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WOMEN 2000. 1992; (2):1-23.The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th world conference on women for 1995.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 69,  p. (Evaluation Report)In 1991, a mission in India, Bhutan and Nepal evaluated UNFPA/WHO South East Asian Regional Office (SEARO) maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects. The Regional Advisory Team in MCH/FP Project (RT) placed more emphasis on the MCH component than the FP component. It included all priority areas identified in 1984, but did not include management until 1988. In fact, it delayed recruiting a technical officer and recruited someone who was unqualified and who performed poorly. SEARO improved cooperation between RT and community health units and named the team leader as regional adviser for family health. The RT team did not promote itself very well, however, Member countries and UNFPA did request technical assistance from RT for MCH/FP projects, especially operations research. RT also set up fruitful intercountry workshops. The team did not put much effort in training, adolescent health, and transfer of technology, though. Further RT project management was still weak. Overall SEARO had been able to follow the policies of governments, but often its advisors did not follow UNFPA guidelines when helping countries plan the design and strategy of country projects. Delays in approval were common in all the projects reviewed by the mission. Furthermore previous evaluations also identified this weakness. In addition, a project in Bhutan addressed mothers' concerns but ignored other women's roles such as managers of households and wage earners. Besides, little was done to include women's participation in health sector decision making at the basic health unit and at the central health ministry. In Nepal, institution building did not include advancement for women or encourage proactive role roles of qualified women medical professionals. In Bhutan, but not Nepal, fellowships and study tours helped increase the number of trained personnel attending intercountry activities.