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  1. 1

    UNAIDS sponsored regional workshops to discuss ethical issues in preventive HIV vaccine trials.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Sep. 48 p. (UNAIDS Report; UNAIDS/00.036 E)

    In September 1997, UNAIDS convened a meeting of experts in ethics, vaccine research, and social sciences in Geneva to discuss the ethical issues arising from the anticipated conduct of HIV vaccine trials in developing countries. It was apparent that this area of research had begun to highlight ethical dilemmas requiring special attention, and that a better understanding of these issues might facilitate the progress of HIV vaccine trials. This meeting resulted in the identification of specific areas in which further discussion was deemed necessary, and the participants recognized the importance of these discussions occurring at the regional level. In addition, three background documents were written to further expand on the ethical theory underlying the issues that were identified. The three regional workshops were organized to facilitate discussion on the ethical issues surrounding preventive HIV vaccine research. The outcome of these discussions is reported here, and was used to formulate a draft guidance document on ethics in HIV vaccine research. This draft document was discussed further at a meeting in Geneva on 24-26 June 1998, which included, among others, representatives of each of the regional workshops. In addition, this meeting addressed possible revisions and additions to current international guidelines on biomedical research, and recommendations for future involvement of UNAIDS in HIV vaccine research. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Participation at the Scientific Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) meeting. WHO/HQ, June 9-11, 1998, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Steinglass R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. [50] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This report pertains to a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland, during June 9-11, 1998. The meeting focused on technical issues relevant to the Global Program on Vaccines and the Children's Vaccine Initiative. The appendices include the annotated agenda, recommendations from the SAGE meeting, and a list of meeting participants and documents and documents relevant to the agenda. The recommendations which may be of interest to BASICS pertain to the following: impact of health reforms on national immunization days; integration of vitamin A into immunization programs; polio eradication, measles control, and control of neonatal tetanus; improving the quality of immunization data, injection safety, and vaccine procurement; financing for existing and new vaccines, and demand forecasting. The consultant distributed materials from the meeting to relevant BASICS staff and consultants. The agenda included presentations on: implementation of 1997 SAGE recommendations, future directions for the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), the quality of EPI data, critical issues for polio eradication by 2000, current WHO studies of quality control of oral polio vaccine, polio diagnosis/research needs, measles epidemiological modeling and optimal strategies, increased incidence of pertussis, use of typhoid vaccines, safety standards for mono-dose injection devices, a strategy for safe injections, adverse effects of immunization, a stronger role for WHO in vaccine procurement, forecasting demand for vaccine manufacturing, new vaccines, and public-private sector collaboration.
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  3. 3

    How to estimate incremental resource requirements and costs of alternative TT immunization strategies: a manual for health and program managers. Revised version.

    Brenzel L; Foulon G

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1989 Jun. [4], 22 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    The REACH Project originally prepared this manual for health and program managers for WHO workshops in Africa on the control of neonatal tetanus. The manual provides rapid methods for determining incremental resource requirements and costs of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization programs. Its design allows for flexibility. It categorizes costs into variable costs such as vaccines, syringes, and needles and fixed costs such as training, personnel, supervision, and transportation. The manual provides a worksheet for calculating the variable costs for programs which requires the managers to consider the target population (pregnant women or women of childbearing age) and coverage objective (TT2 or TT5). Further it presents a formula for determining costs of additional personnel (a variable cost): personnel costs=number of workers x proportion of time for TT vaccination for each worker x annual gross earnings of each workers. It also has guidelines for determining fixed costs such as cold chain equipment costs. Transportation costs consists mostly of fuel costs but also includes the costs of vehicles to move vaccines, supplies, and personnel. Training costs include production of training materials, travel, per diem, and proportion of annual salaries of trainers and trainees for training time. The manual also has worksheets for determining supervision and monitoring costs. Further it has a worksheet to calculate additional media costs for TT immunization including radio. TV, and posters. Once managers have determined the costs of various components of TT immunization programs, they can sum the costs up and determine the cost effectiveness of TT immunization strategies on another worksheet. The manual concludes with a formula to assist managers determine whether changing from 1 strategy to another would save them more money and be more cost effective.
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