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  1. 1

    Indicators for assessing health facility practices that affect breastfeeding. Report of the Joint WHO / UNICEF Informal Interagency Meeting, 9-10 June 1992, WHO, Geneva.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control; UNICEF. Statistics and Monitoring Section

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1993. [3], 32 p. (WHO/CDR/93.1; UNICEF/SM/93.1)

    In March and June 1992, WHO and UNICEF held a joint informal interagency meeting on breast feeding at WHO headquarters in Geneva. The goal of the meeting was to reach consensus on the definitions of key breast feeding indicators which would allow one to assess whether health care facilities' procedures support, protect, and promote breast feeding practices. Section 2 of the meeting's summary report covers these indicators and their potential users. Identified potential users are maternity services, postnatal outpatient clinics including maternal and child health care services, pediatric inpatient services, and family planning services. Section 3 provides precise definitions of the indicators and the rational for their selection. Representatives from participating activities were asked to propose data collection methodologies to measure these indicators. The participating agencies included UNICEF, the WHO Working Group on Infant Feeding, The Population Council, World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, Wellstart, the Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University, USAID, the Swedish International Development Agency, and WHO. They agreed on health facility-based indicators of breast feeding. Section 4 discusses mainly indicators based on interviews with mothers at the time of infants' discharge or at the time of attending a clinic. It briefly covers those based on information collected from health facility staff or observation at the facility. The interviews with mothers were the basis for all the indicators agreed upon at the meeting, except for maternity services indicator 2 (breast milk substitutes and supplies receipt rate). Section 5 addresses methodological issues to be developed and sampling considerations. The annexes include a list of participants in the March and June meetings, sample data collection instruments (i.e., questionnaires), and breast feeding indicators for health facilities.
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  2. 2

    Verbal autopsies for maternal deaths. World Health Organization workshop, held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 10-13 January 1994, London, U.K.

    Campbell O; Ronsmans C

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Family Health, 1995. [3], 36 p. (WHO/FHE/MSM/95.15)

    The Safe Motherhood Programme of the World Health Organization convened a workshop in 1994 so that investigators from around the world could share their experience in the use of verbal autopsies (postmortem interviews of the relatives and/or neighbors of the deceased) to determine the cause of maternal death and move towards a consensus of what should constitute verbal autopsy methods. Workshop outcomes included the following: 1) a determination that the postmortem interview should consist of verbal autopsy, verbal determination of the nonclinical causes of death, and verbal reporting of background characteristics; 2) agreement that the classification of direct causes of maternal death may be single, dual, or a combination of single and multiple; 3) development of a comprehensive list of the signs and symptoms of obstetric/medical causes of maternal death (direct and indirect); 4) agreement that verbal autopsies should be conducted for all deaths of women of reproductive age to determine early pregnancy deaths; 5) determination that the future development of flowcharts would be valuable for identifying and coding causes of maternal death; 6) identification of information to be included in all questionnaires; and 7) consideration of specific aspects of data collection (requirements for interviewers, respondents, getting information from health providers, the recall period, and validation of specific aspects). Appended to this report are 1) a list of participants, 2) flowcharts for causes of maternal death, 3) suggestions for questions to be asked, 4) suggestions for a questionnaire, and 5) a summary of selected studies that used lay reporting to identify causes of death.
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