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  1. 1

    The political economy of reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report of the Workshops on the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform. Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, November 20-22,1986. World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 3-5,1986.

    Gulhati R

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 49 p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 8)

    Toward the end of 1986, EDI organized two workshops on The Political Economy of Reform in Africa. Given the Bank's traditional stance, which emphasizes technical and economic factors in development, EDI's interest in this topic may surprise some readers. However, the Bank's recent experience of policy-based lending has underscored the need to broaden our understanding of political and public administration issues. Furthermore, recent EDI senior policy seminars in Africa have reinforced the view that political economy issues are amongst the main obstacles to the initiation and implementation of policy reform. For these reasons, EDI decided to design a series of three Senior Policy Seminars on Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 1986-87. To prepare for these seminars with ministers and senior civil servants from all over sub-Saharan Africa, we decided to convene consultations with scholars in the field of political economy. These discussions would equip us to organize a forum for the exploration of policy processes, including political economy issues, with African practitioners. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Integrating women's component into population programmes. Report of a training workshop for UNFPA field staff in the Africa and Middle East Regions, Mombasa, Kenya, 18-21 January 1988.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. iv, 12 [48] p.

    The Mombasa Training Workshop held in 1988 was the first in a series organized to address the problems of women's role in development. The aim was to impart skills and understanding to the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) field staff and to learn ways of integrating women's concerns into population programs. 36 UNFPA field staff from 24 countries participated. The Workshop featured background papers presented by Deryck Onyango-Omuodo and Hilda Mary Tadria who outlined the concerns of integrating women into development and population programs. Christine Oppong spoke about African women's fertility and the link to unequal status and roles. Participants presented short background statements on the status of women and population programs in their respective countries; priorities for support were identified. 5 projects were examined: the 1988 Population Census of Tanzania, demographic training at the University of Zambia, assistance to the Ghana Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (FP) Program, support for FP based on primary health care in Nigeria, and Population, Human Resources, and Development Planning in Gambia. The workshop was evaluated by participants and recommendations, were made for follow-up. The themes of significance gleaned from the background papers and country reports were 1) the need for more knowledge on women and constraint to women's access to education, employment, and health care. 2) There was also a need for policymakers and planners to be more aware and sensitive to women's issues. 3) Better use of resources in integrating women's concerns into project development was also needed. Ways of improving existing projects were identified, i.e., none of the 5 projects mentioned women as a target group and provision of matrices and checklists was insufficient. Changes in attitudes and perceptions and constant vigilance of women's issues are needed. Project design improvements included local participation, a variety of types of expertise, strengthening women's groups, giving time to an appropriate design, and learning from the past. Suggested directions for UNFPA were given.
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  3. 3

    From Alma-Ata to the year 2000: reflections at the midpoint.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1988. vi, 158 p.

    This report in 1988 summarizes the progress made toward attainment of the goals set forth at the International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma-Ata, USSR, in 1978. Policies changed immediately within the World Health Organization (WHO) and priorities slowly shifted within member nations. This report summarizes relevant papers, ideas, comments, and questions pertaining to the 1988 conference in Riga that followed-up the problems and prospects of Alma Ata. This volume is organized into four units: background to Alma Ata and the address of the Director General of WHO in 1978, background to Riga and its progress and failures, the Forty-First World Health Assembly addresses and a technical discussion on leadership development, and future agendas and recommendations. The resolutions passed in 1988 by the World Health Assembly on Health for All are included in the annexes. Over the ten year period since Alma Ata, there was evidence of the guidance provided to the health and development community worldwide by the ethical principles, political imperatives, and technical directions established at Alma Ata. The concept of Health for All was incorporated in part or fully by a variety of individuals ranging from policy makers to school children. The concept was influential in developed and developing countries and was accepted by poorer countries in formulating their national and regional strategies. The survival of Health For All (HFA) is attributed to the ethical, political, social, and technical elements of the effort. The purpose of HFA is to provide a conceptual structure for thinking about multiple and related problems and guiding decisions about priorities and actions. One outcome has been the development of monitoring and reporting procedures for gauging progress. Targets, but not principles, are expected to shift over time. The 1988 assessment of statistical indicators is that progress has been too slow and may be stagnating. Progress was made in health system development and use of new technologies, but problems persisted that were resistant to the solutions during 1978-88: high maternal and under five mortality rates and population growth and ecosystem instability. These problems affect the poor and most vulnerable people, are difficult to solve, and require new responses from WHO.
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