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  1. 1
    075683

    Report of the National Seminar on Environment and Sustainable Development, Aden, 25-27 February 1989.

    Democratic Yemen; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    [Unpublished] 1989. iv, 131 p.

    The 1989 final report on the environment and sustainable development includes a summary of events an a summary of types of participants in attendance. The purpose of the seminar was to provide senior national experts, policy makers, planners, and executives (in conjunction with UN representatives) with a forum for examination of issues and to propose recommendations and solutions. The level of awareness must be raised among officials and the public. Policy instruments and action must be identified in order to contribute to sustainable growth and the alleviation of poverty. The principle components of a national environmental strategy were to be outlined. The National Council for Environmental Protection needed to be reactivated. After the opening statements, the topics included in this presentation were the organization and agenda for 5 working groups, development projects and environmental considerations, environmental legislation and institutions, marine and coastal areas environment and resources, environmental awareness and education and human resources, policies and future trends, the seminar declaration and recommendations, and closing statements. The full text is provided for the opening statements, the closing statements, and the background papers. Lists of additional background papers and the seminar steering committee members are also given. The seminar declaration referred to the interlocking crises of development, environment, and energy. Population growth threatens world survival, particularly in the poorest countries. Expected economic growth will further deplete environmental resources and contribute to pollution. The world is bound together by these concerns. International debt forces poor countries to overexploit resources and destroy their production base. Developing countries are still in economic disarray. Economic reform hasn't worked for poor countries, and the resource gap is widening between countries. The answer is sustainable development, which is based on an equitable and rational exploitation of natural resources. International cooperation and peace must be strengthened dialogue and understanding and support for the UN.
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  2. 2
    075299
    Peer Reviewed

    The roles of international institutions in promoting sustainable development.

    Kunugi T

    AMBIO. 1992 Feb; 21(1):112-5.

    The UN can set standards and provide a framework for collaborative projects, but sustainable development will require the full participation of many sectors of society, both public and private. This review of sustainable development considers the role of UN-sponsored special conferences in the past 20 years, identifies a conceptual tool for assessing options, and suggests a global action plan that radically restructures the UN, based on popular sovereignty. The concern is for the protection of popular rights and welfare that could be ignored by powerful governments and powerful transnational corporations beyond government control; responsibility for the environment, natural resources, technologies, and other global issues cannot be overlooked. The concept is to develop an "international public sector for the management of interdependence" which can correct, as necessary the "international market process and ensure equitable distribution of resources." The Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 marked the beginning of special conferences dealing with sustainable development. The UN General Assembly in 1974 adopted a mandate and programs for increasing the pace of economic and social development. In 1980 and 1990 further UN development strategies were adopted. The most recent strategy incorporated much from the Brundtland Commission Report but did not urge the change in attitudes and orientation of political and economic institutions. The Assembly of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) adopted strategies for conservation and development in 1990. Nongovernmental organizations have united to cooperate in the global effort to achieve sustainable development. However, there are 5.4 billion people and an increase of 2 billion expected in 20 years. Bureaucratic rivalry and the inherent weakness of the UN has lead to splintering of objectives and irrelevant decision making. After concept development, which is a noteworthy effort, there must be negotiation with government delegates and policy planners and decision makers. The priorities are to shift from economic development to social development, to shift from maximum use of inappropriate technologies to resource efficient and saving technologies, and integration of population with national environmental strategies.
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