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Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):33-7.This article on the European response to the challenge of implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) opens by acknowledging that the European Commission (EC) is placing gender and reproductive health on its agenda but that progress has been slow. Next, the article introduces the advocacy groups that seek to promote an enhanced understanding of the population, development, reproductive health paradigm in the EC. The third section considers whether the "new" alliance called for by the ICPD between governments at all levels and nongovernmental organizations is working. One positive example given is the dialogue established between NGOs and the UK All Parliamentary Group on Population, Development, and Reproductive Health. It is noted, however, that more national-level agenda-setting and mobilization are needed to implement the ICPD goals. Next, the article reviews the "old" population/development tension and concerns about the continued existence of demographically-driven, coercive family planning programs and a dearth of development NGOs working with population NGOs. The article explores this problem in the next section and asserts that the population/development tension was not magically dissolved by the ICPD and that neither population nor development NGOs have all the answers but should share resources and engage in more dialogue. The article concludes that continued progress in implementing the ICPD goals will require a careful look at successful partnerships; finding ways to support an exchange of knowledge, views, and experiences; and fostering a working climate of openness.
Panel session: the future agenda of the women's movement in relation to national and international structures.
In: Women's rights and development: vision and strategy for the twenty-first century. A seminar organised by One World Action, Oxfam UK/I, the Gender Institute of the London School of Economics, and Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, held at Wolfson College, Oxford, May 24, 1995. Report, compiled by Mandy Macdonald. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1995. 35-9. (Oxfam Working Paper)This paper reports on a panel discussion that considered the future agenda of the international women's and "gender and development" movements as part of a 1995 seminar on women's rights and development. First, a member of the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex pointed out male biases operating at IDS and provided examples of the narrow, compartmentalized vision that dominates considerations of development and gender. The next speaker, a member of Development Alternative with Women for a New Era, 1) proposed a political agenda for the international women's movement; 2) called for the reversal of South-North hierarchies and for a new slogan, "think locally, act globally"; and 3) related the women's movement to national and international structures. The third speaker, from the Development Studies Institute of the London School of Economics, pointed to the 1) need to develop new interventions to help women during wars and conflicts, 2) move beyond international conferences, and 3) consider the impact of North-South relations on the women's movement. The director of CHANGE, the fourth speaker, identified current challenges for the women's movement while applauding the broadening of women's human rights issues. Finally, a representative of Oxfam UK/Ireland pointed to women's human rights as the future agenda for the women's movement and offered various strategies that could be used by the women's movement and development agencies to affect change.
In: Changing perceptions: writings on gender and development, edited by Tina Wallace with Candida March. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1991. 141-8.In this essay in a book of writings on gender and development, the author relates her experience as the first Woman Project Officer hired by the Oxfam West India office in 1984. The previously all-male staff decided to hire a woman with development experience to tackle gender issues and to attempt to involve women in development programs, especially in decision-making processes. The strategy used was to create structures which would enable women to form groups and, eventually, to define their own development activity priorities and needs. This strategy failed, largely because it was not relevant to the position of the women in their society. It became apparent, however, that women's development must be integrated in all aspects of Oxfam's work at the organizational, office, and program levels. In 1985, therefore, a group of women project officers formed a group called Action for Gender Relations Asia (AGRA) to work toward this goal. AGRA first concentrated on the organization of Oxfam and its staff but found its abilities limited by the fact that it was comprised solely of Oxfam staff. Studies of the impacts of various projects on women have been undertaken to develop awareness of appropriate strategies. The shift in strategy required that, instead of forming separate women's groups, women be incorporated in development efforts. These attempts were blocked by patriarchal male leaders. Thus, women were appointed as organizers of women's development. Since many of these women were inexperienced, the patriarchal set-up was reinforced. Also, whereas most of the development programs had economic goals, the work with the women emphasized conscientization and organization, which was difficult for some group leaders and staff members to accept. These attempts are part of a process of change that is constantly evolving. It is hoped that what was learned from them will contribute to an understanding of gender issues.
Washington, D.C., CEDPA, . , 16,  p.The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), an international organization, was founded in 1975 to empower women at all levels of society to be full partners in development. CEDPA's 1993 Annual Report describes the contribution of CEDPA network partners to the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development. CEDPA efforts on behalf of women are focused on 1) the provision of family planning and related reproductive health care services, 2) education for girls, and 3) training women leaders and managers in population and development. In each area, CEDPA works to expand women's access, choice, and participation in population and development policy, implementation, and decision making. This report includes the 1993 balance sheets for the organization and lists of supporters, sponsors, members of the board of directors, and staff. CEDPA's 1993 activities in the areas of family planning, AIDS prevention, maternal and child health, adolescent fertility, health education, family life education, skills training/income generation, literacy training, management training, institution building, the environment, and policy advocacy are indicated on a table which shows the country (Egypt, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Mali, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, Turkey, and Uganda) and name of specific projects.