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  1. 1
    337844

    Health in all policies: training manual.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015. [271] p.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) calls on enhanced global efforts to improve health in some of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable communities by tackling the root causes of disease and health inequalities. In order to address this and to spur up action, raise awareness and facilitate implementation of a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach WHO launched this week a Health in All Policies training manual. This manual is a training resource to increase understanding of the importance of Health in All Policies among health and other professionals. The material will form the basis of 2- and 3-day workshops, which will: build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP; encourage engagement and collaboration across sectors; facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned; promote regional and global collaboration on HiAP; and promote dissemination of skills to develop training courses for trainers.
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  2. 2
    334568

    Making health services adolescent friendly: Developing national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. [56] p.

    This guidebook sets out the public health rationale for making it easier for adolescents to obtain the health services that they need to protect and improve their health and well-being, including sexual and reproductive health services. It defines ‘adolescent-friendly health services’ from the perspective of quality, and provides step-by-step guidance on developing quality standards for health service provision to adolescents. Drawing upon international experience, it is also tailored to national epidemiological, social, cultural and economic realities, and provides guidance on identifying what actions need to be taken to assess whether appropriate standards have been achieved.
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  3. 3
    323040
    Peer Reviewed

    Improved data, methods and tools for the 2007 HIV and AIDS estimates and projections.

    Ghys PD; Walker N; McFarland W; Miller R; Garnett GP

    Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2008; 84(Suppl 1):i1-i4.

    This introductory article refers to the journal supplement that assembles important new data relating to several assumptions used for the new HIV and AIDS estimates. The collection of methodological papers in the supplement, aim to provide easy access to the scientific basis underlying the latest HIV and AIDS estimates for 2007.
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  4. 4
    304802

    Adolescent and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health: Charting Directions for a Second Generation of Programming. A report on a workshop of the UNFPA in collaboration with the Population Council, 1--3 May 2002, New York.

    Arnold E

    New York, New York, Population Council, 2003. [41] p.

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in collaboration with the Population Council, convened a three-day workshop that took place 1--3 May 2002 at the Population Council's headquarters in New York. The workshop provided an opportunity to review research and programs in the area of adolescent reproductive health and development (the "first generation") and to think critically about key lessons learned from this work as we move forward into the "second generation" of work with this important population. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from that workshop. For the purposes of this executive summary, we are gathering key points into two clusters: those that underscore principles of program planning, design, and evaluation, and those that highlight neglected subjects or subgroups on the adolescent agenda. Where possible, reference is made to the sections of the report as well as the background paper where the reader may find more detailed descriptions. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    304388

    Commission on the Status of Women remains a global rallying point.

    One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.

    Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    303740

    UNAIDS sponsored regional workshops to discuss ethical issues in preventive HIV vaccine trials.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Sep. 48 p. (UNAIDS Report; UNAIDS/00.036 E)

    In September 1997, UNAIDS convened a meeting of experts in ethics, vaccine research, and social sciences in Geneva to discuss the ethical issues arising from the anticipated conduct of HIV vaccine trials in developing countries. It was apparent that this area of research had begun to highlight ethical dilemmas requiring special attention, and that a better understanding of these issues might facilitate the progress of HIV vaccine trials. This meeting resulted in the identification of specific areas in which further discussion was deemed necessary, and the participants recognized the importance of these discussions occurring at the regional level. In addition, three background documents were written to further expand on the ethical theory underlying the issues that were identified. The three regional workshops were organized to facilitate discussion on the ethical issues surrounding preventive HIV vaccine research. The outcome of these discussions is reported here, and was used to formulate a draft guidance document on ethics in HIV vaccine research. This draft document was discussed further at a meeting in Geneva on 24-26 June 1998, which included, among others, representatives of each of the regional workshops. In addition, this meeting addressed possible revisions and additions to current international guidelines on biomedical research, and recommendations for future involvement of UNAIDS in HIV vaccine research. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    303306

    A report of a theological workshop focusing on HIV- and AIDS-related stigma, 8th-11th December 2003, Windhoek, Namibia. Supported by UNAIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Feb. 62 p. (UNAIDS/05.01E)

    Stigma is difficult to define. Generally, though, it implies the branding or labelling of a person or a group of persons as being unworthy of inclusion in human community, resulting in discrimination and ostracization. The branding or labelling is usually related to some perceived physical, psychological or moral condition believed to render the individual unworthy of full inclusion in the community. We may stigmatize those we regard as impure, unclean or dangerous, those who are different from ourselves or live in different ways, or those who are simply strangers. In the process we construct damaging stereotypes and perpetuate injustice and discrimination. Stigma often involves a conscious or unconscious exercise of power over the vulnerable and marginalized. The purpose of this document is to identify those aspects of Christian theology that endorse or foster stigmatizing attitudes and behaviour towards people living with HIV and AIDS and those around them, and to suggest what resources exist within Christian theology that might enable churches to develop more positive and loving approaches. It is not a theological statement, but rather a framework for theological thinking, and an opportunity, for church leaders, to pursue a deeper Christian reflection on the current crisis. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    297490

    UNESCO's commitment to youth: the Youth Forum.

    UNESCO. Bureau of Strategic Planning. Section for Youth

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Bureau of Strategic Planning, Section for Youth, 2004. [40] p. (BSP.2004/YTH/001)

    UNESCO's involvement in the field of youth stems from the creation of the organization in 1946. After the Second World War, UNESCO (with only 20 Member States at that time) helped organize international volunteer youth work camps to aid in the reconstruction of Europe. Almost fifty years later in November 1996, 186 Member States at the 29th Session of the UNESCO General Conference reaffirmed and stressed their unanimous commitment to youth as a priority for the whole Organisation. The current policy, i.e. the promotion of 'youth' as a mainstreaming issue of the Organisation in all its activities, is guided by the World Action Programme for Youth to the year 2000 and beyond, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1995. It has also been inspired and informed by a number of recommendations, declarations and plans of actions of diverse regional and international youth meetings and forums held in recent years. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    296465

    Natural resources committee calls for global water plan - UN Committee on Natural Resources second session, Feb 22-Mar 4, 1994 addresses water management and sustenance if mineral resources.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[2] p..

    A worldwide plan to avert an impending global water crisis was called for by the Committee on Natural Resources at its second session (22 February-4 March, New York). The strategy should define specific areas of priority to diminish significantly by the year 2010 the threat to freshwater resources, the 24-member expert body said in asking the UN Commission on Sustainable Development to undertake that task. "Water shortages are becoming a common occurrence in industrialized and developing countries alike", stated a report examined by the Committee. "The world may be reaching a water crisis situation of global proportions." The Committee also asked Governments to establish a dynamic and multisectoral approach to water resources management, including assessing and protecting potential sources of freshwater. As for mineral resources--another major concern--the Committee wanted the Commission to forge a dialogue between the UN system and the international mining industry to develop new approaches to ensure a sustainable supply of mineral resources. Workshops on mineral resource assessment projects were recommended. A report was asked on key advances in state-of-the-art technologies to minimize environmental degradation resulting from mining and related processing. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    181292

    Public-private partnerships for public health.

    Reich MR

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 2002 Apr. ix, 205 p. (Harvard Series on Population and International Health)

    This book presents the results of the workshop. The essays in this volume offer some fresh perspectives on partnerships, probe some troubling questions, and provide empirical evidence of both benefits and challenges of public-private partnerships. The participants in the meeting also achieved some progress in creating a shared vocabulary, or at least shared understanding, on points of contention, suggesting that dialogue among partisans in public health can help move debates about critical issues forward. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    101791

    Indicators for assessing health facility practices that affect breastfeeding. Report of the Joint WHO / UNICEF Informal Interagency Meeting, 9-10 June 1992, WHO, Geneva.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control; UNICEF. Statistics and Monitoring Section

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1993. [3], 32 p. (WHO/CDR/93.1; UNICEF/SM/93.1)

    In March and June 1992, WHO and UNICEF held a joint informal interagency meeting on breast feeding at WHO headquarters in Geneva. The goal of the meeting was to reach consensus on the definitions of key breast feeding indicators which would allow one to assess whether health care facilities' procedures support, protect, and promote breast feeding practices. Section 2 of the meeting's summary report covers these indicators and their potential users. Identified potential users are maternity services, postnatal outpatient clinics including maternal and child health care services, pediatric inpatient services, and family planning services. Section 3 provides precise definitions of the indicators and the rational for their selection. Representatives from participating activities were asked to propose data collection methodologies to measure these indicators. The participating agencies included UNICEF, the WHO Working Group on Infant Feeding, The Population Council, World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, Wellstart, the Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University, USAID, the Swedish International Development Agency, and WHO. They agreed on health facility-based indicators of breast feeding. Section 4 discusses mainly indicators based on interviews with mothers at the time of infants' discharge or at the time of attending a clinic. It briefly covers those based on information collected from health facility staff or observation at the facility. The interviews with mothers were the basis for all the indicators agreed upon at the meeting, except for maternity services indicator 2 (breast milk substitutes and supplies receipt rate). Section 5 addresses methodological issues to be developed and sampling considerations. The annexes include a list of participants in the March and June meetings, sample data collection instruments (i.e., questionnaires), and breast feeding indicators for health facilities.
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  12. 12
    075683

    Report of the National Seminar on Environment and Sustainable Development, Aden, 25-27 February 1989.

    Democratic Yemen; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    [Unpublished] 1989. iv, 131 p.

    The 1989 final report on the environment and sustainable development includes a summary of events an a summary of types of participants in attendance. The purpose of the seminar was to provide senior national experts, policy makers, planners, and executives (in conjunction with UN representatives) with a forum for examination of issues and to propose recommendations and solutions. The level of awareness must be raised among officials and the public. Policy instruments and action must be identified in order to contribute to sustainable growth and the alleviation of poverty. The principle components of a national environmental strategy were to be outlined. The National Council for Environmental Protection needed to be reactivated. After the opening statements, the topics included in this presentation were the organization and agenda for 5 working groups, development projects and environmental considerations, environmental legislation and institutions, marine and coastal areas environment and resources, environmental awareness and education and human resources, policies and future trends, the seminar declaration and recommendations, and closing statements. The full text is provided for the opening statements, the closing statements, and the background papers. Lists of additional background papers and the seminar steering committee members are also given. The seminar declaration referred to the interlocking crises of development, environment, and energy. Population growth threatens world survival, particularly in the poorest countries. Expected economic growth will further deplete environmental resources and contribute to pollution. The world is bound together by these concerns. International debt forces poor countries to overexploit resources and destroy their production base. Developing countries are still in economic disarray. Economic reform hasn't worked for poor countries, and the resource gap is widening between countries. The answer is sustainable development, which is based on an equitable and rational exploitation of natural resources. International cooperation and peace must be strengthened dialogue and understanding and support for the UN.
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  13. 13
    136422

    Sanitation in emergency situations. Proceedings of an international workshop, held in Oxford, December 1995.

    Adams J

    Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1996. 51 p. (Oxfam Working Paper)

    This report presents summaries of plenaries, workshop papers, working group discussions, and a complete list of recommendations from the December 1995 International Inter-Agency Workshop on Sanitation in Emergency Situations. The 45 participants included delegates from nongovernmental organizations, UN organizations, the Red Cross, and independent sanitation workers. The aim was to discuss organizational and technical problems and to agree on operating principles, program implementation, and recommendations. The workshop papers focused on: principles for better sanitation, excreta disposal kits, first-phase excreta disposal, latrine construction, excreta disposal on difficult sites, emergency solid waste management/disposal, vector control, personal hygiene and water collection-storage, drainage and washing-bathing facilities, sanitation in enclosed centers, environmental impact, community participation, staff training, and evaluations. The discussions addressed topics on the principles for sanitation promotion in emergencies, first-phase excreta disposal, second phase and longer excreta disposal, off-site/on-site excreta disposal, flow charts for emergency excreta disposal for many specific conditions, refuse disposal, hygiene education, personal hygiene kits, vector control, hygiene facilities, environmental impact, sanitation in enclosed centers, and staff training. Priority should be given to sanitation techniques and guidelines for improving practices; initial assessments of emergency situations; and sanitation. Improvements are needed in information exchanges, community participation, and staff training. Five other recommendations are discussed.
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  14. 14
    133456

    Participation in World Health Organization technical briefings, Geneva, Switzerland, October 13-24, 1997.

    Moore J; Boniface M; Nersesian P; Pacque M; Ross J; Alimbekova B; Shimp L

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. [15] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This trip report pertains to a consultant visit to the World Health Organization's Technical Briefings on Child Health and Development and Immunization in Geneva, Switzerland, during October 13-24, 1997. Three BASICS technical officers, 2 operations officers, a regional child survival advisor, and a regional immunization coordinator attended the technical briefings. The aim was to allow BASICS staff to obtain an up-to-date overview of the 2 divisions' programs, approaches, and methods that are used in planning and management in developing countries. The briefings provided an opportunity for BASICS staff to meet WHO staff, discuss activities of mutual interest, and obtain technical materials. The workshop included lectures by WHO staff and some problem-solving exercises in small groups. Discussions occurred during presentations and in separate meetings. Other participants included members of government agencies, universities, multilateral organizations, and nongovernmental organizations worldwide. Appendices provide a full list of conference participants by name and organization or agency also provide the schedule of activities.
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  15. 15
    133499

    Inter-Agency Working Group on Participation meetings hosted by UNDP, September 17-18, 1996, New York City, NY.

    Bhattacharyya K

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1996. [8] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-00-93-00031-00)

    This report pertains to BASICS participation at a meeting of the Interagency Learning Group on Participation (IGP) hosted by the UN Development Program in New York City, on September 17-18, 1996. Participants included UNICEF, the World Bank, Overseas Development Assistance, Asian Development Bank, USAID, and other international organizations. This was the first time that BASICS was included in the meetings to share their community participatory experiences and to explore opportunities for collaboration. The meeting was the third of its kind. IGP is a voluntary group without a budget who represent multilateral, bilateral, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The IGP is concerned with institutional change and creating awareness of the value of participatory approaches; training and country-level capacity building; information and dissemination; and monitoring and evaluation. The UNDP administrator emphasized the need to focus on more information disclosure for donors and NGOs, the context of increasing decentralization, legal frameworks for the empowerment of women, and the importance of democratization. Most of the presentations focused on the internal institutional constraints to promoting and implementing participation in the field. The logical framework approach does not lend itself to participatory development. UNICEF ran workshops in 3 countries on how to use a more participatory manner in country programs, but after 6 months trainees still had difficulty with applications. Internal policies and procedures, lack of tools for monitoring, a need to change staff attitudes, specific country context, and institutional capacity to identify and work with the right partners were all problems. An NGO in India, cautioned against too much participation. Smaller plenary discussions focused on dealing with conflict, outcomes, redistribution of power, the public good, and village logbooks.
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  16. 16
    121729

    Report of the Technical consultation on Female Genital Mutilation, 27-29 March 1996, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1996. 36 p.

    This report presents a summary of the discourse among 58 participants from 25 countries, international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), UN agencies, and African organizations, who attended the Technical Consultation on Female Genital Mutilation during March 1996 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The meeting was sponsored and organized by the UNFPA. About 85-115 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and at least 2 million are at risk. Reproductive and sexual health are affected over the entire life course by FGM. Despite the seriousness of the issue, there are major gaps in knowledge about the extent of the problem and the nature of successful interventions. Expressed concern has not reached the level of legal change or programs for promoting the abandonment of the practice. Dr. Leila Mehra reviewed the main features of FGM, UN policies, and the implications for operations research. Dr. Nahid Toubia gave an assessment of approaches to FGM from a reproductive health, human rights, and historical perspective. The World Health Organization Working Group emphasized the importance of including all physical, psychological, and human rights aspects of FGM in the definition. Dr. Mehra indicated that circumcisers, government policymakers, and NGOs should be targeted. Country-specific presentations focused on Ghana, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Senegal, and Ethiopia. Participants generally agreed that circumcisers need alternative sources of income and that resistance is widespread. Parents need to be educated. Communities need sex education. Men's and women's groups need to be mobilized to stop FGM. Ms. Ana Angarita proposed a model of the determinants of FGM and potential areas for intervention and summarized the initiatives taken and constraints. Dr. Hamid Rushwan proposed a framework for integrating FGM eradication into three UNFPA program areas.
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  17. 17
    097386

    Contributions of the IUSSP to the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Mertens W

    Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], 1994. 20 p. (Policy and Research Papers No. 1)

    This policy and research paper addresses the contributions of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in the preparatory meeting, in its international conferences, and in its own activities. Most IUSSP members are also involved with ICPD planning as staff or consultants for the UN, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. Many IUSSP are involved in the Expert Group meetings preparatory to ICPD. IUSSP members are involved daily in development planning or social welfare policies in a research or academic teaching capacity. Every 4 years the IUSSP has an international conference to review the state of knowledge worldwide and to indicate where the gaps in knowledge are. IUSSP also holds regional and thematic conferences. The Scientific Committees and Working Groups share similar interests with the ICPD working groups on fertility, adult mortality, historical demography, population and health and family planning, gender and population, south-north migration, anthropological demography, population and the environment, economic demography, computer software, and AIDS. Special policy monographs are being prepared for the ICPD meetings. Thirty-two recommendations were made at the 1993 IUSSP Conference in Montreal and pertained to health, education, economic opportunities, the role of adolescents, and the role of men. The view was held that women's advances in health, education, employment, sexuality, and family planning were mutually reinforcing and should be focused on as a whole. The promotion of women's empowerment was considered important in both private and public spheres. Recognition was given to the importance of gender relations in the household and compatibility with other interventions. Family responsibilities should include men. Regional population growth rates are different and will require adequate attention. 162 recommendations were made regarding population policies.
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  18. 18
    099142
    Peer Reviewed

    Global child health: challenges and goals in the 1990s.

    Reid RS

    TURKISH JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS. 1994 Apr-Jun; 36(2):93-6.

    The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to development. 1) Hospitals do not mean health. 2) National wealth does not make health. 3) 75% of child mortality is attributable to a small number of controllable causes of death. 4) Mobilization of all sectors of society is a necessary strategy to combat child death and illness. UNICEF and the World Health Organization are prepared to provide support, if countries are willing to follow the example of Turkey in mobilizing against these deaths.
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  19. 19
    097573
    Peer Reviewed

    Expert Committee on Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning in the 1990s and Beyond: recent trends and advances, World Health Organization, Geneva 7-13, December 1993.

    Thompson A

    MIDWIFERY. 1994 Mar; 10(1):49-50.

    This article provides a description of the World Health Organizations Expert Committee on Maternal and Child Health meeting held in 1993. The last meeting was held before the Alma Ata Declaration on Health For All 18 years ago. The recent meeting aimed to clarify the health and development conditions of women and children worldwide, policies impacting on maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP), trends and future program directions, shortcomings in MCH/FP, and strategies for improving MCH/FP through monitoring and evaluation. The committee participants included 10 persons who represented fields in pediatrics, public health, and obstetrics and other representatives of UN agencies. The International Confederation of Midwives and International Council of Nurses was represented. The objective of the eight-day meeting was to produce a report and recommendations. Recommendations were made to broaden the classic MCH/FP model in order to provide more comprehensive services, which are client-determined rather than provider-assigned, and to give a variety of services at health care centers. The "one stop, supermarket" approach is desired. This approach requires an appropriate design, equipment, and staffing of health care centers and a multidisciplinary and multisectoral direction. Attention must be given to adolescent needs, to health promotion and protection of the girl child, and to policy development that includes an integrated approach. The Expert Committee recommended that women's health issues be combined with family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention, pregnancy, childbirth, and perinatal health. The role of the midwife was identified as instrumental in first referral services and as an effective link to the community. The midwife is viewed as providing the role of educator and supervisor of traditional birth attendants and other primary health care workers and volunteers associated with MCH/FP services. Legislation may need to be changed to allow better use of a midwife's skills in reducing maternal mortality and to develop a flexible, appropriate, community-based approach for continuing and first-level education. The final document includes a listing of available instruments and conventions on the rights of the child and the elimination of discrimination against women.
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  20. 20
    081021

    Shanghai declaration on non-communicable diseases [letter]

    Dobson SA; Dwyer T; Chen HZ; Gao YT; Gu XQ; Hu JH; Yan HQ; Qu ZP; Wang KA; Mateo-de-Acosta O

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1993 Feb 27; 306(6877):588.

    Mainstream public health issues have not focused on prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. There is a need for monitoring disease and risk factors in order to understand the effects of environmental and genetic factors on health. Whereas, since the 1940s there has been a rapid increase in noncommunicable diseases, country-wide health improvements have occurred in areas related to communicable diseases such as sanitation, infection and vector control, nutrition, vaccinations, and maternal and child health programs. In developing countries, the rise in noncommunicable diseases poses problems when public health institutions are also faced with infectious and nutritional diseases. Current monitoring based on death certificates, is only marginally helpful in prevention and control. Programs need to be directed to occupational, environmental, and genetic factors, and death certificates do not contain this information. Directors and key officials in WHO noncommunicable disease collaborating centers declared that a concerted effort is needed to develop regional and national non-communicable disease plans which will lessen the financial cost and human cost in suffering in the future. The aging of the population worldwide will exacerbate the problem. WHO directors of collaborating centers made this declaration in Shanghai, China, in March, 1992.
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  21. 21
    075327
    Peer Reviewed

    Population, natural resources and development. Recognition of the problems: a step in the direction of solving them.

    Lindahl-Kiessling K; Landberg H

    AMBIO. 1992 Feb; 21(1):4-5.

    A brief summary is provided of international efforts related to the issues of population growth and limitation. The 1970s is remembered as the time the UN Expert Group on Population and the Environment met in Stockholm (1973) and the first UN Conference on Population took place in Bucharest (1974). The 1980s marked the second World Conference on Population, the UN Expert Group meeting in Geneva, and publication of the Brundtland report, "Our Common Future." The 1990s saw the Earth Summit, which brought together a variety of professional to discuss the issues of population, the environment, and development. The UN conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 included the issue of population due to the efforts of representatives of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research. These representatives discovered that population issues were not included in the conference agenda and felt strongly that all essential global issues needed to be addressed. Within the time available, the conference agenda was set to overcome interdisciplinary problems and to engage in scientific discussion of essential issues. The goal was also to present scientific information in a way that was suitable for political audiences. There was to be comprehensive analysis and a set of recommendations which addressed linkages between population, the environment, and development. Success was achieved in maintaining open, positive, and searching debate among the economists, ecologists, sociologists, demographers, and others in attendance. There was no direct confrontation or territorial dispute. The Conference Statement generated a comprehensive analysis and wide reaching proposals for future action. The next Conference on Population and Development is scheduled for 1994. The environment will be firmly on the agenda, and the primary focus will be the human population and its future.
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