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[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/52)Reaffirming that discrimination on the basis of sex is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments, and that its elimination is an integral part of efforts towards the elimination of violence against women. Reaffirming the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993. Recalling all its previous resolutions on the elimination of violence against women, in particular its resolution 1994/45 of 4 March 1994, in which it decided to appoint a special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. Noting all General Assembly resolutions relevant to elimination of violence against women. Welcoming the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted in September 1995 by the Fourth World Conference on Women (A/CONF.177/20, chap. I), follow-up action by the Commission on the Status of Women on violence against women and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled "Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century". (excerpt)
Integrating the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/50.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/50)Reaffirming that the equal rights of women and men are enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments. Recalling all previous resolutions on this subject. Recalling also the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) which affirms that the human rights of women and of the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights and calls for action to integrate the equal status and human rights of women into the mainstream of United Nations activity system-wide. Welcoming the increased integration of a gender perspective into the work of all entities of the United Nations and the major United Nations conferences, special sessions and summits, such as the special session of the General Assembly on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and their integrated and coordinated follow-up. (excerpt)
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 2002.  p. (FHI Research Brief No. 6; RB-02-06E)Community-based workers worldwide use checklists to determine whether women are medically eligible to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). However, problems may arise when outdated and inaccurate checklists are used. With input from dozens of experts, Family Health International developed new checklists that are easily understandable and consistent with the World Health Organization's (WHO) medical eligibility requirements. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 2002 Dec; 39(4): p..The Secretary-General's final report on women, peace and security to the Security Council was released on 21 October 2002, coinciding with the second anniversary of the Council's adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), which mandated the Secretary General to carry out a study on the impact of armed conflict on women and girls, women's roles in peace-building and the dimensions of gender in peace processes and conflict resolution. The report contains recommendations on how the United Nations can improve the status of women in peace and security processes, and hasten implementation of the resolution. The study analyzes the effects of armed conflict situations involving women and girls, who are both victims and perpetrators of violence, and whose contributions to all aspects of peace operations-peacemaking, peace-building, humanitarian operations, and reconstruction and rehabilitation-would increase the chances to achieve sustainable peace. The study asserts that there has been a failure to integrate gender perspectives into peace processes and conflict resolution due to a lack of know-how and accountability mechanisms on the part of policy- and decision-makers. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..Violence against women, be it threats, intimidation, harassment, sexual attacks or rape, considerably inhibits women’s mobility within the city. Women are targets of violence due to their vulnerability, and this vulnerability perpetuates their position in society. This means that in large cities, most women restrict their movements or activities because they feel unsafe. This daily experience of insecurity makes them infinitely qualified to detect problems and offer solutions. One of the ways in which women can feel safer and fully benefit from the services and resources cities have to offer is to actively go about changing their environment together with municipal authorities and other community institutions and groups. A Women’s Safety Audit is a tool that enables a critical evaluation of the urban environment. This tool was initiated in Canada following the recommendations of a report in 1989 on violence against women and has been further developed by UN-HABITAT’s Safer Cities programme. (excerpt)
Women, peace and security. Study submitted by the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolution 1325 (2000).
New York, New York, United Nations, 2002.  p.On 31 October 2000, the Security Council adopted resolution 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security, which builds on the Presidential Statement of 8 March 2000 and a series of Council resolutions on children and armed conflict, the protection of civilians in armed conflict and the prevention of armed conflict. On 24 and 25 October 2000, the Security Council held an open discussion on women, peace and security, in which 40 Member States made statements supporting the mainstreaming of gender perspectives into peace support operations and the participation of women in all aspects of peace processes. The discussion followed an Arria Formula meeting 3 on women, peace and security on 23 October 2000 that afforded an opportunity for the members of the Council to discuss the impact of armed conflict on women, and the role of women in peace processes, with women representatives of non -governmental organizations (NGOs) from Guatemala, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Zambia. They presented the experiences of women and girls in armed conflict and also raised the concerns of grass-roots movements of women committed to preventing and solving conflicts, and bringing peace, security and sustainable development to their communities. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2002.  p.The mainstreaming strategy is implemented in somewhat different ways in relation to activities such as research, policy development, policy analysis, programme delivery, or technical assistance activities. The opportunities and processes are different for each area of work. For example, an important challenge and opportunity in technical assistance activities is to identify how gender dimensions are relevant and then establish a constructive dialogue with potential partners on gender equality issues; in defining a research project a critical concern is ensuring that conceptual frameworks and methodologies will capture the different and unequal situations of women and men. In addition, the mainstreaming strategy must be adapted to the particular subject under discussion. The analytic approach and questions asked must be appropriate to the specific concerns being addressed. Clearly, different questions must be asked to understand the gender equality implications of macroeconomic policy than are asked about policies related to small arms control. There is no set formula or blueprint that can be applied in every context. However, what is common to mainstreaming in all sectors or development issues is that a concern for gender equality is brought into the ‘mainstream’ of activities rather than dealt with as an ‘add-on’. The first steps in the mainstreaming strategy are the assessment of how and why gender differences and inequalities are relevant to the subject under discussion, identifying where there are opportunities to narrow these inequalities and deciding on the approach to be taken. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2002 Nov; 4(4):14.Violence kills more than 1.6 million people every year, but it is just the tip of the iceberg since the majority of violent acts are committed behind closed doors and go largely unreported, the World Health Organization said in a report released recently. In addition to the deaths, millions of people are left injured as a result of violence and suffer from physical, sexual, reproductive and mental health problems, says the World Report on Violence and Health, the first comprehensive report of its kind to address violence as a global public health problem. Death and disability caused by violence make it one of the leading public health issues of our time, the report says. Violence is among the leading causes of death for people 15-44 years of age, accounting for 14 percent of deaths among males and 7 percent of deaths among females. On an average day, 1,424 persons are killed in acts of homicide – almost one person every minute. Roughly one person commits suicide every 40 seconds. About 35 people are killed every hour as a direct result of armed conflict. In the 20th century, an estimated 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly as a result of conflict, and well over half of them were civilians. Studies have shown that in some countries, health care expenditures due to violence account for up to 5 percent of GDP. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2002 Jun-Jul; 4(2):13.About two-thirds of all couples around the world – or some 650 million people – use some form of contraception, according to new statistics released by the United Nations. Worldwide, 62 percent of the more than 1 billion married or “in-union” women of reproductive age are using contraception, but there are great variations among regions. In Africa, only 25 percent of married women use contraception, while in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean that figure is between 66 and 69 percent. These statistics are featured on a new wall chart entitled “World Contraceptive Use 2001,” issued by the UN Population Division as part of its ongoing monitoring of world use of family planning. “These data continue to show good news in terms of couples being able to choose the number and spacing of their children,” according to Joseph Chamie, director of the Population Division. “We’ve seen dramatic increases and our best projections for the future indicate that these trends will continue,” he said. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2002 Jul.  p.Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infectious diseases that are transmitted from person to person during sexual contact, not necessarily vaginal intercourse. A large number of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other organisms may be sexually transmissible and may result in disease. Most bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections can be cured with antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, most viral infections cannot be cured. Antiviral drugs can sometimes contain the progression or effects of viral infections, although such treatments are often expensive, are inaccessible to many individuals, and may have substantial side effects. Persons with sexually transmitted infections are infectious to their sexual partners even though they may have no symptoms or signs of infection. In fact, many people - men and women - have STIs without symptoms or signs, although they can develop serious complications. STIs are a public health problem because of their potential to cause serious complications such as infertility, chronic disability and death in men, women and children. STIs can affect the foetus, neonate and infant, resulting in eye infection, blindness and pneumonia. The public health importance of STIs has taken on an even greater dimension with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV infection is sexually transmissible, is not curable and leads to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2002 Jul.  p.The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of a new male or female condom for every act of intercourse where there is a risk of unplanned pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted infection, including HIV. Since access to female condoms may be limited and reuse of female condoms has been reported, WHO has convened two consultations to address considerations regarding such reuse. Based on these consultations, WHO does not recommend or promote reuse of female condoms. Recognizing the urgent need for risk-reduction strategies for women who cannot or do not access new condoms, the consultation developed a draft protocol for safe handling and preparation of female condoms intended for reuse. This protocol is based on the best available evidence, but has not been extensively studied for safety and has not been evaluated for efficacy in human use. Given the diversity of cultural and social contexts and personal circumstances under which female condom reuse may be acceptable, feasible and safe, and since the balance of risks and benefits varies according to individual settings, the final decision on whether or not to support reuse of the female condom must ultimately be taken locally. WHO continues to support research on female condom reuse and will disseminate relevant information, study results and guidelines for policy makers as additional data on reuse become available. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, Program Division, Education, 2002.  p. (Document No. UNICEF/PD/ED/02-1)UNICEF's Programme Division is pleased to present this Working Paper on women teachers as part of our knowledge building effort in girls' education. The research for this paper was conducted several years ago, but many of the arguments presented on gender issues in education have particular significance for the Medium Term Strategic Plan (2002 –2005). Girls' education is the top UNICEF organizational priority. The paper analyzes the early days of the Teacher Empowerment Programme in India. To begin with, UNICEF followed a "gender blind" approach to the training programme. However, as the evidence presented in the paper shows, there was a necessary and notable shift towards an explicit focus on exposing and addressing gender-biased attitudes, roles and behaviours. Without this additional focus, equality between men and women in the programme would not have been achievable. Testimonies from UNICEF staff members, female trainers and teachers all show the importance of assessing and analyzing the impact of gender bias - implicitly and explicitly. The paper also argues that for women teachers to be true role models and be able to pass on the values of gender equity to girls and boys, they need to be able to facilitate their own empowerment in both private and public life. The TEP contributes to the improvement of women teachers, in the short-run, and, in the longrun, towards improved and sustainable girls’ education. All UNICEF staff, and professionals in other organizations can benefit from the lessons learned through the Teacher Empowerment Programme in India. (excerpt)
Guide to the UN Convention of 2 December 1949 for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others.
[Unpublished] . 36 p.The Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others was adopted by the United Nations on December 2, 1949, one year after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in a climate of humanistic hope following the Second World War. The 1949 Convention was the result of an abolitionist and feminist struggle in England, begun and led by Josephine Butler in 1866. Whereas slavery had just been abolished in most of the European countries, Josephine Butler considered the system of prostitution to be a contemporary form of slavery that oppressed women and was injurious to humanity in general. The system of the regulation of prostitution, set up under Napoleon III in France, and soon called the “French system,” was established in many European countries in the name of public health and under the hygienist pretext of combating venereal diseases. French physician, Parent-Duchatelet, 19th century promoter of hygienism and regulation of prostitution, considered prostitution as a “sewerage system” and compared ejaculation to “organic drainage.” In reality, however, the regulationist system was based on a vision of society and human sexuality in which women were reduced to instruments of male pleasure. A vice squad was created to oversee the smooth working of the system. Not only could procurers and traffickers develop their operations with impunity, but the municipalities could also make money by levying taxes on the brothels. Women in prostitution were liable to violence, constraints, and health controls that were described as sexual tortures. Decrees against venereal diseases, particularly in England, permitted certain authorities to force women who were simply suspected of being prostitutes to undergo medical examinations, or even to be imprisoned. (excerpt)
Trafficking in women, girls and boys. Key issues for population and development programmes. Report of the UNFPA Consultative Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Children, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 2-4 October 2002.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002.  p.The Consultative Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Children was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, from 2 to 4 October 2002. The encounter brought together 60 participants from 30 countries, including government and NGO representatives, as well as key persons from UNFPA and other UN agencies. UNFPA’s concerns with this contemporary issue are rooted in the historic Programme of Action adopted in Cairo at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The complex trafficking issues are seen by the Fund as being directly related to the focus in the Programme of Action upon gender equality, women’s empowerment, violence against women, and reproductive health and rights. Trafficking in persons for the purpose of labour and commercial sexual exploitation is a modern form of slavery, according to Article 3 of United Nations Protocol 2000, which supplements the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by the General Assembly in November 2000. (“The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children” has been signed by 80 countries.) The agreed definition was helpful to the participants at the Bratislava meeting as they pursued their agenda. At the outset, participants set the objectives they wished to achieve during their deliberations: building a common understanding of trafficking issues and their impact on reproductive health and rights; identifying approaches, methods and good practices in tackling the issues; identifying UNFPA’s comparative advantages as well as possible partners for implementing actions at field level. The meeting framed trafficking as a gender and development problem, and much attention was devoted to the exploration of gender perspectives. The situation facing children at risk was, therefore, discussed in terms of girls and boys; similarly, the gender of the traffickers was highlighted for the insights that might be revealed. The gendered dimension of poverty itself was viewed as an important reason for trafficking, notably because of the poverty-driven construct of ideas and attitudes regarding women and children that so easily permits their bodies to be turned into commodities. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002 Apr 3.  p.Whether use of oral contraceptives is causally associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer has long been debated and remains uncertain. On 11 March 2002, WHO’s Department of Reproductive Health and Research convened an international group of experts to review new information on the subject, including research findings from WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and several reviews commissioned by WHO. The reviews included a meta-analysis of existing published epidemiological data on the association between combined oral contraceptive use and the risk of cervical cancer; a summary of the biological basis for any association between oral contraceptives and cervical cancer; and a mathematical model assessing risks and benefits of different contraceptive methods. Questions about the relationship between oral contraceptive use and the risk of cervical cancer were addressed in 1990 as part of a comprehensive review of steroid hormone contraception and neoplasia. One of the main conclusions of the 1990 review was that use of oral contraceptives for more than 5 years was associated with a modest (1.3- to 1.8-fold) increased risk of cervical cancer, but that it was unclear whether the increased risk reflected a biological relationship or was attributable to other factors (such as lifestyle differences between users of different contraceptive methods, including differential risk of sexually transmitted infections, particularly Human Papillomavirus [HPV] infection). (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
ICRW Information Bulletin. 2002 Feb;  p..The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and the United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) are developing and implementing gender-sensitive strategies to reduce the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002 Apr. 15 p.Basic education is the right of every girl and boy. UNICEF is especially concerned about including children who are excluded from learning: those who are out of school, and those who are excluded while in school. Providing all children with access to schooling was the primary focus of the early drive towards Education For All (EFA) following the World Conference on Education For All in Jomtien, Thailand, in 1990. Progress has been made towards this goal. Primary-school enrolments have increased in all regions. However, of an estimated 700 million primary-school-aged children, roughly 120 million are still out of school today and the majority of these are girls. Ensuring access alone is not enough. The quality of education is also a significant issue, closely linked to the state of girls’ education. At the 2000 World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal, 164 countries agreed to work for elimination of the gender gap in enrolment (gender parity) by the year 2005, and gender equality by 2015. We are nowhere near these goals. (author's)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002.  p. (UNICEF Fact Sheet)Approximately one third of infants born to HIV-infected mothers will contract the virus. Without preventive interventions, transmission of the virus occurs during a mother’s pregnancy or during childbirth or breastfeeding. Without interventions, about 15 to 30 per cent of children become infected during pregnancy or delivery; about 10 to 20 per cent contract the virus through breastmilk if breastfed for two years. An estimated 800,000 children under the age of 15 contracted HIV in 2001, about 90 per cent of them through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). The risks of HIV infection have to be compared with the risks of illness and death faced by infants who are not breastfed. Breastfeeding provides protection from death due to diarrhoea and respiratory and other infections, particularly in the first months of life. During the first two months, a child receiving replacement feeding is nearly six times more likely to die from these infectious diseases, compared to a breastfed child. Breastfeeding also provides complete nutrition, immune factors and the stimulation necessary for good development, and it contributes to birth spacing. (excerpt)
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, INTRAH, PRIME, 2002 Apr 4.  p. (PRIME Voices No. 10; USAID Grant No. HRN-A-00-99-00022-00)Over the four days of the conference, speaker after speaker rose to emphasize the urgency of the risk to the lives of women who are endangered by the lack of access to quality PAC services. They also highlighted the importance of linking PAC with family planning to prevent repeat unwanted pregnancies, and with other reproductive health services. The key roles of primary providers and communities were also singled out in proposed interventions. (excerpt)
The impact of HIV / AIDS on Southern Africa's children: poverty of planning and planning of poverty.
Pretoria, South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, Southern African Regional Poverty Network, 2002. , 26 p. (Save the Children UK: Southern Africa Scenario Planning Paper)In the initial discussion of this paper the terms of reference began: “Save the Children has not been adept at managing its programme planning processes in the region. Country based strategic planning has often been a tortuous business which has alienated our staff because of the abstract language used. It has been a time consuming and often disjointed process leaving most participants dissatisfied with the final planning document”. Save the Children (SCF) is not alone in this. HIV/AIDS is changing the environment in which we operate. It will have effects as serious as the plague in medieval Europe and we do not know how to deal with it. In effect there is a complete poverty in planning which will result in considerable impoverishment and misery in much of Southern Africa. One new way to assess the situation would be to through developing scenarios. HEARD has some experience in this having been part of a team working with Shell South Africa on developing scenarios for their Southern African region. We therefore agreed to prepare a draft paper, and this was discussed with SCF staff. We did not agree to follow the terms of reference exactly but rather to prepare the paper with scenarios. The first draft was completed and sent for comment on 21st June with a deadline for comment of 27th June (Alan Whiteside was away from 27th June). The first draft showed up one major problem. SCF must be part of the brainstorming. We know what HIV/AIDS means in broad terms, we have some ability at developing broad scenarios but we do not know what SCF does or what these will mean for them. In effect while HEARD’s work is nearly complete that of SCF is only just beginning. (excerpt)
Victoria, Canada, Communication Initiative, 2002 Dec 19. 2 p.Implemented in 2001 by UNICEF-Peru as part of a five-year initiative, this programme addresses the issue of children's, adolescents', and women's rights by bolstering interpersonal communication skills among public services workers, intermediaries between supply and demand (community agents, teachers, and community leaders), and families and individuals. The programme, which includes remote communities of the Andes and Amazon in its reach, draws on the use of culturally relevant and non-threatening messages to increase the participation of communities and families so they can demand that their rights be respected. Other features of the project include providing technical assistance to improve communication among those who provide basic services, and revamping the manner in which the media treats issues related to children and women's rights. (author's)
Media Development. 2002; 49(4):28-9.While we look at the new opportunities inherent in the internet, videoconferencing and other wireless and electronic technologies, we should not lose sight of the continuing value of radio, video and other more traditional technologies to women. Based on collective experiences and agendas that have emerged from women's organizing around information and communications issues, we would highlight three areas that the World Summit could focus on to make a difference in women's lives and in national development. (excerpt)
Media Development. 2002; 49(4):27.There is growing recognition that those who most need the boost that information communication technologies (ICTs) can provide are least able to take advantage of it. The bridging of this 'digital divide', is, therefore, now high on the global development agenda with multi-lateral and bi-lateral agencies channelling millions of dollars into projects which aim to support the ability of the marginalised to harness the power of ICTs. (excerpt)
Policy climate, scholarship, and provision of emergency contraception at affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Contraception. 2002 Feb; 65(2):143-149.Emergency contraception (EC) has great potential to decrease the incidence and resulting consequences of unwanted pregnancy, including unsafe abortion. We conducted this study to understand EC practices in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We contacted 43 International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates in LAC to interview them about EC availability. We collected family planning norms and researched registered EC products in LAC. We searched English- and Spanish-language sources to compile EC literature reviews. Thirty-seven affiliates (86%) responded to the survey, and 62% offer EC. Central and South American affiliates are more likely to offer EC than are Caribbean affiliates. Of those offering EC, 96% offer cut-up packets of oral contraceptives, whereas six affiliates offer dedicated products. Of those not offering EC, 79% believe it constitutes abortion. EC availability and support for the method appear to be increasing in LAC, and clearer distinctions between EC and abortion in medical and policy guidelines should increase acceptance further. (author's)