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Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. WHO clinical and policy guidelines.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2013. 68 p.A health-care provider is likely to be the first professional contact for survivors of intimate partner violence or sexual assault. Evidence suggests that women who have been subjected to violence seek health care more often than non-abused women, even if they do not disclose the associated violence. They also identify health-care providers as the professionals they would most trust with disclosure of abuse. These guidelines are an unprecedented effort to equip healthcare providers with evidence-based guidance as to how to respond to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. They also provide advice for policy makers, encouraging better coordination and funding of services, and greater attention to responding to sexual violence and partner violence within training programmes for health care providers. The guidelines are based on systematic reviews of the evidence, and cover: 1) identification and clinical care for intimate partner violence; 2) clinical care for sexual assault; 3) training relating to intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women; 4) policy and programmatic approaches to delivering services; and 5) mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence. The guidelines aim to raise awareness of violence against women among health-care providers and policy-makers, so that they better understand the need for an appropriate health-sector response. They provide standards that can form the basis for national guidelines, and for integrating these issues into health-care provider education.
Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016 2030): Adolescents’ health. Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Dec 5. 6 p. (EB140/34)Pursuant to resolution WHA69.2 this report provides an update on the current status of women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. It is aligned with the report on the Progress in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (document EB140/32). The Secretariat in its regular reporting on progress towards women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health will choose a particular theme each year, focusing on priorities identified by Member States and topics for which there is new evidence to support country-led plans. For reporting to the Seventieth World Health Assembly, adolescent's health is the theme. (Excerpt)
Globalization and women's and girls' health in 192 UN-member countries convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.
International Journal of Social Economics. 2016 Jul 11; 43(7):692-721.Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the ratification of the United Nations' (UN's) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and women's and girls' health outcomes using a unique longitudinal data set of 192 UN-member countries that encompasses the years from 1980 to 2011. Design/methodology/approach - The authors focus on the impact of CEDAW ratification, number of reports submitted after ratification, years passed since ratification, and the dynamic impact of CEDAW ratification by utilizing ordinary least squares (OLS) and panel fixed effects methods. The study investigates the following women's and girls' health outcomes: Total fertility rate, adolescent fertility rate, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, neonatal mortality rate, female life expectancy at birth (FLEB), and female to male life expectancy at birth. Findings - The OLS and panel country and year fixed effects models provide evidence that the impact of CEDAW ratification on women's and girls' health outcomes varies by global regions. While the authors find no significant gains in health outcomes in European and North-American countries, the countries in the Northern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Africa, Caribbean and Central America, South America, Middle-East, Eastern Asia, and Oceania regions experienced the biggest gains from CEDAW ratification, exhibiting reductions in total fertility, adolescent fertility, infant mortality, maternal mortality, and neonatal mortality while also showing improvements in FLEB. The results provide evidence that both early commitment to CEDAW as measured by the total number of years of engagement after the UN's 1980 ratification and the timely submission of mandatory CEDAW reports have positive impacts on women' and girls' health outcomes. Several sensitivity tests confirm the robustness of main findings. Originality/value - This study is the first comprehensive attempt to explore the multifaceted relationships between CEDAW ratification and female health outcomes. The study significantly expands on the methods of earlier research and presents novel methods and findings on the relationship between CEDAW ratification and women's health outcomes. The findings suggest that the impact of CEDAW ratification significantly depends on the country's region. Furthermore, stronger engagement with CEDAW (as indicated by the total number of years following country ratification) and the submission of the required CEDAW reports (as outlined in the Convention's guidelines) have positive impacts on women's and girls' health outcomes.
The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents' Health 2016-2030. Survive, Thrive, Transform.
[New York, New York], Every Woman Every Child, 2015.  p.The ambition of the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health is to end preventable deaths among all women, children and adolescents, to greatly improve their health and well-being and to bring about the transformative change needed to shape a more prosperous and sustainable future. This updated Global Strategy was developed by a wide range of national, regional and global stakeholders under the umbrella of the Every Woman Every Child movement, with strong engagement from WHO and builds upon the 2010-2015 Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. Launched by the UN Secretary-General on 26 September in New York, this updated Global Strategy, spanning the 15 years of the SDGs, provides guidance to accelerate momentum for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. It should achieve nothing less than a transformation in health and sustainable development by 2030 for all women, children and adolescents, everywhere.
Atlas of eHealth country profiles 2013. eHealth and innovation in women's and children's health. Based on the findings of the 2013 survey of ColA countries by the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014.  p.This atlas is based on the 2013 WHO / ITU joint survey that explored the use of eHealth for women’s and children’s health in countries targeted by the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health (CoIA). The objective of the country profiles is to describe the status in 2013 of the use of ICT for women’s and children’s health in 64 responding CoIA countries. This is a unique reference source for policy makers and others involved in planning and implementing eHealth services in countries.
eHealth and innovation in women's and children's health: A baseline review. Based on the findings of the 2013 survey of CoIA countries by the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth. Executive summary.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2014.  p. (WHO/HIS/KER/EHL/14.1)Improving the health of women and children is a global health imperative, reflected in two of the most compelling Millennium Development Goals which seek specifically to reduce maternal and infant deaths by 2015. This joint report by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), based on a 64-country survey, demonstrates -- as never before in such detail -- the vital role that information and communication technologies (ICTs) and particularly eHealth are playing today in helping achieve those targets. It demonstrates how, every day, eHealth is saving the lives of women, their babies and infants in the some of the most vulnerable populations around the world, in a wide variety of innovative ways.
The PMNCH 2013 report. Analysing progress on commitments to the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, 2013.  p.The main objective of this year’s report is to assess the extent to which the 293 stakeholders who have made commitments to the Global Strategy since its launch in 2010 (up to June 2013) have implemented their commitments, and the extent to which implementation is contributing to reaching the goals of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. It is not a comprehensive stocktaking of all that is being done at national, regional and global levels to improve women’s and children’s health. The content of the report is based on a range of information sources and data collection methods as relevant to the nature of the individual commitments and their implementation. The methods used were: a content analysis of all commitment statements from the Every Woman Every Child website; an online survey sent to commitment-makers, of which 120 fully completed the survey; detailed interviews based on semi-structured questionnaires with a selection of stakeholders; and an extensive desk review of relevant literature and databases.
New York, New York, United Nations Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children, 2012 Sep.  p.The United Nations Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children presents a new plan and set of recommendations to improve the supply and access of life-saving health supplies.
American Journal of Public Health. 2013 Apr; 103(4):593-6.We discuss the history of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) development of guidelines for governments on providing safe abortion services, which WHO published as Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems in 2003 and updated in 2012. We show how the recognition of the devastating impact of unsafe abortion on women's health and survival, the impetus of the International Conference on Population and Development and its five-year follow-up, and WHO's progressive leadership at the end of the century enabled the organization to elaborate guidance on providing safe abortion services. Guideline formulation involved extensive review of published evidence, an international technical expert meeting to review the draft document, and a protracted in-house review by senior WHO management.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012 Sep 1; 90(9):712.The World Health Organization’s (WHO) update of its 2003 publication Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems has responded to a major neglected public health need of women. The substantial revisions in the 2012 update reflect developments in safe abortion methods and clinical care, providing guidance about the range of safe options available to women seeking elective abortion. Women’s participation in the choice of abortion method, pain control and post-abortion contraception is a crucial element, seeing as unsafe induced abortion is not only public health problem but also a human rights issue. The report discusses developments in the application of human rights principles in policy-making and in legislation related to induced abortion. National courts and regional and international human rights bodies, such as the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies, have increasingly applied these principles to facilitate women’s transparent access to safe abortion services.
Lancet. 2013 May 18; 381(9879):1689.Although not to the same degree as in developing countries, maternal mortality remains a problem in the USA, especially among underserved populations. Pregnant women in the USA are affected by the same life-threatening health disorders as women worldwide: hypertension, hemorrhage, and sepsis, among others. The author discusses in a woman’s ability to obtain health insurance in the USA. The Affordable Care Act, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation have changed the way women access health services during pregnancy and enhanced prenatal care models. The author encourages that all parties assess the state of women’s health in their home countries, which includes both developing and developed countries.
Follow-up actions to recommendations of the high-level commissions convened to advance women’s and children’s health. Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 11.  p. (A66/14)This report has been prepared in response to resolution WHA65.7, which requested an annual report to the Health Assembly, through the Executive Board, on progress made in the follow-up of the recommendations of the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health. At the request of a Member State, the report also provides details of the Secretariat’s work on the recommendations and implementation plan of the United Nations Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children.
The role of FIGO in women's health and reducing reproductive morbidity and mortality. Special communication.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2012; 119 Suppl:S3-S5.This special communication discusses the vision, values and mission of FIGO, the role of FIGO in women's health, and FIGO's channels for improving women's health.
Where are we in achieving the goals of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health? Taking stock of progress and developing next steps for 2013, 19-20 November 2012, Geneva. Stakeholder meeting report.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012.  p.The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) co-chaired a two day meeting in Geneva of more than 70 representatives from national governments, the UN, civil society and the private sector. The meeting provided the first opportunity for partners to jointly discuss the independent Expert Review Group (iERG) recommendations and progress towards the multi-stakeholder program of work facilitated by WHO. Participants also discussed how to accelerate accountability and harmonize efforts in support of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. The overall objectives of the meeting were: to critically review progress in the implementation of the Global Strategy and the 10 recommendations of the Commission on Information and Accountability (CoIA); to provide strategic direction on implementing the iERG recommendations; and to explore synergies in the implementation of the different initiatives under the Global Strategy;
Contraception. 2011 Oct; 84(4):339-41.This editorial focuses on a strategy to expand contraceptive coverage through the development of a numerical International Statistical Classifications of Diseases (ICD) code for "unwanted fertility." It explains how this strategy would work, how to make the strategy happen through a revision process, and defining unwanted fertility as a medical problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2011.  p.This report calls for barriers to health services to be removed. The report contains a set of concrete recommendations for action by different stakeholders, including government, donors and civil society, to improve access to quality care and health information, and greater gender equality. The recommendations take a holistic approach, linking health inequities to poverty, gender bias, and human rights violations, which in turn impact on education, transport, health, agriculture and overall well-being. Success stories of social and political action in 10 countries around the world, including Egypt, Bangladesh, Malawi, Ecuador, Afghanistan, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Austria, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Eritrea, are also highlighted.
Analysing commitments to advance the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. The PMNCH 2011 report.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, 2011.  p.The overall objective of this report is to present an introductory analysis of the commitments to inform discussion and action on the following topics: 1. Accomplishments of the Global Strategy and the Every Woman, Every Child effort, in terms of the commitments to date; 2. Opportunities and challenges in advancing Global Strategy commitments; 3. Stakeholders' perceptions about the added value of the Global Strategy; and 4. Next steps to strengthen advocacy, action and accountability, taking forward the recommendations of the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. (Excerpt)
Washington, D.C., ICRW, 2010. 43 p.Girls receive a disproportionally small share of the total development dollars invested globally each year, but the field is primed for even greater action and investment. Before charting the way forward, it is important to understand more about current efforts underway on behalf of girls. ICRW designed a mapping exercise to identify the scope and range of work on issues related to girls being undertaken by key development actors. The exercise also helped analyze the core directions, opportunities, and gaps inherent across the efforts of multiple stakeholders. This report presents the key findings from this exercise, describing what we have learned about the donors and organizations engaged in working with girls, the policy and program efforts underway, and current and future directions for the field.
International Journal of Health Services. 2010; 40(3):543-67.Most international programs and policies devised to improve women's health in developing countries have been shaped by powerful agencies and development ideologies, including the tendency to view women solely through the lens of instrumentalism (i.e., as a means to an end). In a literature review, the authors followed the trail of instrumentalism by reviewing the different approaches and paradigms that have guided international development initiatives over the past 50 years. The analysis focuses on three key approaches to international development: the economic development, public health, and women-gender approaches. The findings indicate that progressive changes have adopted a more inclusive development perspective that is potentially beneficial to women's health. On the other hand, most paradigms have largely viewed improving women's lives in general, and their health in particular, as an investment or a means to development rather than an end in itself. Public health strategies did not escape the instrumentalism entrenched in the broader development paradigms. Although there was an opportunity for progress in the 1990s with the emergence of the human development and human rights paradigms and critical advances in Cairo and Beijing promoting women's agency, the current Millennium Development Goals project seems to have relapsed into instrumentalism.
Expanding Concern for Women's Health in Developing Countries. The Case of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.
Women's Health Issues. 2010 May-Jun; 20(3):171-177.Background: Women's health is still largely associated with the notion of reproduction in developing countries despite a more varied disease burden, including noncommunicable conditions resulting from consequences of changing epidemiologic and demographic patterns on women's health. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease data base is used to derive for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) cause-specific rates of death and of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by age for adult women, and percent of total deaths and total DALYs for women in the reproductive ages, as related to maternal conditions and to three selected noncommunicable conditions, namely, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neuropsychiatry conditions. Inequalities by country income category are examined. Results: Maternal health conditions still form a substantial component of the disease burden, with an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease and cancer starting in the late reproductive years and beyond. The burden of neuropsychiatric conditions is also high during the reproductive years, reflecting possibly the stress of multiple roles of women as well as stress of war and conflict that permeate the EMR. Women in low- to middle-income countries suffer more from maternal health conditions and less from neuropsychiatry conditions than women in high-income countries. Conclusion: The wider disease burden of women should be addressed making use of available reproductive health services taking special account of interactions between reproductive and noncommunicable conditions for better health of women during and beyond reproduction. Better measures of the burden of illness should be developed. There is a special need for improved health information systems in the EMR.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2009. 91 p.The report calls for action both within the health sector and beyond to improve the health and lives of girls and women around the world. The report provides the latest and most comprehensive evidence available on women's specific needs and health challenges over their entire life. The report includes the latest global and regional figures on the health and leading causes of death in women from birth, through childhood, adolescence and adulthood, to older age.
World Health and Population. 2008; 10(2):25-39.Our study examines factors influencing demand for contraception for spacing as well as for limiting births in India. Data on socio-economic, demographic and program factors affecting demand for contraception in India are from the National Family Health Survey, 1998--99. The recent document from the National Rural Health Mission has completely ignored the use of contraception in controlling fertility in India. Empirical results of our study suggest giving priority to and focusing attention on supply-side factors such as a regular and sustained supply of quality contraceptive methods to improve accessibility and affordability. Further, strengthening the information, education and communication (IEC) component of the reproductive and child health (RCH) package would allay misapprehensions about the side effects and health risks of contraception. Focusing attention on demand-side factors such as women's empowerment through education, gainful employment and exposure to mass-media would help reduce the unmet demand for family planning. The resulting reduction in fertility would hasten the process of demographic transition and population stabilization in India.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2008 Sep; 102(3):223-225.The editors of Contemporary Issues in Women's Health solicited reporters and correspondents from throughout the world to make contributions to this feature. Items submitted were stories on breastfeeding, FGM, Saudi women and ban on female drivers, and useful sources for women's health information.