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Karachi, Pakistan, APWA, .  p.The All Pakistan Women's Association (APWA), established in 1949 and granted consultative status with the UN in 1952, seeks to further the moral, social, economic, and legal status of Pakistani women and children. On the international level, APWA has played a leading role in promoting collaboration and a sharing of experiences on women's and children's issues among nongovernmental organizations. In addition, the APWA campaigns for international security conflict resolution and disarmament and was the 1987 recipient of the UN Peace Messenger Certificate. Within Pakistan, the provision of health care services to women and children in rural areas, urban slums, and squatter settlements is a priority. 56 family welfare centers have been established by APWA to provide family planning education and services, prenatal care, maternal-child health referrals, immunization, oral rehydration, breast feeding promotion, basic curative care, and group meetings. No other family planning services are available in the areas where these centers are located. The centers are staffed by a female health visitor, who provides a range of contraceptive methods and follows up acceptors, and motivators, who provide family planning education in the community. The motivator also recruits a volunteer in each community who opens her home as a place for weekly group meetings and contraceptive distribution. APWA's strategy, however, is to introduce family planning through community development projects aimed at income generation, child care, nutritional education, and primary and adult education. Since 1987, comprehensive rural development projects have been carried out in 20 villages in all 4 provinces. Another emphasis has been the improvement of women's status through legal action. The APWA was instrumental in having an equal rights for women clause inserted in the 1972 Interim Constitution and succeeded in preventing passage of an ordinance that would have made compensation for the murder of a woman half that for the murder of a man.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD CHALLENGES. 1994; (1):28-30.From 1963 to 1987, the Palestinian Family Planning (FP) and Protection Association (FPA) set up 11 urban clinics and branches. As the result of a needs survey in 1985, the FPA was planning to provide more services in rural areas. The political situation and the 1987 start of the Intifada, however, made delivery of even existing services more difficult and helped create a pronatalist atmosphere which was fueled by religious opposition to FP. In order to continue its work, the FPA took advantage of interagency cooperation with the nongovernmental organizations which had existing health clinics and which agreed to provide contraceptives in exchange for a percentage of the sales revenue. The role of the FPA was to provide the supplies and to train staff in service provision. The FPA also used this cooperative system to funnel FP information, education, and communication to women's groups. Through these efforts the FPA reached 60% more new clients in 1992 than it had in 1991. This successful cooperative method had its roots in the efforts the FPA had made since the 1970s to provide FP services in the maternal and child care clinics for refugees set up by the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA). In 1993, the FPA received funding to open its own clinic in Gaza (where 75% of the people are refugees). The FPA is also actively seeking the involvement of religious leaders in discussions about the incorporation of FP in refugee health programs. Meanwhile, in 1990, the UNRWA began to offer FP as part of its maternal health program and to refer clients to the FPA where they were served free of charge. When the UNRWA began to provide FP services directly, the FPA provided the training for the UNRWA personnel. By remaining flexible, the FPA has been able to use appropriate channels to deliver its own expertise to women in need. Creative new approaches will continue to be called for to reach the thousands of women who remain in need of FP services.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 69,  p. (Evaluation Report)In 1991, a mission in India, Bhutan and Nepal evaluated UNFPA/WHO South East Asian Regional Office (SEARO) maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects. The Regional Advisory Team in MCH/FP Project (RT) placed more emphasis on the MCH component than the FP component. It included all priority areas identified in 1984, but did not include management until 1988. In fact, it delayed recruiting a technical officer and recruited someone who was unqualified and who performed poorly. SEARO improved cooperation between RT and community health units and named the team leader as regional adviser for family health. The RT team did not promote itself very well, however, Member countries and UNFPA did request technical assistance from RT for MCH/FP projects, especially operations research. RT also set up fruitful intercountry workshops. The team did not put much effort in training, adolescent health, and transfer of technology, though. Further RT project management was still weak. Overall SEARO had been able to follow the policies of governments, but often its advisors did not follow UNFPA guidelines when helping countries plan the design and strategy of country projects. Delays in approval were common in all the projects reviewed by the mission. Furthermore previous evaluations also identified this weakness. In addition, a project in Bhutan addressed mothers' concerns but ignored other women's roles such as managers of households and wage earners. Besides, little was done to include women's participation in health sector decision making at the basic health unit and at the central health ministry. In Nepal, institution building did not include advancement for women or encourage proactive role roles of qualified women medical professionals. In Bhutan, but not Nepal, fellowships and study tours helped increase the number of trained personnel attending intercountry activities.