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The role of men and boys in the fight against HIV / AIDS in the world of work. Preliminary issues paper.
[Unpublished] 2003. Prepared for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) in collaboration with International Labour Organization (ILO), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Expert Group Meeting on “The Role of Men and Boys in Achieving Gender Equality”, Brasilia, Brazil, October 21-24, 2003. 23 p. (EGM/Men-Boys-GE/2003/WP.3)HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue for the ILO, and it is being mainstreamed into all major ILO activities. As HIV/AIDS is a major cause of poverty and discrimination, it is aggravating existing problems of inadequate social protection and gender inequality. The fight against HIV/AIDS requires significant attention to gender issues to guarantee progress. The labour force is being particularly affected by the impact of the pandemic. The majority of those who die of AIDS are adults in their prime - workers in their most productive years. In 1999, for example, 80 per cent of newly infected people in Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia were aged between 20 and 49. Projections made by the ILO indicate that the labour force in 15 African countries will be 10 to 32 per cent smaller by 2020 than it would have been without HIV/AIDS. Many of those infected with HIV are experienced and skilled workers in blue-collar and white-collar jobs, from managers to car mechanics, from producers of food to teachers and doctors. The loss of huge numbers of skilled personnel is having serious effects on the ability of nations to remain productive and deliver basic services. (excerpt)
Pakistan Development Review. 2004 Winter; 43(4 Pt 1):423-440.Pakistan's development project that was initiated in the 1950s with a focus on creating a prosperous and equitable society, making the benefits of scientific advancement and progress available to all the people, got lost somewhere in the labyrinth of development fashions and econometric modelling learned in American universities and World Bank/IMF seminars. The latest of these fashions being eagerly followed by the economic managers of the state is the implementation of structural adjustments, termed "Washington Consensus" by some, flowing from the operative rules and ideological framework of neo-liberal globalisation. In practice these adjustments, euphemistically called reforms, have foreclosed the possibility of improving the condition of working masses, not only in Pakistan but globally, including the developed West. If Pakistan is to reclaim its original people-centred development project, it will have to set its own priorities of development in the context of indigenous realities shared in common with its South Asian neighbours. Following the globalisation agenda at the behest of the Washington-based IFIs will sink the country into ever greater debt and mass poverty. (author's)
New York, New York, UNDP, . 16 p.The 22 country offices where the We Care programme has been rolled out are taking great strides in making their workplaces truly AIDS competent. We are beginning to understand that HIV/AIDS is not 'out there' but among us -- and that if we are to make a difference in the way the world responds to it, WE MUST BEGIN WITH OURSELVES. Today, the We Care initiative is a global programme aiming at creating HIV/AIDS competence in all country offices, regional offices and headquarters by end of 2005. We Care is promoted together with initiatives spearheaded by other UN agencies, including 'Caring for Us' by UNICEF, the joint Access to Treatment and Inter-Organisational Needs (ACTION) programme facilitated by the UN Secretariat and the 'HIV/AIDS in the Workplace' initiative by WFP and ILO. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, . 16 p.We often assume that as UN employees, especially at Headquarters, we are somehow immune. Immune to being infected or affected by HIV/AIDS, immune from stigma and discrimination, immune from needing care, counselling, testing or treatment. But the truth is, we are as vulnerable as everyone else in society, and just like everyone else, we need to make informed decisions when it comes to HIV and AIDS. We need to be educated, we need to know how we can protect ourselves and how we can have a better quality of life if we happen to be living with HIV. We need to know that we have access to care and treatment and the right to confidentiality and non-discrimination in the workplace. In addition, as UN employees we have a special role to play. Before we can share with the world how HIV/AIDS should be addressed, we need to look into ourselves. Are we really that well informed, that sensitive? Can we talk openly to our co-workers about HIV/AIDS? Are we really sure that we will not be stigmatized if we happen to be living with HIV? Are we afraid of working closely with someone living with HIV? Do we discuss our anxieties and concerns within our families, with our partners, friends and co-workers? The We Care initiative addresses these issues. It helps us recognize that HIV/AIDS is not only 'out there' but also among us. And that if we are to create an environment that is empowering and respectful of the rights and responsibilities of every individual, we must first begin with ourselves. (excerpt)
World Health. 1998 Nov-Dec; 51(6):30.The private sector has an important role to play in the global, regional and national response to AIDS. It is in the private sector's own interest to actively combat the expanding epidemic because it affects employees, customers and others in their communities. By working in partnership with the public and nongovernmental sectors, companies can help to make their efforts more effective and bring benefits to all parties concerned. UNAIDS, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, is well aware that the fight against AIDS cannot succeed without a broad-based effort involving all members of society, including the private sector. An important part of the mission of UNAIDS is therefore to promote and brokers partnerships among the public, private and nongovernmental sectors of society that can help create a more coordinated, effective and sustainable response to HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Access to treatment in the private-sector workplace: the provision of antiretroviral therapy by three companies in South Africa.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2005 Jul. 47 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/05.11E)The availability of antiretroviral therapy from 1996 onwards has made a huge impact on the lives of those people living with HIV who can afford the drugs. But most of the beneficiaries of the new drugs live in the world's high-income countries. For many of them, AIDS has become a manageable chronic condition rather than a death sentence. Affluent countries have seen a 70% decline in AIDS-related deaths since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. In countries in which antiretroviral drugs are provided on a large scale (in Brazil, for example), the impact is remarkable. The number of hospital patients with AIDS is greatly reduced, people living with AIDS return to their families and jobs, and AIDS-related morbidity and mortality fall dramatically. However, for the huge majority of people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries, it is a different story. Neither they nor their countries' health-care services can afford to annually pay the huge amounts of money that the drugs cost, even taking into account recent reductions in drug prices. Cost has not been the only barrier to wide-scale provision of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries. Health experts have expressed concerns about providing drugs to large numbers of people in settings where health-care services do not even offer adequate basic care, let alone the support and monitoring needed for antiretroviral therapy. The slow progress in antiretroviral provision has meant that although five to six million people need antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, only about 700 000 had access to it by the end of 2004. In sub-Saharan Africa, more than four million people need treatment, but only 310 000 had access by the end of 2004. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 May. 39 p. (UNAIDS/02.17E)The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a global crisis affecting all levels of society. Increasingly affected is the business world, which is suffering not only from the human cost to the workforce but also in terms of losses in profits and productivity that result in many new challenges for both employers and employees. Across the world, AIDS is having a direct and indirect impact on business. In southern Africa, for example, it is estimated that more than 20% of the economically active population in the 15--49-year-old age group are infected with HIV. In the workplace, employers are experiencing reduced productivity as a result of employee absenteeism and death. Consequently, employers are being challenged to manage the impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace, which includes dealing with issues of stigma and discrimination, changing requirements for health-care benefits, training of replacement staff, and loss of skills and knowledge among employees. One of the missions of the International Organisation of Employers (IOE) is to facilitate the transfer of information and experience to employers' organizations in the social and labour fields. It is hoped that this Handbook will serve as a guide to employers' organizations and their members in their endeavours to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on their companies and business environments. The Handbook outlines a framework for action by both employers' organizations and their members, providing examples of innovative responses to the pandemic by their counterparts in other parts of the world. Constructive and proactive responses to HIV in the workplace can lead to good industrial relations and uninterrupted production. The Handbook was elaborated with information provided by IOE members, sectoral associations and individual companies, as listed on the inside cover. Without the extra effort that they made to document initiatives in their countries and companies, this Handbook would not have been possible. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2000 Apr.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material)This booklet is a straightforward and practical resource, designed to give you and your families the most up-to-date information available on HIV and AIDS, such as: basic facts about HIV/AIDS, how it is transmitted and how it is not transmitted; ways to protect yourselves and your families against infection; advice on HIV antibody testing and how to cope with the disease if you or a family member test positive; a global overview of the epidemic and the UN's response to AIDS at international and country levels; and a list of valuable resources to direct you and your family to additional information or support services. This booklet also contains the United Nations HIV/AIDS Personnel Policy. It is important that each of us be aware of the policy and be guided by it in our daily lives. I urge you to seek out additional information and to stay informed. The United Nations Staff Counsellors and the United Nations Medical Directors, both part of the Office of Human Resource Management, are available to answer your questions. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998 Jul.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)In the early years of the AIDS pandemic, little thought was given to the role that businesses might play in HIV prevention, and the workplace was not seen as a major venue for interventions. Since then, much has been learned about the pandemic and how it should be fought. and in particular that AIDS prevention and care are complex issues requiring a multisectoral approach. The business sector and its workplaces can play a key role in preventing the transmission of HIV, and in caring for and supporting those affected. As the impact of HIV on businesses becomes more visible, business leaders are increasingly seeing the advantages of creating HIV/AIDS programmes for their workplaces -- and, beyond the workplace, for their surrounding communities. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998 Nov.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Point of View)For too long AIDS prevention and care was pitched to business on health terms by health experts, on the basis that 'dealing with AIDS in the workplace is good for workers'. Initially perceived as a health problem, the health sector was at the forefront of epidemic control efforts. Experience now shows that both management and workers have a stake in the battle against AIDS and that all sectors need to be engaged right at the outset. Unquestionably, in the overall workplace context, management's response is a key element in shaping the level and quality of company interventions. To mobilize the corporate sector's participation in a major way, management must be included as a stakeholder from the planning stage to implementation. Thailand has been relatively successful in drawing support from business, even though this initiative came at a late stage in the development of the epidemic. Thailand's success is based on continuing and determined efforts by the National AIDS Programme and nongovernmental organizations to create opportunities for key business leaders to contribute in a strategic and substantial fashion. Those in the business sector need to be convinced that their participation is essential in making a difference, not only to the larger national endeavour, but also to their businesses. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2002 Jul. 226 p. (UNAIDS/02.26E)In the past two years, the sense of common purpose in the worldwide struggle against HIV/AIDS has intensified. More than at any other time in the short history of the epidemic, the need to translate local and national examples of success into a global movement has become manifest. The political momentum to tackle AIDS has grown. Public opinion in many countries has been mobilized by the media, nongovernmental organizations, activists, doctors, economists, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Communities and nations are progressively taking the lead in responding to the epidemic with increased political commitment, resources and institutional initiatives. But this new political resolve is not universal. An unacceptable number of governments and civil society institutions are still in a state of denial about the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and are failing to act to prevent its further spread or alleviate its impact. By failing to act, governments and civil society are turning their backs on the possibility of success against AIDS. Where the moment of action has been seized, there is mounting evidence of inroads being made against the epidemic. Alongside the familiar achievements of Senegal, Thailand and Uganda, there are new successes on every continent. Despite emerging from genocide and conflict, Cambodia responded to the threat of HIV in the mid-1990s and has achieved marked declines in both the levels of HIV and the high-risk behaviours associated with its transmission. The infection rate among pregnant women in Cambodia declined by almost a third between 1997 and 2000. The Philippines has acted early to forestall the epidemic, keeping HIV rates low with strong prevention efforts and the mobilization of community and business organizations. (excerpt)
Equal pay, urban women problems discussed by Commission - UN Commission on the Status of Women, 38th session, Mar 7-18, 1994 - includes news of other developments pertaining to equal pay and equality in marriage.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2): p..Equal pay for work of equal value, women in urban areas and measures to eradicate violence against women were among the issues dealt with by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-eighth session (7-18 March, New York). Being also the preparatory body for the Fourth world conference on Women in Beijing 1995, the commission's work focused on preparatory activities, in particular the drafting of the Platform for Action. In discussing priority themes--equality, development and peace--established for its thirty-seven through fortieth sessions, the Commission adopted 13 resolutions, many calling on Governments to urgently improve the situations of women around the world. "The road to Beijing must be paved with vision, commitment and a determination to harness the support of Governments to remove the remaining obstacles to the advancement of women", Gertrude Mongella, UN Assistant Secretary-General and Secretary-General of the Fourth World Conference, told the 45-member Commission on 7 March. It has the task of organizing that conclave, which is set for September 1995. (excerpt)
Exploitation of women workers in family enterprises decried - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Women who work in family enterprises without payment are being exploited, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) declared, calling for guaranteed payment, social security and social benefits for them. As it concluded its tenth annual session (21 January-1 February, New York), the Committee also recommended that the value of women's domestic work be added to countries' gross national products. Nations should provide information on disabled women and on measures taken to ensure equal access for them to education, employment, health services and social security. The 23-member watchdog body monitors how countries implement the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (excerpt)
Joint ILO / WHO guidelines on health services and HIV / AIDS. Tripartite Meeting of Experts to Develop Joint ILO / WHO Guidelines on Health Services and HIV / AIDS.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 2005.  p. (TMEHS/2005/8)These guidelines are the product of collaboration between the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization. In view of their complementary mandates, their long-standing and close cooperation in the area of occupational health, and their more recent partnership as co-sponsors of UNAIDS, the ILO and the WHO decided to join forces in order to assist health services in building their capacities to provide their workers with a safe, healthy and decent working environment, as the most effective way both to reduce transmission of HIV and other blood-borne pathogens and to improve the delivery of care to patients. This is essential when health service workers have not only to deliver normal health-care services but also to provide HIV/AIDS services and manage the long-term administration and monitoring of anti-retroviral treatments (ART) at a time when, in many countries, they are themselves decimated by the epidemic. (excerpt)
Health Care for Women International. 2005 Aug; 26(7):534-554.In this article, we examine the National Breastfeeding Policy in Nigeria, the extent to which the law guarantees and protects the maternity rights of the working mother, and the interplay between the law and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Our aim is to make people aware of this interplay to lead to some positive efforts to sanitize the workplace and shield women from some of the practices against them in employment relations in Nigeria as well as encourage exclusive breastfeeding by employed mothers. We conclude that the provisions of the law in this regard are not in accord with the contemporary international standards for the protection of pregnancy and maternity. It does not guarantee and protect the freedom of the nursing mother to exclusively breastfeed the child for at least the 6 months as propagated by Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Moreover, there is no enabling law to back up the National Policy Initiative as it affects employer and employee relations. We, therefore, suggest a legal framework for effective implementation of the National Breastfeeding Policy for women in dependent labour relations. It is hoped that such laws will not only limit some of the practices against women in employment but also will encourage and promote exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by employed mothers. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2002 Jun.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/02.36E; PN-ACP-803)South Africa has begun to explore how best to involve people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplace responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A pilot programme, the GIPA Workplace Model, has been developed over the past four years with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Its aim was to place trained fieldworkers, living openly with HIV/AIDS, in selected partner organizations in different sectors so that they could set up, review or enrich workplace policies and programmes. For partner organizations, the GIPA Workplace Model has added value by: adding credibility to its HIV/AIDS programmes by giving a face to HIV and personalizing it; creating a supportive environment for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and others to speak about HIV/AIDS and issues related to it. (excerpt)
Living in a world with HIV and AIDS: Information for employees of the United Nations system and their families.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul.  p. (UNAIDS/04.27E)Knowledge can be powerful. Because it is committed to a fair, safe and compassionate workplace, the UN system wants us to be fully informed about issues that can affect the workplace, including HIV and AIDS. Our right to understand UN-system policies on HIV and AIDS extends to all employees, including those who are and are not HIV-infected. The UN-system personnel policy on HIV/AIDS and the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work are the two frameworks available for UN workplace programmes. The ILO Code is the internationally recognized benchmark for HIV-related workplace policies. The UN-system personnel policy on HIV/AIDS is Annex 1 of this booklet and a summary of the 10 key principles of the ILO Code is Annex 2. We have learned a great deal about HIV/AIDS since the UN system began responding to it in 1987. At that time, many important questions remained unanswered. What were the best means of preventing infection? Could AIDS ever be treated? How might HIV best be handled in the workplace? Today, we have clear answers to these and many other key questions about HIV and AIDS. This booklet provides information on HIV/AIDS that we and our families may need. Specifically, it is designed to help us: KNOW the essential facts about HIV/AIDS; PROTECT ourselves and our families from HIV infection; LIVE POSITIVELY with HIV; and LET LIVE by contributing to a tolerant, equitable and compassionate UN-system workplace. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 2001. vi, 32 p.The objective of this code is to provide a set of guidelines to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the world of work and within the framework of the promotion of decent work. The guidelines cover the following key areas of action: (a) prevention of HIV/AIDS; (b) management and mitigation of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work; (c) care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; (d) elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status. This code should be used to: (a) develop concrete responses at enterprise, community, regional, sectoral, national and international levels; (b) promote processes of dialogue, consultations, negotiations and all forms of cooperation between governments, employers and workers and their representatives, occupational health personnel, specialists in HIV/AIDS issues, and all relevant stakeholders (which may include community-based and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)); (c) give effect to its contents in consultation with the social partners: in national laws, policies and programmes of action; in workplace/enterprise agreements; and in workplace policies and plans of action. (excerpt)
Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore Cluster Country Consultation on Migrant Workers' HIV Vulnerability Reduction: Pre-Departure, Post-Arrival and Returnee Reintegration, 15-17 April 2002, Makati City, Philippines.
Bangkok, Thailand, UNDP, South East Asia HIV and Development Programme, 2002 Sep. iv, 39 p.HIV/AIDS touches all sectors of society. It is an issue that requires appropriate responses at national, regional and global levels. Migrant workers are valuable resources that stimulate economic prosperity and contribute to the socio-economic development of Asia. Millions of migrant workers move in and out of the countries of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore (BIMPS) for economic and other reasons. Migrant workers, Non-Governmental Organizations, United Nations agencies and government officials responsible for migrant workers gathered from the BIMPS cluster countries to share their existing responses and to formulate collaborative actions for reducing migrant workers’ HIV vulnerabilities in this region and beyond. The delegates proposed a Memorandum of Understanding and drafted a set of collaborative responses. Only through the collective protection of valuable human resources will the BIMPS countries be able to mitigate the socio-economic and human impact of HIV/AIDS within each of their own countries. It is the hope of the UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Programme that the resulting draft Memorandum of Understanding and the Joint Action Programme from the BIMPS Consultation will be considered by the Ministries of Labour, as well as the National AIDS Authorities of these countries in their future policy and programme elaborations. It is also hoped that the ASEAN Task Force on AIDS Secretariat and its dialogue partners will provide the necessary financial and technical support to materialize the proposed Joint Action Programme for the BIMPS sub-region. (excerpt)
AIDS on the agenda: adapting development and humanitarian programmes to meet the challenge of HIV / AIDS.
AIDS Analysis Africa. 2003 Jun-Jul; 14(1):9-10.The opportunity which mainstreaming presents to development agencies is to build on the ways in which their ordinary work contributes, indirectly, to the overall response to HIV and AIDS. They can do this by ensuring that their core work -- such as promoting food security, improving water supplies and sanitation, or extending credit -- reduces susceptibility to HIV infection and vulnerability to the impacts of AIDS. For example, development work which empowers people, particularly women and girls, and addresses gender inequality and poverty, makes them less susceptible to HIV infection. And work which strengthens communities, and enables poor households to improve their livelihood security, also makes people and societies less vulnerable to the impacts of AIDS. (excerpt)
Use of UNAIDS tools to evaluate HIV voluntary counselling and testing services for mineworkers in South Africa.
AIDS Care. 2002 Oct; 14(5):707-726.HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is now an integral part of many HIV care and control programs. However, very little work has been done to assess the quality of VCT services. An evaluation of VCT services for mineworkers in Welkom, South Africa was conducted to assess client and counselor satisfaction, the quality of the services and to identify barriers to uptake of VCT. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using tools developed by Joint UN Programme for HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), consisting of semi-structured interviews and observation of counseling sessions. 22 nurse counselors and six community volunteers were interviewed. 24 counseling sessions were observed and 24 client exit interviews were conducted. Although nine of the 22 nurse counselors had only in-service rather than formal training for HIV counseling whereas all community volunteers had been formally trained, nurse counselors demonstrated better interpersonal skills than did community volunteers. Both clients and counselors identified fear of a positive result as a major barrier to HIV testing. Clients also raised concerns about confidentiality. UNAIDS evaluation tools were a feasible and an acceptable method of assessing VCT in this operational setting. The study identified areas where training needs to be strengthened and suggested ways of improving the services, and changes to the service have now been implemented in line with these recommendations. (author's)
Lancet. 2002 Aug 3; 360(9330):416.S. Huffam and colleagues report on the incidence of HIV-1 infection in foreign nationals working in East Timor. In this article, they note that 10,000 or more foreign nationals from countries were rates of HIV-1 infection are endemic have been working for the UN and around 70 nongovernmental organizations in East Timor since June, 1999. The potential HIV-1 impact from peacekeeping was recognized in July, 2000, when the UN Security Council voted to intensify AIDS education among UN peacekeepers.