evaluation procedures. Participants learned about project formulation, target setting, project management (personnel, time, and logistics), management information systems (MIS), and project strategies especially community participation. At the end of the seminar, they applied their new knowledge and skills in developing workable country plans of action. Resource personnel helped each participant with preparing the country plans. Overall the participants considered the seminar to have been a success. Yet, even though UNFPA laid out the guidelines logically, participants found them to be complex and difficult to understand. They also expressed the need for training after the seminar to make it more effective. Participants acknowledged the importance of MIS and that MIS must be developed further in participating countries. Further they mentioned the value of community based data in effectively managing projects. A sample country plan of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Kingdom of Tonga follows the report.