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  1. 1

    Primary and secondary infertility in Tanzania.

    Larsen U

    Journal of Health and Population in Developing Countries. 2003 Jul 2; [15] p..

    The trend and predictors of infertility are not well known in sub-Saharan Africa. A nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) was conducted in Tanzania in 1991/92, 1996 and 1999, enabling a trend study of infertility. Logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of infertility. The prevalence of primary infertility was about 2.5%, and secondary infertility was about 18%. There was no change between the 1991/92, 1996 and 1999 TDHS. The risk of primary infertility was higher in the Dar es Salaam and Coast regions than in other regions and secondary infertility was higher in the Dar es Salaam region. The Dar es Salaam and Coast regions are known for also having elevated levels of HIV/AIDS. Because sexual practices and sexually transmitted diseases are strong predictors of pathological infertility and HIV infection in Africa, we recommend that concerted efforts be made to integrate the prevention of new incidences of infertility with the HIV/AIDS campaigns. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Rural women's aspirations through art work. Responses to ICPD.

    CHINA POPULATION TODAY. 1995 Apr; 12(2):11.

    Members of Women, Population and Development groups, which aim to improve women's status in rural areas of China, will use their embroidery and tapestries to tell their stories at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995. Contests were held at the county and provincial levels to decide whose artwork, from over a 1000 groups, would go to the conference. 35 pieces (one group tapestry or embroidery from each county) were judged at the provincial level based on how the artwork and the stories of the women who made it demonstrated the achievements of the women as a result of their group involvement. The criteria included: 1) higher self image, confidence, and desire for personal growth; 2) increased social mobility and creativity; 3) more independence and self-reliance in income generation and other activities; 4) increased ability to make decisions for self; 5) increased respect within family and community; 6) more consciousness of maternal and child health and family planning needs; and 7) more awareness of the need for literacy. The Women, Population and Development Project is funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), executed by FAO, and implemented by MOFTEC\DIR.
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  3. 3

    Helping women traders. Organizing for change: Nigeria.

    Obadina E

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1995; 4(3):18-9.

    In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors.
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  4. 4

    Exploring new paths to service delivery in Palestine.


    From 1963 to 1987, the Palestinian Family Planning (FP) and Protection Association (FPA) set up 11 urban clinics and branches. As the result of a needs survey in 1985, the FPA was planning to provide more services in rural areas. The political situation and the 1987 start of the Intifada, however, made delivery of even existing services more difficult and helped create a pronatalist atmosphere which was fueled by religious opposition to FP. In order to continue its work, the FPA took advantage of interagency cooperation with the nongovernmental organizations which had existing health clinics and which agreed to provide contraceptives in exchange for a percentage of the sales revenue. The role of the FPA was to provide the supplies and to train staff in service provision. The FPA also used this cooperative system to funnel FP information, education, and communication to women's groups. Through these efforts the FPA reached 60% more new clients in 1992 than it had in 1991. This successful cooperative method had its roots in the efforts the FPA had made since the 1970s to provide FP services in the maternal and child care clinics for refugees set up by the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA). In 1993, the FPA received funding to open its own clinic in Gaza (where 75% of the people are refugees). The FPA is also actively seeking the involvement of religious leaders in discussions about the incorporation of FP in refugee health programs. Meanwhile, in 1990, the UNRWA began to offer FP as part of its maternal health program and to refer clients to the FPA where they were served free of charge. When the UNRWA began to provide FP services directly, the FPA provided the training for the UNRWA personnel. By remaining flexible, the FPA has been able to use appropriate channels to deliver its own expertise to women in need. Creative new approaches will continue to be called for to reach the thousands of women who remain in need of FP services.
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