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New York, New York, UNICEF, 1994 May. 26 p. (Evaluation and Research Working Paper Series No. 1)This paper describes trends in income generation or women's productive program activities, UNICEF's experience in supporting women's productive activities, and women's and children's needs. This report was prepared as a stimulus to debate about UNICEF's role in supporting women's productive activities during the 1990s. It is emphasized that the term "women's productive activities" avoids the association of women's income generation programs with marginalized activities. "Support to women's productive activities" reflects UNICEF's growing approach to provision of direct economic tools, such as credit or skills training, and complementary services, such as child care and labor saving devices. UNICEF's models stress effective service delivery. Programs need to clarify to what extent resources will be applied to women's productive activities as a strategy of empowerment. Approaches require holistic strategies and a clarification of the objective of supporting productive activities. Three questions need to be answered. Strategies need to prioritize when the actions complement support given by other agencies, support experimental objectives, or advocate for legal and institutional change. The reproductive years are the primary years for economic production. Care must be taken not to sacrifice the daughter's future by restricting her to child care at the expense of education. There are many forces working against poor women in developing countries. UNICEF works to meet the practical needs of women. UNICEF works closely with sectors of health, education, water supply and sanitation, and basic services.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1993. vii, 119 p. (WHO/NUT/MCH/93.1)This World Health Organization (WHO) publication was prepared to provide current technical information and recommendations to policymakers and program planners involved in the promotion of breast feeding. This book summarizes the discussions and recommendations that grew out of the 1990 WHO/UNICEF Technical Meeting on breast feeding. The first chapter presents a technical overview of global breast-feeding prevalence and trends for each WHO region (Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific). Chapter 2 looks at the practices related to breast feeding in maternity care services and in postnatal services. The implementation of programmatic changes to support breast feeding as well as cost issues are also considered. The third chapter provides a technical overview of lactation management training as well as a comment on program implementation. Chapter 4 considers the role of breast-feeding support groups from a technical and implementation viewpoint. Chapter 5 is devoted to issues of information, education, and communication in support of breast feeding as well as examples of program implementation in Brazil, Iran, Guatemala, Australia, and Kenya. Specific problems in implementation are also covered. The final chapter discusses breast feeding in working situations and covers such issues as maternity and child care entitlements on the international, national, community, and individual levels as well as cost issues. Each chapter contains specific recommendations, referrals for further reading, and references (if applicable). The Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion, and Support of Breastfeeding is annexed to the volume.