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Promoting the participation of indigenous women in World Bank-funded social sector projects: an evaluation study in Mexico. [Promoción de la participación de las mujeres indígenas en los proyectos del sector social fundados por el Banco Mundial: estudio de evaluación en México]
Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], Promoting Women in Development [PROWID], 1999. 4 p. (Report-in-Brief; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. FAO-A-00-95-00030-00)Mexico has long been one of the World Bank’s primary clients and is currently its largest cumulative borrower, with loan commitments of up to $5.5 billion approved for 1997-99 (World Bank 1996). During the past 15 years, the focus of the Bank’s lending program in Mexico has shifted away from structural adjustment towards poverty reduction, a strategy that emphasizes investment in health and education. As elsewhere around the world, gender differences in these sectors in Mexico are prevalent with regard to access to and control over resources and decision-making. Given the multiple roles that women play in production, reproduction, child rearing, and household maintenance, social sector projects that target women generate economic and social benefits both for individuals and countries as a whole. Consequently, the Bank has increasingly funded projects that aim to strengthen the participation and position of women in development. The Bank’s publications, official policies, and project guidelines also acknowledge the importance and benefits of promoting women’s roles and empowerment (Women’s Eyes on the World Bank, U.S. 1997; World Bank 1994, 1995, 1997). However, little has been done to evaluate what resources and opportunities are needed to improve the actual standing and participation of women in both Bank-funded programs and society as a whole. While the Bank launched a Gender Action Plan for Central America and Mexico in 1996, this Plan does not clearly define gender impact and assumes that strategies aimed at communities will affect men and women in similar ways. Further, the Bank’s effectiveness in applying its own guidelines on gender and community participation to policy, project design, and implementation on the ground has not been systematically assessed. (excerpt)
Short-term training in the demographic aspects of population ageing and its implications for socio-economic development, policies and plans. Report of the Expert Group Meeting held in Malta, 6-9 December 1993.
Valletta, Malta, United Nations, International Institute on Ageing, 1994. 127 p.The International Institute on Aging (INIA), an autonomous body within the UN, was established by the UN Secretary General in 1988 in order to fulfill the training needs on aging within developing countries. INIA developed training courses on Social Gerontology, Geriatrics, Income Security, and Physical Therapy and has trained 485 persons from 76 countries. This INIA expert group meeting report presents background papers and presentations from a workshop held on December 6-9, 1993, and recommendations. Nine papers by separate authors are reported in this article. The topics include 1) demographic aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, 2) demographic trends in aging and economic conditions in Poland, 3) consideration of aging issues among a young population in Mexico, 4) the demographic and socioeconomic implications of aging in China, 5) the demographic implications of aging among Mediterranean countries, 6) the social implications of aging in developing countries, 7) the demography of aging and economic implications, 8) selected aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, and 9) essentials of short-term training in the demography of aging. Training courses should be directed to anyone involved in planning, formulating, and implementing national/regional policy and in research design on population aging. Courses should also apply to those who directly influence socioeconomic decision making processes related to aging issues. Applicants for training should have a statistical or demographic background, working knowledge of computers, work in or planned work in the field of aging, and proficiency in the language in which the course is taught. It is recommended that courses offer a variety of educational techniques and off-site visits and that the training group not exceed 20 persons. Participants should represent no more than two geographic regions, and the materials used in the course should be compiled and given to INIA upon course completion.
Report of Workshop on Personality Enhancement and Self Awareness for Grass-Root Level Workers (16th, 17th and 18th July, 1992).
[Unpublished] 1992. , 16 p.The Safe Motherhood Immunization and Timely Action (SMITA) Society is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) working in effective communication for sustained behavioral and attitudinal change for social welfare and development programs. The project Communication Support to Programs for Urban Poor supported by UNICEF/UBS entailed collaborating with other NGOs for developing communication strategies applicable to urban slums in support of integrated community development programs. Projects SMITA has helped strengthen the communication skills of grass root level workers (GRLWs) of the 19 NGOs whose program for integrated community development was supported by UNICEF/UBS. During the interaction with GRLWs the need to enhance their confidence and motivation was perceived in order to make them effective communicators. Basti workers also needed to understand themselves and other people, their personality, and the value system. Project SMITA as well as the NGO training center deemed it important to organize a workshop on personality enhancement and self awareness. GRLWs of 18 NGOs working in urban slum areas of Delhi for integrated community development under assistance from UNICEF/UBS participated in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop, held on 3 days in July 1992, were: a) to motivate and enhance the general confidence levels of the Basti workers; b) to help workers become aware of their attitudes towards themselves and towards others, c) to provide the workers with skills necessary for management of conflicts. The areas of focus were: a) understanding others and interpersonal relations; b) achievement motivation; c) self awareness for personal growth; d) feeling and behavior; e) team building; f) resolving conflicts and problem-solving skills; and g) self-disclosure and trust building. Feedback from the participants indicated that the workshop was successful, and regular sessions were suggested by some participants.
UNFPA COUNTRY SUPPORT TEAM FOR EAST AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA NEWSLETTER. 1996 Aug; 4(2):11-2.This news brief identifies workshops and meetings related to the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action in Thailand and some changes in Thai policy and program direction. The 8th National Economic and Social Development Plan for 1997-2001 uses a people-centered human development approach. The Plan emphasizes extending compulsory primary education to 9 years for all children initially and eventually to 12 years. The second major change is to accelerate the extension of primary health care in rural areas and to carry out a Five-Year National AIDS Prevention and Control plan. The new Plan aims to promote family planning in target groups with high fertility, to improve the quality of family planning methods and services, to promote small family size among target groups, to improve quality of life and community self-sufficiency, to promote family planning as a means of ensuring healthy children and improved quality of life, and to promote the development of agricultural industry in rural areas. The government priority will be to develop rural areas, the skills of rural residents, and small and medium sized cities, in order to slow the flow of migration from rural to large urban areas. Local administration will be upgraded and directed to solving environmental problems. The Plan aims to expand social services and to train rural people to meet the needs of the labor market. Several workshops and seminars were conducted during 1995 and 1996 that related to reproductive health and reproductive rights. In 1994, and shortly following the ICPD, Thailand government officials, members of nongovernmental groups, UN representatives, and media staff participated in seminars on the implementation of the ICPD Plan of Action in Thailand and seminars on Thailand's population and development program.
TURKISH JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS. 1994 Apr-Jun; 36(2):93-6.The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to development. 1) Hospitals do not mean health. 2) National wealth does not make health. 3) 75% of child mortality is attributable to a small number of controllable causes of death. 4) Mobilization of all sectors of society is a necessary strategy to combat child death and illness. UNICEF and the World Health Organization are prepared to provide support, if countries are willing to follow the example of Turkey in mobilizing against these deaths.
CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1994 Apr-Jun; 6(2):1, 9.UNICEF, in its capacity as supporter of the Global Conference on Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing Countries, is particularly concerned about islands with acute poverty and underdevelopment and about islands with middle and high incomes. It is recommended that all the states ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child; establish national programs of action for child survival and welfare; support primary environmental care; and support (20% of total budget) nutrition, primary health care, basic education, safe water, and family planning. Most states contribute only about 10% of their national budgets to child welfare programs. 20% of international development assistance should also be devoted to nutrition, primary health care, basic education, safe water, and family planning. The global social agenda must be directed to women and children. Island characteristics include a preponderance of subsistence agriculture with fishing and cash cropping. Tourism provides for foreign exchange. There is heavy dependence on external aid and remittances. Urbanization is increasing, but the islands are isolated by distance and communication. Sanitation and inadequate water supplies pose serious problems. Diarrhea and malaria are major diseases of childhood. Malnutrition and undernutrition are increasing. The example of the Maldives has shown that political will can lead to gains in child survival and human development. Barbados is a good example of gains in social development, which could be deleteriously affected by economic and trade policies, environmental problems, or natural disasters. Small island countries are vulnerable because of insufficient reserves and the short-term nature of advances. Protective strategies may be adoption of sustainable models for health care, quality and relevant education, and provision of technical and social skills for young people. The issue is no longer just meeting basic needs but improving the quality of life and reducing in poverty.