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Contraception Report. 1998 Sep; 9(4): p..Current recommendations suggest IUDs should not be the first method of choice for women with HIV infection. The World Health Organization and International Planned Parenthood Federation recommend that HIV-infected women not use the IUD for contraception. These recommendations are based upon theoretical concerns about an increased risk of infection and possible increased risk of female-to-male HIV transmission from increased menstrual blood loss. The recommendation also reflects concern about behavioral characteristics that may make some HIV-positive women more susceptible to STDs and PID. Research conducted in Kenya by Family Health International suggests that carefully selected HIV-infected women may safely use the IUD for contraception. Researchers enrolled 649 women who otherwise met eligibility criteria for IUD insertion, including a low risk of STDs. Women came from two family planning clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. (excerpt)
Contraception Report. 1998 Sep; 9(4): p..In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) released revised medical eligibility criteria guidelines to assist family planning agencies and clinicians prescribe contraceptives. By eliminating overly restrictive barriers to use, WHO hopes to increase access to and use of birth control methods. This article briefly reviews some of the important WHO guidelines concerning intrauterine devices. Introduction WHO researchers evaluated the benefits and risks of using IUDs in healthy women and in women with certain medical conditions or individual characteristics, such as parity and exposure or susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. A previous article describes WHO's methods for devising the criteria in detail. Briefly, the eligibility criteria were developed by international experts from many organizations. WHO experts reviewed the medical literature from the past 10 years and devised recommended medical eligibility criteria for different contraceptive methods. One main concern was to address outdated contraindications. WHO notes that "The contraindications for many contraceptives tend to become very rigid, resulting in denial of contraceptive access to many women. Relative contraindications tend to become absolute." (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4): p..The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the enshrinement of its essential rights in international law is one of the great achievement of our civilization. In a large part, we owe their formulation to the great jurist Hersch Lauterpacht, Professor of international law in the University of Cambridge from 1937 to 1954. In 1945, he published a seminal book, An International Bill of the Rights of Man, which became the basis of much that is in the United Nations Declaration and the Conventions that followed it. According to him: "The idea of the inherent rights of man, ultimately superior to the State itself, is the continuous thread in the historical pattern of legal and political thought. In antiquity, their substance has been a denial of the absoluteness of the State and its unconditional claim to obedience; the assertion of the value and freedom of the individual as against the State; the view that the power of the State and of its ruler is derived ultimately from the assent of those who compose the political community; the insistence that there are limits to the power of the State to interfere with man; the right to do what he considers his duty." (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4): p..While the creation of a legal framework which guarantees equal rights for women and men was always regarded as a primary prerequisite for gender equality; it turned out to be far from sufficient, since women and girls face a multitude of constraints imposed by society, not by law. For centuries, societies have created customary rules which, mostly on the basis of sex, class, place of birth, clan or family name, determine to a great extent what role an individual can play. These roles reflect an unwritten social contract within a society on who ought to do what, who rules, who wades, who cares for children, who decides public matters; in short, who occupies a certain space and position in society or in the home. Historically, socially constructed gender roles put women and girls at a disadvantage, denied them equal status with men, restricted their access to income, education and decision-making, and confined their sphere of influence to the home. Today's statistics document the consequences: 70 per cent of the world's poor are women, 2 out of 3 adult illiterates are female. Women are mostly excluded from politics and economic decision-making. Even in Western countries, women hold only approximately 15 per cent of parliamentary seats. Moreover, many women and girls continue to suffer from violence and systematic discrimination. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4): p..On questions of human rights, the political bodies of the United Nations and nation-State donors frequently override claims of domestic jurisdiction where sovereignty might be invoked. But consider the following case studies. On 22 July 1998, the Emergency Relief Coordinator on United Nations humanitarian policy in Afghanistan cited a discriminatory human fights regime among reasons for the United Nations to restrict its activities to lifesaving assistance only. Four days earlier, the European Commission had suspended funding of all assistance in the Kabul area. An entire village was surrounded by machine-gun-toting men in the national military uniform. Every resident was transported with a few possessions to a 'development project' where, within a few years, they would be more desperate, destitute, hungry and without infrastructural support than they had ever been in the home that their families had known for hundreds of years. This "international aid" programme was euphemistically called "transmigration" where donors were complicit in transgression of fundamental rights "to liberty of movement and of freedom to choose his residency". (excerpt)
Nutrition and health policy in women and children. Report on a WHO workshop, Yerevan, Armenia, 2-5 July 1997.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1998. , 30 p. (EUR/ARM/LVNG 02 01 11)A child's right to adequate nourishment, and the duty of society to ensure that a pregnant woman has access to good nutrition, have been matters of concern for over a century. Yet even in the 1990s, babies are still at risk of undernutrition before birth. Recent years have seen increasing evidence of the importance of nutrition for a satisfactory birth outcome. The Workshop was designed for health facility administrators, policy-makers and clinicians interested in nutrition and how food affects the health of women and infants, and was attended by gynaecologists/obstetricians, paediatricians and hygienists working in the saneped system. On the first day a short course for administrators and policy-makers on "Promoting breastfeeding in sanitary facilities" was held, and during the following three days the WHO/UNICEF training module on "Healthy eating in pregnancy and lactation" was pilot tested. Participants gained knowledge on providing health advice for women during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period with a view to promoting WHO guidelines on healthy eating. The Workshop contributed to developing a national plan of action for Armenia to implement national dietary guidelines for pregnant and lactating women and their families. (author's)
A demographic perspective on women in development in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. xvi, 135 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 148)The selection of Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam for inclusion in the study was based on a number of considerations. The ESCAP secretariat has undertaken the publication of country profiles of women in 16 other countries, namely Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The four countries included in this study, while exhibiting significant social and cultural differences, are all located in South-East Asia; they are the four least developed countries in South-East Asia on most indicators; and their economies are in transition to more open, market-oriented economies, In each of the four countries, women have traditionally played an important social role marked by considerable gender equity. Equal inheritance among children is possible, and often the norm. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, for example, husbands traditionally move to the household of their wife and the youngest daughter inherits the family home. The proportion of households headed by women is substantial in all four countries, and quite high in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Female labour force participation rates exceed those of men in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the female labour force is larger than the male labour force in Viet Nam. (excerpt)
[A guide to providing reproductive health services] Guia para prestacao de services em saude reprodutiva.
Fortaleza, Brazil, Secretaria da Saude, 1998. xxvi, 432 p.The Viva Mulher [Healthy Woman] Program developed by the Secretariat of Health of the State of Ceará (SESA-CE), in partnership with several local, national and international institutions, was conceived after recognition of the unfavorable health situation of women throughout the State. Sensitized by the size of the problem and encouraged by other successful initiatives, such as the Community Health Agent program and the Healthy Child program, the results of which were translated into a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in the coverage of Basic Health Actions, the State Government resolved to promote a broad mobilization of institutions interested in the problems so as to develop intensive joint efforts involving society as a whole in an attempt to make a significant change in the health profile of women in Ceará. The first concrete act was the holding of the "Woman, Health, Life" seminar in Fortaleza in August 1992, which had more than 1,000 participants, to launch the Healthy Woman program on the basis of directives from the Ministry of Health (PAISM). The Healthy Woman program was associated from the beginning with the United Nations Population Fund (FNUAP), which proposed to offer technical assistance and financial resources through a four-year cooperation project with the State Government. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), collaborating agencies of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and other international entities later joined in the process and have been cooperating in various complementary manners. (excerpt)
Project appraisal document on a proposed interim trust fund credit in the amount of SDR 222.5 million (US $300 million equivalent) to India for a woman and child development project.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, South Asia Region, Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Unit, 1998 May 27. 18,  p. (Report No. 17052-IN)This publication presents the project appraisal document on a proposed interim trust fund credit in the amount of SDR 222.5 million (US$300 million equivalent) to India for a woman and child development project. Such project aimed to improve the nutrition and health of pre-school-aged children and women, by increasing the quality, impact, and cost-effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. In addition, it aimed to strengthen the ICDS program in the remaining states and union territories, by improving the quality of worker training in each of them. Divided into nine sections, in which each section covers topics on project development objectives; strategic context; project description summary; project rationale; summary project analysis; sustainability and risks; main loan conditions; readiness for implementation; and compliance with International Development Association policies. Several annexes are also included in this document.
[Women's right to participation in the Peruvian legal system] El derecho a la participacion de la mujer en el sistema juridico peruano.
In: Los derechos de la mujer: comentarios juridicos. Tomo II, edited by Maria Isabel Rosas Ballinas and Mery Vargas Cuno. Lima, Peru, DEMUS, Estudio para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer, 1998 Nov. 267-76.This work reflects on the right of women to participate as it is treated in the international juridical system, in constitutional law, and in Peruvian legislation. The right to participate is based on the essential dignity of the person, an inherent trait rather than a faculty conceded by the state or social group. The right to participate is a human right characterized by universality, integrality, and indivisibility with other rights. Participation may be exercised in individual or associated form, and includes the spheres of political life (traditionally the most developed) as well as economic, social, and cultural life. A country is democratic because its regimen is not just representative, but participatory. The work examines the right to participate as treated in such international instruments as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Civil and Political Rights Pact, and the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, before examining its treatment in the Peruvian constitution and legislation. The work concludes that the incorporation of international law as part of Peruvian law situates the international instruments alluding to women’s rights at the highest level. The interpreter should apply the most protective instrument, whether it is the written text of the constitution, the international human rights treaties, or the declarations of rights. If the internal law offers inferior protection, the constitutional or international law should be applied. Suggestions are presented for legislation that would promote exercise of the right to participation.
[International protection of the human rights of women] La proteccion internacional de los derechos humanos de las mujeres.
In: Los derechos de la mujer: comentarios juridicos. Tomo II, edited by Maria Isabel Rosas Ballinas and Mery Vargas Cuno. Lima, Peru, DEMUS, Estudio para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer, 1998 Nov. 304-12.Three cases in Peru are described to illustrate mechanisms of international law available for protection of the human rights of women that may be used in individual cases. In principal, the protection offered by any international organization is complementary to that provided by internal jurisdictions. Most questions must first be submitted to internal courts or administrative channels. Article 55 of Peru’s 1993 Constitution asserts that treaties ratified and in force are part of national law. The constitution also states that recognized norms and freedoms are to be interpreted in conformity with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international treaties and accords. Some of the mechanisms of human rights protection belong to the universal system of the UN, while others pertain to the regional system or the Organization of American States. Peru is tied to the UN system through the International Civil and Political Rights Pact, whose human rights committee of 18 experts receives individual complaints alleging violations of the rights protected by the Pact. The Interamerican Human Rights Commission and the Interamerican Human Rights Court are the main regional mechanisms. The Commission acts as a sort of public prosecutor and can conclude its procedures with reports containing recommendations. The three cases described concerned women charged with involvement in terrorism. Recourse to international human rights protection was especially valuable during the recent armed conflict in Peru, when both sides violated the human rights of many women. But the processes are slow, and the Peruvian government did not follow the recommendations eventually produced. The work concludes with a discussion of the advantages of complying and the legal issues involved in applying resolutions of international organisms to the human rights laws of Peru.
[New York, New York], Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 1998 Nov. 31 p.This brief concept paper identifies the main issues concerning the rights of displaced women and girls. It aims to sharpen awareness of the gender dimensions to internal displacement and to provide initial guidance to the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and other agencies on the appropriate gender response to the urgent and growing needs of internally displaced women. The subject clearly deserves in-depth analysis and further research, which this concept paper seeks to stimulate. This analysis employs a gender perspective to examine several key questions: What are the major issues of concern to internally displaced women? What steps should agencies take to address and ensure the rights of displaced women? A gender perspective--the appreciation of fundamental differences between men and women's roles in societies--is not difficult to apply if one approaches the issue from the basic principles of human rights determined by a person's gender. The consequences of not applying a gender perspective resonate in overlooked human rights abuses against women and girls. (excerpt)
Dakar, Senegal, UNIFEM, 1998 Jul. 135 p.A general report is presented upon the UNIFEM regional seminar held in Dakar during February 23-25, 1998, upon legislation governing the commission of violence against women. The seminar was held to examine the status of prevailing laws against such violence in the sub-region, to identify shortcomings and imperfections, to conceive strategies for improvement, to share opinions upon the problem, and to strengthen national capacities to respond legislatively to violence committed against women. The nature of existing legislation governing violence against women is described for the following countries represented at the seminar: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Morocco, Senegal, and Chad. Civil law legislation pertaining to women’s human rights defense groups is discussed, as well as seminar results and recommendations. This document was published as part of a regional campaign against violence committed toward women, launched by UNIFEM on July 31, 1998, Pan-African Women’s Day. The campaign was implemented with the aim of showing that the different forms of political, economic, and social discrimination and violence marginalizing women violate basic human rights.
[International system of protection of the human rights of women] Sistema internacional de proteccion de los derechos humanos de las mujeres.
In: Derechos humanos de las mujeres. Aportes y reflexiones, [compiled by] Movimiento Manuela Ramos. Lima, Peru, Movimiento Manuela Ramos, 1998 Nov. 161-97. (Serie Mujer y Derechos Humanos 6)The evolution over the past few decades of international law protecting the human rights of women is described, and the international instruments designed to protect these rights are assessed from the perspective of jurisprudence. The first sections examine factors that have allowed implantation of a culture of human rights throughout the entire planet to emerge as a goal of international law, and describe some assumptions underlying the theme of human rights of women. Documents that were crucial in the evolution are then analyzed, including the UN Charter, the first instrument expressly signaling the equality of rights of men and women, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The UN Commission on the Juridical and Social Condition of Women and the Fourth International Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 are also discussed. Mechanisms for international protection of the rights of women are examined, including the Declaration on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Other organs for protection that are discussed include the Human Rights Committee and the Committee for Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, and regional mechanisms such as the Interamerican Human Rights Commission and Court and the Interamerican Conventions on Political Rights of Women, Civil Rights of Women, and Against Gender Violence. The final section contrasts the normative development of protections for women’s human rights with actual practices, and identifies the next steps that should be taken.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, .  p.In a global context, violence is associated as the principal cause of morbidity and premature mortality. In this regard, "care and prevention" is considered as the main target of the WHO Plan of Action on Violence and Health. This paper discusses 11 topics concerning the impact of violence on health and effort of the WHO in violence prevention. The paper includes: 1) statement of the Director-General of WHO; 2) forms of violence; 3) measurement of violence; 4) pathways and protection from interpersonal violence; 5) testimony from victims, perpetrators and witness; 6) WHO's Plan of Action; 7) mandate on international solidarity and international human rights; 8) organizations involved with the WHO; 9) violence against women as priority health issue; 10) domestic violence; and 11) gender-based and sexual violence during armed conflict and displacement.
Rights of women: a guide to the most important United Nations treaties on women's human rights. 2nd ed.
New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Centre, 1998. , 148 p.This Rights of Women manual presents a guide to the most important UN treaties on women's human rights to encourage and inform the continuing struggle for women's human rights around the world. Organized into five sections, this book focuses on those human rights that are guaranteed by human rights conventions, and how these conventions might be better realized. Section one provides an explanation of human rights conventions, how they work and why they are important to women. Section two outlines the many human rights to which women are entitled. It also draws particular attention to some specific human rights that are of special importance to women, including education, employment, equality in marriage, refugee rights, and protection from sexual exploitation, trafficking and torture. Section three, on the other hand, highlights some areas that women's human rights groups are fighting to have recognized as women's human rights. A focus on action around women's human rights issues is being presented in section four. Finally, chapter five describes the resources kit which includes convention ratification charts, lists of UN human rights conventions, the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, an illustrated outline and summary of the Beijing Platform for Action, and information on International Women's Tribune Centre and Women, Ink. with a list and order form for Women, Ink. books.
Santiago, Chile, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1998 Sep. 46 p. (Serie Mujer y Desarrollo No. 23)The subject of violence against women is a new one, but it deals with an age-old practice which was long connived at and propitiated by the legal system and ignored by society, as it was regarded as lying strictly within the private domain. International action by the women's movement has been vital in bringing the issue to the forefront, and violence against women is now seen as a breach of their human rights, with all the public connotations that this entails and the opportunity it provides to use the mechanisms that exist within individual countries and internationally for the protection of human rights. The purpose of the present report is to examine the issue of violence within couples, as one of the forms that violence against women takes. The subject is approached from a legal standpoint, consideration being given on the one hand to the international and regional legal framework, which clearly identifies violence against women as a breach of human rights requiring a response from the State, and on the other hand to the emergence since 1989, and especially in the last 3 years, of a number of special laws on family or domestic violence that aim to support the victim and punish the aggressor. This partly explains the exclusion from this document of other forms of violence against women that occur outside of the family sphere, such as rape (except when this takes place within a couple), which takes on particularly large proportions in armed conflicts; sexual harassment; and discrimination of all kinds against women. From the analysis carried out, it can be concluded that special laws are an important instrument for combating violence of this kind, and that they need to be improved so that better results can be achieved in reducing cases of violence and assisting victims, but that in the final analysis the problem can only be rooted out when the discrimination that still persists in the legal system is eliminated. (author's)
National mother, global whore, and transnational femocrats: the politics of AIDS and the construction of women at the World Health Organization.
FEMINIST STUDIES. 1998 Spring; 24(1):115-39.This article examines the early discourse on women and AIDS in the Global Program on AIDS (GPA). It also analyzes the subsequent efforts of women and the AIDS strategy group to create a mechanism by which GPA could help redress sexual and gender inequality. The data for analysis were gathered by interviews and archival research at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. Overall, it is argued that internationalist constructions of women's needs dominate because of the organizational interests of the UN femocrats. These interests stem from the fact that the WHO derives its legitimacy from member states perceptions of it as an apolitical agency. In addition, although feminists participation in such an ideology is at times conscious and challenged, it is an organizational imperative. If they challenge the nation-state's rights to control women, they challenge their legitimacy as experts in an international technical bureaucracy. For the femocrats, they occupy a truly contradictory ground. Such contradictions do not disappear because at one moment some of them are able to advance an agenda that appears to limit the potential threat of feminist politics to organizational practices.
Nairobi, Kenya, Government of Kenya, 1998. 259 p.The 1998 Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Kenya highlights the policy of the UN Children's Fund of initiating a rights-based approach to program planning. Chapter 1 reviews the social and economic base, which plays an important role in the formulation of policies, and programs aimed at improving the welfare of children and women. Discussion covers a geographical, environmental, political, administrative and economic overview and an analysis of the economy. Key issues of poverty, labor force, demographic and sociocultural perspectives and how they interplay to influence the situation of children and women are also discussed. Chapter 2 explores the extent to which the Kenyan law protects the rights of women and children. Chapter 3 summarizes the national and legal policy framework, reviews and analyzes the status of women and children participation in education, highlights key strategies for moving ahead, and examines collective efforts for the provision of education. Chapter 4 examines the survival rights of children including 1) the rights to maternal and child health; 2) the right to nutrition; 3) the right to household food security; and 4) the right to water and environmental sanitation. Also, it examines the situation of HIV infection and AIDS in children and women. Finally, chapter 5 identifies opportunities for sustainable and effective intervention.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES.. 1998; (877):v-vii, 1-89.This report presents conclusions and recommendations of the WHO Scientific Group relating to various cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age, particularly those using steroid hormone contraception. Chapter 1 presents an introduction on the subject, while chapter 2 describes the epidemiological approaches used to examine the safety of steroid contraceptives and the measurement and interpretation of relative and absolute risks. It also discusses the epidemiological evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of the hormonal contents of combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Chapters 3 to 7 examine data on acute myocardial infarction, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and venous thromboembolism obtained from case-control and cohort studies. Chapter 8 reviews possible biological mechanisms for cardiovascular effects of COCs, including the interplay between glucose and insulin metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, the hemostatic system, and blood pressure. Chapter 9 studies the factors which may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases from COC use and presents a model for assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease among users of COC in different parts of the world. Moreover, this chapter looks at the other considerations concerning the safety of COCs, including the role of screening in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, as well the importance of disseminating research findings. This report ends with recommendations for further research.
Implementation of General Assembly resolution 50/166 on the role of the United Nations Development Fund for Women in eliminating violence against women. Note by the Secretary-General.
[Unpublished] 1998 Feb 9. Prepared for Commission on the Status of Women, Forty-second session, 2-13 March 1998. Item 3 (a) of the provisional agenda. Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women: review of mainstreaming in organizations of the United Nations system. 3 p. (E/CN.6/1998/9)The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) assumed a very important role in eliminating violence against women. In 1997, UNIFEM continued to support initiatives for strengthening the networking, capacity building, leader enhancement, and advocacy of women at the national, regional, and global levels. These efforts are aimed towards enhancing recognition that violence directed to women is a fundamental issue of human rights. Such an aim opened the opportunity for UNIFEM to focus on this particular issue in 1998. In addition, it has worked to implement activities addressing the problem through gender training for legal administration, governmental and nongovernmental authorities; assistance to women organizations to analyze and create necessary legislation modifications; production and distribution of information on violence against women; as well as other innovative interventions manned by governments and nongovernmental organizations. This report also outlines the steps taken by UNIFEM to implement the Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate Violence Against Women, which was established in 1997.
54th session of the Commission on Human Rights. Item 9a. (Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms). Statement.
[Unpublished] 1998 Apr 6. 3 p.A statement concerning the 54th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR) by the head of German delegation is presented. This subscribes fully to the intervention made by the UK on behalf of the European Union on the human rights of women. In the area of violations of women's human rights, Germany is combating the international trade in women, sex tourism, and situation of female refugees and genital mutilation. Thus, the Federal Government places a great value on cooperation with nongovernmental organizations. Another emphasis was placed on the national and international networking between advice centers, awareness building among women in the countries of origin, and further training. The Federal Government and the UNHCR share the concerns on the status of female refugees in Germany.
Women's initiatives and activities worldwide. NGO's at the 42nd Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women speaks out, optional protocol to CEDAW, and Womenwatch.
IWTC GLOBALNET. 1998 Mar 10; (105):2 p..The activities surrounding the 42nd Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women is discussed. It emphasized on the implementation of four areas of concern from the Beijing Platform for Action; namely, women's rights, violence against women, women and armed conflict, and the girl child. A protocol on violence against women is necessary because of the shortcomings that have to be strengthened by an international treaty. However, the discussion of the 'Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women' resulted in disagreement.
GROWING UP. 1998 Jun; 6(2):15.Nigeria joined the other countries of the world to commemorate the World Health Day in Abuja, where people from different walks of life came to witness the big occasion. Mrs. Maryam Abacha, the chairperson of the occasion identified female genital mutilation (FGM) as one of the factors responsible for maternal mortality in Nigeria. FGM is a deliberate psychological, social and sexual damage to female genitals, which inflicts social trauma on the victim; thus, it is medically, scientifically and spiritually illogical. For whatever purpose it is done, this does not solve the interest of the sexual disposition of a woman. Finally, a call was made for Nigeria to adopt the resolution by the UN Organization, which banns FGM worldwide.
Washington, D.C., Catholics for a Free Choice, Catholic Voices, . , 54 p.This discussion paper focuses on the Catholic Voices, an international forum on issues of population and development. This paper proves that Catholics can and should support the Program of Action. Part 1 shows areas of the Program of Action. Part 2 shows how positions taken by the Vatican at Cairo on a number of key reproductive and sexual health issues did not accurately reflect the richness and diversity of church tradition. It is on this issue that the global community strove to educate the Church. Moreover, it is on these issues that the Vatican delegates at Cairo held rigidly to the current conservatism fostered by Pope John Paul II. Finally, conclusion in the form of a theological reflection is offered to analyze the behavior of the Vatican at Cairo on the areas of disagreement.