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Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2010.  p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/19)The World’s Women 2010: Trends and Statistics is the fifth issue of The World’s Women and is being produced to coincide with the first-ever World’s Statistics Day, 20.10.2010. The current issue highlights the differences in the status of women and men in eight areas -- population and families, health, education, work, power and decision-making, violence against women, environment and poverty. Analyses are based mainly on statistics from international and national statistical sources. The World’s Women 2010 shows that progress towards gender equality has been made in some areas, such as school enrolment, health and economic participation. At the same time the report shows that much more needs to be done to close the gender gap in critical areas such as power and decision-making and violence against women.
World Health and Population. 2008; 10(2):25-39.Our study examines factors influencing demand for contraception for spacing as well as for limiting births in India. Data on socio-economic, demographic and program factors affecting demand for contraception in India are from the National Family Health Survey, 1998--99. The recent document from the National Rural Health Mission has completely ignored the use of contraception in controlling fertility in India. Empirical results of our study suggest giving priority to and focusing attention on supply-side factors such as a regular and sustained supply of quality contraceptive methods to improve accessibility and affordability. Further, strengthening the information, education and communication (IEC) component of the reproductive and child health (RCH) package would allay misapprehensions about the side effects and health risks of contraception. Focusing attention on demand-side factors such as women's empowerment through education, gainful employment and exposure to mass-media would help reduce the unmet demand for family planning. The resulting reduction in fertility would hasten the process of demographic transition and population stabilization in India.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2007 Dec 5. 19 p. (E/CN.6/2008/4)This report provides an overview of the consideration of the issue of forced marriage at the international level, and the evolving approach for addressing it. It provides information on the legal and policy measures of States and the activities undertaken by entities of the United Nations system to address forced marriage of the girl child. The report concludes with recommendations for future action. (author's)
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2006 Sep.  p.This Action Plan seeks to advance women's economic empowerment in the World Bank Group's client countries in order to promote shared growth and accelerate the implementation of Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3 - promoting gender equality and women's empowerment). The Plan would commit the World Bank Group to intensify and scale up gender mainstreaming in the economic sectors over four years, in partnership with client countries, donors, and other development agencies. The Bank Group and its partners would increase resources devoted to gender issues in operations and technical assistance, in Results-Based Initiatives (RBIs), and in policy-relevant research and statistics. An assessment at the end of the four-year period would determine whether to extend the Action Plan's timeframe. (excerpt)
Integration of human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Letter dated 16 May 2003 from the Permanent Representative of Bhutan to the United Nations Office at Geneva addressed to the Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights.
[New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Jun 12. 3 p. (E/CN.4/2004/G/3)I wish to refer to Addendum 1 to your report to the 59th session of the Commission on Human Rights containing an analysis of developments in the area of violence against women at the international, regional and national level, and to provide the following additional information regarding the entry on Bhutan, with a request that these be reflected in the final report. Most national studies on gender show that Bhutan is relatively "gender-balanced" and that there is no overt gender discrimination. Bhutanese women enjoy freedom and equality in most spheres of life. In view of the general overall equality of women and men, no legislation explicitly prohibits discrimination against women. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Jan 6. 24 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75)Since the creation of the mandate on violence against women, its causes and consequences, in 1994 the world has achieved greater awareness and understanding of gender-based violence, and more effective measures are being developed to confront the problem. The international community has made great strides in setting standards and elaborating a legal framework for the promotion and protection of women from violence. While at the normative level the needs of women are generally adequately addressed, the challenge lies in ensuring respect for and effective implementation of existing law and standards. Much more remains to be done to create and sustain an environment where women can truly live free from gender-based violence. The report documents key developments at the international, regional and national levels. The Special Rapporteur welcomes the many efforts at standard-setting and norm creation at the international level and the array of activities and initiatives taken by States aimed at the elimination of violence against women, including the adoption of amendments to relevant laws, and educational, social and other measures, including national information and awareness-raising campaigns. In addition to the existence of laws, mechanisms for enforcing rights and redressing violations are also of crucial importance. Recent developments at the national, regional and international levels, in the prosecution of those responsible for violence against women are very important steps in the fight against impunity, not only because the perpetrators are brought to justice, but also because of the general deterrent effect such developments will hopefully have. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2006.  p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/17)The World's Women 2005: Progress in Statistics focuses on the state of statistics for addressing gender concerns. It reviews the current availability of national data and assesses progress in data reporting from 1975 to 2003, based on the information that national statistical authorities report to the international statistical system. The statistics reviewed include those related to population, health, education and work. Also reviewed in the report is the current state of statistics in some of the relatively newer areas, namely violence against women; poverty; power and decision-making; and human rights. The focus on official national statistics, as differentiated from internationally prepared estimates, reveals the extent to which Governments are able to produce statistics to address various gender concerns. By so doing, the report provides Governments with the means to assess progress, identify gaps and design strategies to improve the national collection and dissemination of gender statistics needed for policy formulation and programme planning and evaluation. (excerpt)
Beijing betrayed. Women worldwide report that governments have failed to turn the Platform into Action.
New York, New York, Women's Environment and Development Organization [WEDO], 2005. 207 p.Beijing Betrayed is the fifth global monitoring report published by the Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) assessing governments' progress in implementing the commitments they made to the world's women at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, 1995. Beijing Betrayed brings together the diverse voices of women in some 150 countries in subregions across Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and North America, Latin America and the Caribbean and West Asia to influence the United Nations 10 Year Review of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. This report presents women's realities - their concerns, experiences, perspectives and analyses - in the implementation process and contrasts sharply with the more formal and often abstract reports governments have presented. The reports presented here are a testimony to women as agents of change and give us cause for celebration. They show that women advocates everywhere have stepped up their activities since Beijing using the Platform for Action and other key global policy instruments to push governments into taking action. In every region of the world, women have taken the lead in crafting legislation and conducting public awareness activities to promote women's human rights, peace, and sustainable development. (excerpt)
[Rio de Janeiro], Brazil, Sexuality Policy Watch, . 412 p.Sex Politics: Reports from the Front Lines is a comparative study of the politics of sexuality, sexual health and sexual rights in eight countries and two global institutions. Over the past few decades, sexuality has become the focal point for political controversy and a key domain for social change. Issues such as protecting sexual freedoms and enhancing access to resources that promote sexual health are among the SPW's central concerns. The documents that are included in Sex Politics are based on research that has been carried out between 2004 and 2007 on sexuality and politics in Brazil, Egypt, India, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Vietnam, the United Nations and the World Bank. These case studies are framed, at the outset, by an introductory chapter on sexual rights policies across countries and cultures that seeks to describe some of the conceptual architecture as well as the collaborative process that was used in developing these studies, and at the end, by a crosscutting analysis of the local and global politics of sex and reproduction that seeks to offer a preliminary analysis of at least some of the issues that emerge from a comparative reading of the diverse case studies included in this work. (excerpt)
Program scan matrix on child marriage: A web-based search of interventions addressing child marriage.
[Washington, D.C.], International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], . 25 p.The international community and U.S. government are increasingly concerned about the prevalence of child marriage and its toll on girls in developing countries. One in seven girls in the developing world marries before 15. Nearly half of the 331 million girls in developing countries are expected to marry by their 20th birthday. At this rate, 100 million more girls-or 25,000 more girls every day-will become child brides in the next decade. Current literature on child marriage has primarily examined the prevalence, consequences and reported reasons for early marriage. Much less has been analyzed about the risk and protective factors that may be associated with child marriage. Also, little is known about the range of existing programs addressing child marriage, and what does and does not work in preventing early marriage. The work presented here investigates two key questions: What factors are associated with risk of or protection against child marriage, and ultimately could be the focus of prevention efforts? What are the current programmatic approaches to prevent child marriage in developing countries, and are these programs effective? (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Gender and Development Group, 2004 Nov.  p.This Operational Guide provides specific guidance to national HIV/AIDS program management teams, public-sector ministries, private sector entities, and non-governmental and community-based organizations (NGOs/CBOs) implementing World Bank-financed HIV/AIDS programs and projects, as well as the World Bank's operational staff who design these programs and projects. It provides concrete examples of the integration of gender concerns into all stages of project preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The immediate objective is to provide the tools needed to identify and analyze gender-specific issues and concerns in HIV/AIDS programs and make appropriate provisions in HIV/AIDS operations to address these concerns. The ultimate goal of this Operational Guide is to enhance the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions by ensuring that the gender inequalities that underlie the epidemic are addressed. (excerpt)
The gender dimensions of HIV / AIDS: challenges for South Africa. Extracts from a regional scan and South Asian Regional Consultation.
New Delhi, India, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], South Asia Inter-Country Team, 2004 Aug. 39 p. (UNAIDS/04.47E)The regional consultation brought together key Government representatives from seven countries of the region, across the HIV/AIDS sector, women's machinery, representative of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Secretariat, and UN agencies working at regional levels, bilateral agencies and UNIFEM's partner organizations working on a range of development issues - such as mental health, violence against women, anti-trafficking, home-based work and economic rights, gender and sexuality, media advocacy - and networks of women living with HIV/AIDS. It provided a platform for learning and cross-regional sharing and identification of gaps and opportunities, and enabled the development of a regional strategy to work cohesively towards tackling the gender dimensions of HIV/AIDS. The consultation also provided strategic direction for UNIFEM to advance its work in the region. (excerpt)
Facing the future together: Report of the Secretary General's Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV / AIDS in Southern Africa. Advocacy version.
Johannesburg, South Africa, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2004 Jul. 26 p. (UNAIDS/04.33E)Southern Africa is the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. After growing steadily for two decades, the prevalence rates appear at last to have stabilised - but at shockingly high levels of prevalence. By 2002, more than 20 percent of pregnant women tested were HIV-positive, with several countries in the sub-region reporting a rate of infection in antenatal care clinics of more than 25 percent. Sub-Saharan Africa is also the only region in the world in which HIV infection rates are higher among women than men. For every ten men with the HIV virus, thirteen women are infected. The impact on young women and girls aged 15-24 - those who have only recently become sexually active - is even more dramatic. They are two and a half times more likely to be infected than males in the same age group. The gap is larger still in Southern Africa, where in Zambia and Zimbabwe girls and young women make up close to a staggering eighty percent of all young people aged 15-24 who are living with HIV/AIDS. What are the reasons for this enormous disparity? Why are women and young girls bearing the brunt of the pandemic in Southern Africa? The answers lie in poverty, violence and gender inequality. (excerpt)
Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jun; 28(4):751-773.The achievement of women's equality is an elusive goal, especially in developing economies, where states have been unable or unwilling to protect and promote women's human rights and gender equality. Many argue that globalisation has heightened gender inequality. One response to this crisis is the United Nations corporate citizenship initiative: the Global Compact. This paper argues that the Global Compact has a strong gender equality mandate, which has not been fulfilled. The paper advances a number of reasons why this may be the case, including the lack of women's participation at many levels, the pervasive nature of women's inequality and the fact it may not be in the interests of Global Compact signatories to address this inequality. Despite the limitations of this voluntary initiative, it does have some potential to effect positive change. However, unless the pervasive and continued violation of women's human rights is addressed by the Global Compact, the claim that it is a viable new form ofglobal governance for addressing major social and economic problems is severely weakened. (author's)
Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jul; 28(5):871-886.In 2006 the Secretary General's High-Level Panel on UN Systemwide Coherence called for a dynamic new gender entity led by an Under-Secretary General. The follow-up to this recommendation is still ongoing, leaving the UN gender machinery in its current fragmented and weakened state. This enduring dilemma has its origins in bureaucratic incoherence, lack of senior management support for UN gender equality efforts, the failure of member states to support the Beijing Platform for Action, the impact of conservative regimes, and recent US dominance over the UN reform process. Is a new women's agency, with increased authority, new staffing and significantly increased resources possible, or should transnational feminists seek to establish an autonomous women's agency outside the UN system to provide better leadership for gender equality efforts world-wide? (author's)
Consideration of reports submitted by States Parties under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Combined third and fourth reports of States Parties. Jordan.
[Geneva, Switzerland], OHCHR, CEDAW, 2006 Mar 10. 103 p. (CEDAW/C/JOR/3-4)The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on 3 January 1980, and ratified it on 1 July 1992. Jordan has submitted two earlier periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women dealing with its commitments and obligations in the matter of its implementation of the Convention. The first of these was submitted in 1993, i.e. one year after Jordan's ratification of the Convention, and the second in 1997. Those two reports were considered together by the Committee in January 2000. This report contains the combined third and fourth periodic reports. It presents a summary of progress made by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women since the date of preparation of the second periodic report. This report outlines Jordan's accomplishments in the area of the advancement of women, and it also surveys the challenges confronting the Government and institutions in their several fields of competence as they endeavour to attain their objectives and meet their commitments relating to the achievement of social justice. In addition, the report takes into account not only the articles of the Convention itself, but also the Declaration and Plan of Action adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women (1995) and the outcome document of the special session of the United Nations General Assembly entitled "Gender equality, development and peace in the twenty-first century" (2000). Lastly, this report answers the questions asked by the Committee in the course of its consideration of the first and second reports. (excerpt)
WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women. Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. Summary report.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 205.  p.The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women is a landmark research project, both in its scope and in how it was carried out. For the results presented in this report, specially trained teams collected data from over 24 000 women from 15 sites in 10 countries representing diverse cultural settings: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Thailand, and the United Republic of Tanzania. The use of a standardized and robust methodology has substantially reduced many of the difficulties that affected earlier work on violence against women, and produced results that permit comparison and analyses across settings. Other strengths of the study include the multinational participatory method used to develop the research protocol and questionnaire, the involvement of women's organizations in the research teams, the attention to addressing ethical and safety considerations, and the emphasis on careful selection and training of interviewers and on capacity building of all members of the research teams. Another important feature was the Study's link with policy processes, achieved through the cooperation of members of the research team with policy-making bodies on violence, and the involvement of consultative committees that included key stakeholders at the country level. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], UNIFEM, 2004.  p.At the Millennium Summit held in September in September 2000, the leaders of the majority of the countries in the world adopted the UN Millennium Declaration where the promotion of gender equality was determined as one of eight goals. The XXIII Special Session of the UN General Assembly "Women in 2000: Equality Between Men and Women. Development and Peace in XXI century" was dedicated to this issue (June 2000). The Session recommended representatives of the Governments of the participating countries to take measures to ensure women equal access and full participation in all spheres and at all levels of life. The Concept of Gender Policy (hereinafter called the Concept) determines the basic principles, priorities and tasks for gender policy in Kazakhstan. The basic principles of the gender policy are based on the equal rights and freedom for women and men that are guaranteed in the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The gender policy should deal with he following tasks: the achievement of equal participation of women and men in decision-making structures: the realisation of equal opportunities for economic independence, the development of business and career promotion; conditions for equal realization of rights and responsibilities for the family; and freedom from gender based violence. The Concept is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Development Strategy of Kazakhstan to 2030, the National Action Plan on Improvement of Women's Status Kazakhstan, the United Nations Conventions on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations Recommendations for its implementation in Kazakhstan and other ratified international agreements. The Concept of Gender Policy in Kazakhstan is designed both for the contemporary period of stabilization of the socio-economic situation with sustainable growth of the national economy (up to 2010) as well as for the long-term perspective (up to 2030). ( excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2006 Jul; 20(2):16.Workers in Burkina Faso are angry. Four times in 2005 and then again this May, the country's trade unions shut down economic activity through a series of national general strikes. Thousands marched in the streets of that West African nation to protest low salaries, high prices, lost jobs and inadequate social benefits. Very often, the strikers contrasted their living standards with those of the elites. At one march in Bobo-Dioulasso, the main commercial city, union leader Bakary Millogo decried the workers' "rampant pauperization" as opposed to the "scandalous and ostentatious" lifestyles of high government officials. Burkina, commented a columnist for the independent daily L'Observateur Paalga, is "running the risk of a social explosion of unpredictable consequences." The dangers are all the greater, he added, because endemic poverty exists alongside visible signs of wealth. "Some take a plane to get treated for hay fever," he wrote, "while others die because they can't afford malaria treatment." (excerpt)
One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec;  p..Secretary-General Kofi Annan highlighted in a BBC interview that the largest demographic group to be targeted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic was women. Taking stock of this reality, he stated: "We've seen women's organizations at the grass-roots level and this is very important, because today in Africa AIDS has a woman's face.... Often they are the innocent victims." The United Nations Children's Fund reported that in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence of the disease is most severe, two girls for every boy (aged 15 to 24) are newly infected with the virus, while in the most affected countries the ratio is five to one among the 15-to-19-year-olds). The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reported in 2004 that worldwide women comprised nearly 50 per cent of adults living with the virus, almost 60 per cent of them in sub-Saharan Africa. In his report "In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights For All", Mr. Annan emphasized two imperatives: mobilization of greater political will to formulate and expedite policy decisions related to the disease; and increased financial support for the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Appropriate actions are therefore required to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases. Their reversal and eradication, as well as the overall reduction in mortality rates worldwide, by 2015 is the main goal. The report also encourages Member States to prioritize HIV/AIDS-related initiatives, which would require furthering awareness of the disease while attacking stigmatization. "If there is anything we have learned in the two decades of this epidemic, it is that in the world of AIDS, silence is death", the Secretary-General reflected at the launch of the Global Media AIDS Initiative in January 2004. Silence equals death has become something of a catchphrase with regard to AIDS awareness. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Mar-May; 42(1): p..The Commission on the Status of Women, at its session from 28 February to 11 March 2005 at UN Headquarters in New York, adopted ten resolutions on improving women's status, including six new texts on gender mainstreaming in national policies and programmes; the possible appointment of a special rapporteur on discrimination against women; trafficking; integrating a gender perspective in post-disaster relief, particularly in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster; indigenous women; and women's economic advancement. Chaired by Kyung-wha Kang of the Republic of Korea, the Commission also adopted four traditional resolutions on women and HIV/AIDS, the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, the situation of women and girls in Afghanistan, and the situation of and assistance to Palestinian women. (excerpt)
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2004 Jul. 13 p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of workshops supported by UNESCO and UNFPA. The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is simultaneously a health and a social cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and medial professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessment of their potential readers. At the workshops, participants go through exercises helping them to fine-tune their sensitivity to gender issues and how these affect people's risks of HIV/AIDS. The analysis of these assessments at the workshops serves as the basis for identifying the priority issues to be addressed in the booklets. They are also exposed to principles of writing for people with limited reading skills. Each writer then works on his or her booklet with support from the group. (excerpt)
Target: 30 percent of leadership positions to women by 1995 - United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..A target of 30 per cent of leadership positions to be held by women by 1995 in Governments, political parties, trade unions, professional and other representative groups was recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women at its 34th session. On average, only 3.5 per cent of national ministerial posts were held by women in 1987, according to a UN study. The recommendation was among 22 texts adopted by the body, many of them aimed at accelerating the implementation of the 1985 Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Thirteen drafts recommended action by the Commission's parent body, the UN Economic and Social Council. (excerpt)