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  1. 1

    Promotion of women's participation in water resources development. Report of the seminar, Bamako, Mali 14-18 November 1988.

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. iv, 63 p. (Natural Resources Water Series No. 25; ST/TCD/16)

    This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of the Mali and UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development's 1988 Seminar on Promotion of Women's Participation in Water Resources Development. The seminar was the first one on women and water supplies held in French-speaking Africa. The seminar reviewed new approaches, women's participation in the operation and maintenance of water supply and sanitation facilities, self-financing of water projects, and measures to improve water quality. Over 80 participants from 20 French-speaking African countries and other developing regions, donor countries, and nongovernmental and international organizations participated. Women living in Sahelian countries were of particular concern because of water shortages and their impact on women. Chapters focus on the opening and closing of the meetings, summaries of general problems, problem analysis and solutions, recommendations and summaries of presentations. The appendices include a list of participants and observers and UN publications on water resources. The participation of communities and women must be pursued despite economic crises. Obstacles include increased population, drought, persistent water control problems in zones of the Sudan-Sahel, lack of water management in humid areas, and the need to increase the supply of water for household production and use. Water quality and its monitoring are needed. Technologies must be suitable to the solution of the problem. Approaches should enable the local population to solve its own problems, (e.g., with basic, locally produced technologies).
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  2. 2

    Quality design helps to remove barriers to latrine use.

    Center for Human Services. Quality Assurance Project

    Q.A. REPORTS. 1993 Jun; 1-2.

    The Quality Assurance Project (GAP) has collaborated with CARE-Guatemala to carry out a unique application of quality assurance methods to public health promotion. CARE asked GAP to analyze the problem of inadequate latrine use among those rural communities served the CARE's water and sanitation project. GAP used a quality design techniques known as quality function deployment (QFD), which originated in Japanese industry, and considers client preferences at the product design stage. The method users matrices to compare products and to explore the relationships between a product's technical components and the user's needs and preferences. In September, 1992, GAP led a workshop for CARE and Ministry of Health staff showing the application of a simplified QFD approach by a flow chart. The group listed five priority quality characteristics for the optimal latrine: easy to clean, safe for children, allows for corn cob use, not scary to sit on, and does not smell bad. Then competing products were consideration; the latrine, the open field, and the flush latrine. Measurements were used to score each products: 1) the rate of improvement required; 2) determination of the key features for latrine promotion; and 3) the calculation of absolute and demanded quality weight. During the workshop, a water and sanitation expert presented an overview of various latrine designs from around the world and their respective worth and disadvantages. A spirited discussion made it clear that insufficient health education promoting the use of latrines was not the only factor that contributed to low utilization rates. Areas of high correlation indicated a priority area for redesign. The chart revealed a strong relationship between the toilet seat and children's safety. Guatemalan Ministry officials and USAID are considering future use of QFD in their latrine design efforts. This exercise helped them to explore user attitudes and their implications for technical design.
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