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Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1013-1015.Although substantial progress has been made in addressing the burden of communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries, the burden of diseases that are surgically treatable is increasing and has been neglected. Both morbidity and mortality from surgically preventable (eg, elective hernia repair) or treatable (eg, strangulated hernia) disorders can be greatly decreased through simple surgical interventions. Why should a child die from appendicitis, or a mother and child succumb to obstructed labour, when simple surgical procedures can save their lives? Why should patients suffer permanent disability because of congenital abnormalities, fractures, burns, or the sequelae of acute infections such as septic arthritis or osteomyelitis? Many complications of HIV infection (eg, abscesses, fistulas, Kaposi sarcoma) are also amenable to simple surgical interventions. Available epidemiological information and experiential evidence lend support to the conclusion that basic surgical and anaesthetic services should be integrated into primary health-care packages. (excerpt)
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Jun; 97(3):227-228.The Alliance for Women's Health is a FIGO-based interagency consortium, comprising the World Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund, World Bank, UNICEF, International Planned Parenthood Federation, International Confederation of Midwives and International Pediatric Association. In conjunction with the XVIII World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Kuala Lumpur in November 2006, the Alliance held a precongress workshop examining access in five priority emerging issues: human papillomavirus vaccine/cervical cancer screening, emergency contraception, adolescent reproductive health, emergency obstetric care and sexually transmitted infections. Reports from the five working groups, published in this and subsequent issues of the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, provide current evidence-based recommendations on improving access to sexual and reproductive health services supported by applicable rights. The World Bank presented a framework for the discussion during theopening plenary session. The importance of sexual and reproductive health services is well recognized and was articulated in the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development which was held in Cairo in 1994. However, the inclusion of universal access to reproductive health as a target for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) only occurred in October 2006 after prolonged negotiations reflecting the reluctance, in circles of influence, to provide support where there are certain sociopolitical sensitivities. (excerpt)
The Maputo report. WHO support to countries for scaling up essential interventions towards universal coverage in Africa.
Brazzaville, Congo, WHO, 2006. 33 p. (WHO/CCO/06.02)The African region accounts for 10% of the world's population yet is confronted with 20% of the global burden of disease. African nations are faced with high levels of poverty, with 39% of the population below the poverty line; and slow economic growth, with annual per capita expenditure on health in most countries limited to between US$ 10 and US$ 29. Other well-documented challenges to the region include limited financial and human resources, uncoordinated and inconsistent policy action on the determinants of health, limited use of knowledge and evidence to inform policies, and frequent occurrences of natural and man-made disasters. Although much has happened, WHO requires radical new approaches for how it does business in the region. The 21st century presents extensive opportunities for improving health in the region -- building on the momentum of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), resolutions of the WHO World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Regional Committee, coordinated work of the African Union, and the strategic framework of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) -- offering opportunities for the mobilization of political, technical and other resources for the region. In addition to health investments from national, bilateral and multilateral sources, commitments are being crystallized in distinct initiatives such as the Millennium Challenge Account, the Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Report on the Commission for Africa, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI). These initiatives come at a time when international agreements such as the Paris Declaration reaffirm the importance of countries taking the lead in their own health agendas in regards to international development assistance. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Sep. 48 p. (UNAIDS Report; UNAIDS/00.036 E)In September 1997, UNAIDS convened a meeting of experts in ethics, vaccine research, and social sciences in Geneva to discuss the ethical issues arising from the anticipated conduct of HIV vaccine trials in developing countries. It was apparent that this area of research had begun to highlight ethical dilemmas requiring special attention, and that a better understanding of these issues might facilitate the progress of HIV vaccine trials. This meeting resulted in the identification of specific areas in which further discussion was deemed necessary, and the participants recognized the importance of these discussions occurring at the regional level. In addition, three background documents were written to further expand on the ethical theory underlying the issues that were identified. The three regional workshops were organized to facilitate discussion on the ethical issues surrounding preventive HIV vaccine research. The outcome of these discussions is reported here, and was used to formulate a draft guidance document on ethics in HIV vaccine research. This draft document was discussed further at a meeting in Geneva on 24-26 June 1998, which included, among others, representatives of each of the regional workshops. In addition, this meeting addressed possible revisions and additions to current international guidelines on biomedical research, and recommendations for future involvement of UNAIDS in HIV vaccine research. (excerpt)
Reaching communities for child health and nutrition: a proposed implementation framework for HH/C IMCI.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 2001.  p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-99-00007-00; USAID Contract No. FAO-A-00-98-00030-00)The Household and Community component of IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) was officially launched as an essential component of the IMCI strategy at the First IMCI Global Review and Coordination Meeting in September 1997. Participants recognized that improving the quality of care at health facilities would not by itself be effective in realizing significant reductions in childhood mortality and morbidity because numerous caretakers do not seek care at facilities. Since that first meeting, several efforts were undertaken to strengthen interagency collaboration for promoting and implementing community approaches to child health and nutrition. (excerpt)