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Your search found 45 Results

  1. 1
    321706

    Is gender justice a priority for the UN and what more is needed for a coordinated institutional approach?

    Salah R

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 7 p.

    The challenge for us in the United Nations system is how to work with our international and local partners to undertake national reconstruction using a human rights based approach, to enable a transition to rule of rights, not a continuation of rule of abuse. We must develop a common approach to ensure that war-torn societies are rebuilt in such a way that nondiscrimination, and a total respect for rights, particularly those of girls and women, can be used to develop constitutions, legal frameworks, justice and security systems underpinned by the primacy of equal enjoyment of rights. UNICEF is currently covering a range of activities from the overall umbrella of child protection, including issues of child soldiers and DDR, mine action, juvenile justice, and international accountability for crimes against children to broader humanitarian survival issues such as health, nutrition and education. With its rights-based approach to policy development and programme implementation, UNICEF is strategicallyplaced to uphold the pre-eminence of the rights of women and girls and to work with partners to address gender justice issues at field level. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    321700

    Supporting gender justice in Afghanistan: opportunities and challenges.

    Mantovani A

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.

    For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    321699

    The implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in the eyes of the mover.

    Nandi-Ndaitwah N

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    Why Women and Peace? The theme imposed itself. The last year of the 20th century represented an invitation and challenge to recapitulate and remember as well as to compare scores and balance sheets of the turbulent epoch we were leaving behind. No doubt, the 20th century was the century of wars. As never before in human history civilians paid the highest price of conflicts and conflagrations. In the two world wars and innumerable local wars, interventions, internal ethnic clashes, revolutions and coups, more than 100 million people were killed - the vast majority of them being civilians. Sometimes they were directly targeted; at other times they were "collateral damage" - to use an ugly euphemism coined by NATO during its 1999 intervention against Yugoslavia. From Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Vietnam to Pol Pot's Cambodia to Iran-Iraq to Afghanistan to Liberia to Sierra Leone to Rwanda to Burundi to Colombia to Iraq again... it is the civilians who suffered the most and among them, women and childrenas the most vulnerable ones. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    321698

    Talking points.

    de La Sabliere JM

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 4 p.

    Unfortunately, this is extremely well documented in countries in conflict. Many of the reports submitted to the Security Council include mention of the use of rape as a weapon of war. Recently, a report of the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) on the situation of human rights in Ituri provided information on this problem which is as specific as it is frightening. But, paradoxically, in countries which are not in conflict, the issue of violence against women is often neglected, where it is not concealed. But the private sphere cannot be an area where rights do not apply. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    321694

    Panel 4. Introductory remarks.

    McDougall G

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    When wars occur, women are usually the most abused, aggrieved and powerless. In the vast majority of countries, women play no significant role in the decision-making process of whether war is warranted or lawful. When hostilities break out, women are exposed not only to the forms of violence and devastation that accompany any war but also to forms of violence directed specifically at women on account of their gender. The use of sexual violence and sexual slavery as tactics and weapons of war remains at a high level in spite of tremendous strides made by the global community over the past decade. It is imperative to acknowledge the immeasurable injury to body, mind and spirit that is inflicted by these acts. The overall deterioration in the conditions of women in armed conflict situations is due not only to the collapse of social restraints and the general mayhem that armed conflict causes, but also to a strategic decision on the part of combatants to intimidate and destroy the enemy as a whole byraping and enslaving women who are identified as members of the other warring party. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    321693

    Breaking the silence -- rape as an international crime.

    Ellis M

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    In 1999, I stood among a sea of 20,000 desperate people on a dirt airfield outside Skopje, Macedonia, listening to one harrowing story after another. I had come to the Stenkovec refugee camp to record those stories and to help set up a system for documenting atrocities in Kosovo. The refugees with whom I spoke described being robbed, beaten, herded together and forced to flee their villages with nothing but the clothes they were wearing. Yet, what I remember most vividly are the lost expressions on the faces of the young women and girls in the camp. At first, they did not speak a word. Their silence acted as a veil, concealing crimes that they could not emotionally recollect. However, slowly, through time and comfort in speaking to female counsellors, their stories emerged. The brutality and systematic consistency of the sexual violence perpetrated on these women were mind-numbing. The widespread practice of rape against Muslim women was more than a consequence of war, it was an instrument of war with the intent of destroying the cultural fabric of a targeted group. This experience brought home to me a truism in international and national conflict: women suffer disproportionately to the atrocities committed against civilians. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    320919

    Integrating gender issues into HIV / AIDS programs: an operational guide.

    Ofosu-Amaah AW; Oppong MY

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Gender and Development Group, 2004 Nov. [43] p.

    This Operational Guide provides specific guidance to national HIV/AIDS program management teams, public-sector ministries, private sector entities, and non-governmental and community-based organizations (NGOs/CBOs) implementing World Bank-financed HIV/AIDS programs and projects, as well as the World Bank's operational staff who design these programs and projects. It provides concrete examples of the integration of gender concerns into all stages of project preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The immediate objective is to provide the tools needed to identify and analyze gender-specific issues and concerns in HIV/AIDS programs and make appropriate provisions in HIV/AIDS operations to address these concerns. The ultimate goal of this Operational Guide is to enhance the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions by ensuring that the gender inequalities that underlie the epidemic are addressed. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    320918

    The gender dimensions of HIV / AIDS: challenges for South Africa. Extracts from a regional scan and South Asian Regional Consultation.

    Khanna A

    New Delhi, India, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], South Asia Inter-Country Team, 2004 Aug. 39 p. (UNAIDS/04.47E)

    The regional consultation brought together key Government representatives from seven countries of the region, across the HIV/AIDS sector, women's machinery, representative of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Secretariat, and UN agencies working at regional levels, bilateral agencies and UNIFEM's partner organizations working on a range of development issues - such as mental health, violence against women, anti-trafficking, home-based work and economic rights, gender and sexuality, media advocacy - and networks of women living with HIV/AIDS. It provided a platform for learning and cross-regional sharing and identification of gaps and opportunities, and enabled the development of a regional strategy to work cohesively towards tackling the gender dimensions of HIV/AIDS. The consultation also provided strategic direction for UNIFEM to advance its work in the region. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    320917

    Facing the future together: Report of the Secretary General's Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV / AIDS in Southern Africa. Advocacy version.

    United Nations. Secretary-General. Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV / AIDS in Southern Africa

    Johannesburg, South Africa, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2004 Jul. 26 p. (UNAIDS/04.33E)

    Southern Africa is the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. After growing steadily for two decades, the prevalence rates appear at last to have stabilised - but at shockingly high levels of prevalence. By 2002, more than 20 percent of pregnant women tested were HIV-positive, with several countries in the sub-region reporting a rate of infection in antenatal care clinics of more than 25 percent. Sub-Saharan Africa is also the only region in the world in which HIV infection rates are higher among women than men. For every ten men with the HIV virus, thirteen women are infected. The impact on young women and girls aged 15-24 - those who have only recently become sexually active - is even more dramatic. They are two and a half times more likely to be infected than males in the same age group. The gap is larger still in Southern Africa, where in Zambia and Zimbabwe girls and young women make up close to a staggering eighty percent of all young people aged 15-24 who are living with HIV/AIDS. What are the reasons for this enormous disparity? Why are women and young girls bearing the brunt of the pandemic in Southern Africa? The answers lie in poverty, violence and gender inequality. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    320912

    A UNAIDS initiative: The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2004 Nov. [4] p.

    The Global Coalition on Women and Aids brings together a wide range of partners - civil society groups, networks of women living with HIV and AIDS, governments, and UN agencies - who work together to lessen the devastating impact of AIDS on women and girls worldwide. Almost half of the adults living with HIV and AIDS today are women. Over the past two years, the number of women and girls infected with HIV has increased in every region of the world, with rates rising particularly rapidly in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In sub-Saharan Africa, women and girls already make up almost 60% of adults living with HIV. Launched in early 2004, the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS works at global and national levels to highlight the effects of AIDS on women and girls and to stimulate concrete and effective action to prevent the spread of HIV. Coalition partners seek to address some of the fundamental gender inequalities that fuel the epidemic. Efforts are focused on preventing new HIV infections, promoting equal access to care and treatment, ensuring universal access to education, addressing legal inequities, reducing violence against women, and valuing women's care work within communities. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    312551

    Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use -- 3rd edition. Summary of changes.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [2004]. [1] p.

    This document is one important step in a process for improving access to quality of care in family planning by reviewing the medical eligibility criteria for selecting methods of contraception. It updates the second edition of Improving access to quality care in family planning: medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, published in 2000, and summarizes the main recommendations of an expert Working Group meeting held at the World Health Organization, Geneva, 21-24 October 2003. The Working Group brought together 36 participants from 18 countries, including representatives of many agencies and organizations. The document provides recommendations for appropriate medical eligibility criteria based on the latest clinical and epidemiological data and is intended to be used by policy-makers, family planning programme managers and the scientific community. It aims to provide guidance to national family planning/reproductive health programmes in the preparation of guidelines for service deliveryof contraceptives. It should not be seen or used as the actual guidelines but rather as a reference. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    302644

    FHI's quick reference chart for the WHO medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. To initiate or continue the use of combined oral contraceptive (COC), Noristerat (NET-EN), Depo-Provera (DMPA), copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD).

    Family Health International [FHI]

    [Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, 2004 Mar. [1] p.

    I/C (Initiation/Continuation): A woman may fall into either one category or another, depending on whether she is initiating or continuing to use a method. For example, a client with current PID who wants to initiate IUD use would be considered as Category 4, and should not have an IUD inserted. However, if she develops PID while using the IUD, she would be considered as Category 2. This means she could generally continue using the IUD and be treated for PID with the IUD in place. Where I/C is not marked, a woman with that condition falls in the category indicated - whether or not she is initiating or continuing use of the method. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    302187

    Recent advances in prevention of mother to child (PMTCT) of HIV [editorial]

    Musoke P

    African Health Sciences. 2004 Dec; 4(3):144-145.

    In Africa alone, over 1600 infants become infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) each day despite the advances in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). WHO recommends the 4 pronged approach to PMTCT that includes primary prevention of HIV, prevention of unintended pregnancies in HIV infected women, PMTCT and care and support for HIV infected women, infants and families. The complete PMTCT package includes comprehensive antenatal (ANC) care, modified obstetric practices, antiretroviral therapy and infant feeding counseling and support. This editorial will focus mainly on the advances made in antiretroviral regimens for PMTCT. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    301194

    For the sake of honour: but whose honour? "Honour crimes" against women.

    Tripathi A; Yadav S

    Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law. 2004; 5(2):63-78.

    This article endevours to answer questions on this negative social behaviour which have recently engulfed the minds of many, especially in light of its increase in occurrence. These are queries such as: What are honour crimes? Whose honour is at stake? What steps are being taken to curb them? What is the extent to which they are prevalent in Islamic states, as well as Western states and others such as India?1 And where finally does the problem lie? (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    300237

    The "war on terror", and withdrawing American charity: Some consequences for poor Muslim women in Kolkata, India.

    Samanta S

    Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism. 2004; 4(1):137-167.

    While I cannot establish conclusive links between connected events, several pertinent questions have, for me, pointed to tentative but disturbing conclusions. The thrust of this paper comments on the disjuncture between American claims to “liberate” the Muslim woman in its “war on terror,” and the actual consequences for “real” people when political agendas underlie such rhetoric—even for private donor agencies working in the developing world. In the account that follows, I describe briefly some of AAES’s programs, with a focus on their programs for women; its achievements; my own involvement as a CSC “sponsor” of a young girl in the basti; and developments after the events of September 11, 2001. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    298968

    AIDS: A disease of mass destruction.

    Achebe CC

    Dialectical Anthropology. 2004; 28(3-4):261-287.

    It is now impossible to view the AIDS pandemic solely from the vantage point of its health ramifications. Like a tornado wreaking havoc to everything in its path, AIDS has also torn the social, economic and political fabric of several societies to shreds. In January, 2000, while speaking at the UN Security Council Session, James Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank, stated: "Many of us used to think of AIDS as a health issue. We were wrong... nothing we have seen is a greater challenge to the peace and stability of African societies (and much of the world) than the epidemic of AIDS... we face a major development crisis, and more than that, a security crisis." Four years and more than eight million deaths later, an equally passionate and resolute Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General, spoke to the BBC and describe AIDS as "a real weapon of mass destruction" and bemoaned the world's relative inaction to combat this pandemic as "callousness that one would not have expected in the 21st century"... for which history would judge us all "harshly, very harshly.". (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    294522
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy in the WHO MONICA project.

    Lundberg V; Tolonen H; Stegmayr B; Kuulasmaa K; Asplund K

    Maturitas. 2004 May 28; 48(1):39-49.

    The aims were to compare menopausal age and the use of oral contraceptives (OC) and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) between the 32 populations of the WHO MONICA Project, representing 20 different countries. Using a uniform protocol, age at menopause and the use of OC and HRT was recorded in a random sample of 25-64 year-old women attending the final MONICA population cardiovascular risk factor survey between 1989 and 1997. A total of 39,120 women were included. There were wide variations between the populations in the use of OC and HRT. The use of OC varied between 0 and 52% in pre-menopausal women aged 35-44 years, Central and East Europe and North America having the lowest and West Europe and Australasia the highest prevalence rates. Among post-menopausal women between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence of HRT use varied from 0 to 42%. In general, the use of HRT was high in Western and Northern Europe, North America and Australasia and low in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and China. With the exception of Canada (45 years), the mean age at menopause differed only little (ranging from 48 to 50 years) between the populations. The use of OC and HRT varies markedly between populations, in general following a regional pattern. Whereas, the prevalence rates are mostly similar within a country, there are remarkable differences even between neighbouring countries, reflecting nation-specific medical practice and public attitudes that are not necessarily based on scientific evidence. (author's)
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  18. 18
    296418

    Security Council focuses on women, peace and security. [El Consejo de Seguridad se centra en la mujer, la paz y la seguridad]

    UN Chronicle. 2004 Sep-Nov; 41(3):[3] p..

    The participation of women is a key variable in achieving sustainable peace and security. Having recognized this principle in its resolution on women, peace and security, the Security Council, during a working roundtable meeting at the Rockefeller Foundation on the 1 July, discussed the concrete implications of resolution 1325 (2000) on their daily activities. The Permanent Missions of Canada, Chile and the United Kingdom to the United Nations and the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security co-sponsored this roundtable with Council members. The discussion focus built on the recommendations developed at the first roundtable held in January 2004. In his opening remarks, Ambassador Lauro L. Baja, Jr. of the Philippines stated: "We cannot lose sight of women's concerns in the reconstruction processes. Sustainable and durable peace can only be achieved when women's concerns and contributions are incorporated in every aspect of rebuilding the peace, including social and economic reconstruction." (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    286905

    Conference in Amsterdam explores correlation between reproductive rights and culture.

    Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):15.

    A conference titled, “Cairo and Beyond: Reproductive Rights and Culture” was organized by the Dutch government and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on International Women’s Day, March 8th in Amsterdam. The event concluded with a pledge to “break the silence and taboos on culture and religion and their relation to reproductive and sexual health and rights,” by Agnes van Ardenne, Dutch Minister for Development Cooperation and Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, Executive Director of UNFPA. They also promised “to establish a permanent dialogue on these vital issues.” Over 100 experts from around the world attended the event and participants agreed that although progress has been made in the ten years since the 1994 ICPD in Cairo, many substantial challenges still remain. The conference focused specifically on those challenges related to the interconnections between culture and reproductive rights. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    286838

    UNFPA provides emergency supplies to Haiti. [Le FNUAP fournit à Haïti des fournitures d'urgence]

    Population 2005. 2004 Apr; 6(1):15.

    According to a United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) press release, emergency medical supplies were airlifted and arrived in Port-au-Prince, Haiti in March. Weeks of civil conflicts have led to the destruction and looting of much of Haiti’s health-care system and sexual violence continues to reach alarming levels. The supplies included drugs and materials for safe childbirth and for treatment of rape and sexually transmitted infections. Also included in the airlift were emergency obstetric supplies and equipment for clinics and hospitals that were looted during the civil unrest that has ravaged Haiti in recent months. UNFPA plans to manage the distribution of the supplies throughout the country with the help of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Since the crisis began, the three agencies have been working together to reduce maternal mortality. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    286411

    First empower.

    Germain A

    Our Planet. 2004 Oct; [3] p..

    Are women part of the problem or part of the solution? Ten years ago at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, 179 countries agreed that—when it comes to families and health, education and development, population and the environment, in every country, whether rich or poor—women's health and rights are key to the solution. Participants recognized that the world's most pressing challenges—poverty, ill health, ignorance, environmental destruction —could be solved only by addressing the needs and rights of every girl and woman, especially the disenfranchised, at the most personal level. They confirmed each individual's right to health, education and, yes, the ability to control her sexual and reproductive decisions. These were not utopian notions, motivated by idealism, although idealism abounded. The underlying premise was that, by investing in each woman's education and health—step by step, woman by woman—her empowerment would enable her to make choices that would profoundly benefit her family, her community and her world. Her decisions and those of millions of others like her around the globe would lead to slower population growth, increased prosperity and less pressure on the environment. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    286126

    Gender mainstreaming: Can it work for women's rights?

    Williams M; Win E; Johnsson-Latham G; Sandler J

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov. [12] p. (Spotlight No. 3)

    Gender mainstreaming was meant to deliver women their equality, or so says the Beijing Platform for Action which refers to the term over 35 times. It was the process we embraced and vociferously fought for in the many meetings, negotiations and documents leading up to Beijing. Yet ten years later, not only is the Beijing Platform for Action taken seriously by few, gender mainstreaming is being widely criticized as a confusing conceptual framework at best and a force that has totally undermined women’s rights at worst. AWID chose to put together this issue in order to stimulate debate on how gender mainstreaming is understood, its impact and what we need to do about it. At this moment in history there is a growing clamor in women’s movements for us to rethink our strategies in order to put all women’s rights back on national and global agendas. We therefore asked four dynamic AWID members, all engaged with gender mainstreaming (and its effects) on a daily basis but in very different ways and places, to write their honest opinions about what has gone wrong. We then shared their candid views amongst them and had them respond to what their colleagues wrote. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    286125

    We, the women: the United Nations, feminism and economic justice.

    Randriamaro Z

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov. [12] p. (Spotlight No. 2)

    The evidence is mounting: internationally agreed development and human rights goals are not being met. Moreover, civil society organizations and social movements are suffering from ‘conference fatigue’ after years of systematic involvement in the United Nations conference arena. Women’s organizations and international networks are particularly affected. What does this imply for economic justice and women’s engagement with the United Nations (“UN”)? Should the United Nations be reformed, should feminist movements reinvest in UN processes, or is the UN no longer a strategic site through which to pursue economic and gender justice? This paper aims to contribute to this debate, while not pretending to cover all UN mechanisms or processes. Beginning with an overview of the current context and global governance framework, the paper then focuses on four key economic-related UN mechanisms, namely the Millennium Development Goals (“MDGs”), the Financing for Development process (“FfD”), human right treaties including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), and World Conferences. Each of these international norm-setting spaces is assessed for its efficacy as a platform for promoting gender and economic justice, considering the status of the mechanism and the outcomes of women’s participation to date. The paper also discusses the major challenges facing women’s movements in their quest for gender and economic justice though international venues, including the implications of some of the reform proposals put forward in the recently released Cardoso Report on civil society engagement with the UN. It concludes with a call to engage critically with United Nations mechanisms, reclaiming these global policy spaces. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    280022

    Global programmes.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    In: Global appeal, 2004, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2004. 28-43.

    Promoting equality between refugee women and men and ensuring that refugee women’s rights are recognised and implemented as an integral part of human rights is at the heart of UNHCR’s policy to provide better protection and assistance to refugee women. This policy is also rooted in international agreements and standards, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Beijing Platform for Action, ExCom conclusions, ECOSOC resolutions and Security Council Resolution 1325. UNHCR’s approach to empowering refugee women is based on mainstreaming gender equality by placing it at the centre of policy decisions. Empowering refugee women through multi-sectoral activities will enhance the protection of their rights, their capacity to participate in decision-making processes and their contribution to the well-being of their families and communities. It will also help to ensure that they participate actively in the design of durable solutions for their communities, including peace-building through reconciliation and peace negotiation processes. To this end, UNHCR will provide support to country operations to build teams and networks that will ensure adequate protection and assistance to women and girls. UNHCR will build on lessons learned to give visibility to refugee women’s capacities and needs, integrating these elements into all stages of the programming cycle. In 2004, UNHCR will promote a broadening of responsibility and accountability for the protection and empowerment of refugee women. Leadership by senior mangement in headquarters and the field offices will also be emphasised. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    279857

    Ensuring equitable access to antiretroviral treatment for women. WHO / UNAIDS policy statement.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 6 p.

    WHO and UNAIDS are actively promoting the scale-up of programmes to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the aim of reaching three million people by the end of 2005 ('3 by 5 Initiative'). Equity in access to HIV treatment is a critical element of the '3 by 5' and will contribute to the broader 'right to health' for all. Attention must therefore be given to ensuring access to ART and other treatment, care and prevention, for people who risk exclusion including on the basis of their sex. Currently there is limited information available on the sex and age distribution of those receiving ART, however, we know that gender-based inequalities often affect women's ability to access services. Attention is therefore required to ensure that women and girls have equitable access to ART as it becomes available. Gender-based inequalities put women and girls at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Women's limited ability to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners, including condom use, can place even women who are faithful to one partner at risk of HIV infection. Married adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable. Sexual violence, including rape, likewise increases the risk of HIV for women and girls. In addition, they typically have less access to education, income-generating opportunities, property ownership and legal protection than men. This means many women are not able to leave relationships even when they know that they may be at risk of HIV. (excerpt)
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