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  1. 1

    Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia.

    Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [AIDoS]; Somali Women's Democratic Organization

    Rome, Italy, AIDOS, 1989. VIII, 148, [3] p.

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1988 International Seminar on Female Circumcision in Somalia. The first part relays the introductory addresses presented by the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, the Somali Minister of Health, the Italian Ambassador to Somalia, the World Health Organization's resident representative in Somalia, and the President of the Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Part 2 offers five reports on efforts towards international cooperation to eliminate female genital mutilation undertaken by North/South women's organizations, the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, the Foundation for Women's Health Research and Development, and the World Health Organization. Part 3 includes three reports on religious and legal aspects of female genital mutilation, and part 4 presents reports of eradication efforts ongoing in Egypt, Nigeria, the Gambia, and Sudan. The fifth part of the volume is devoted to six reports on aspects of the practice of female genital mutilation in Somalia as well as eradication efforts that involve an information campaign and training. Part 6 reprints the reports of the working groups on health, the law, training and information, and religion, and the final part covers the final resolutions and closing addresses by a UN Children's Fund representative, a representative of the UN Commission for Human Rights, and the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party. The Inter-African Committee's Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, approved by the seminar, is contained in the first appendix, and a list of seminar participants is attached in the second.
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  2. 2

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on the Clinical and Therapeutic Evolution of HIV Infection in Mothers and Children.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on the Clinical and Therapeutic Evolution of HIV Infection in Mothers and Children

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 28-30. (SE:WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    An estimated 2 million women worldwide are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and many of these women will transmit HIV infection to their infants. Perinatal transmission accounts for at least 80% of cases of HIV infection in children. The presence of maternal antibodies renders it impossible to diagnose HIV infection in the 1st 18 months of life with current screening tests. Thus, diagnosis must be based on a combination of epidemiologic risk factor assessment, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory findings. If the clinical manifestations of HIV infection are to become more useful and adaptable to all world regions, they should be specifically classified and defined on the basis of universal nomenclature. Also needed is more information on the pathogenesis of the different syndromes observed in HIV-infected children. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia--the 1st type of pattern-- appears earlier and has a much worse prognosis than lymphoid interstitial pneumonia--the 2nd disease pattern observed in children. Preliminary clinical trials suggest that zidovudine may improve the survival time in HIV-infected children, normalize height and weight, and bring about regression in certain neurological signs. More trials are needed on this promising development, as well as to investigate the possibility that the administration of zidovudine to pregnant women and/or neonates in the last 24 hours of life can prevent the vertical transmission of HIV infection.
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  3. 3

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on the Epidemiology of HIV Infection in Mothers and Children.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on the Epidemiology of HIV Infection in Mothers and Children

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 25-7. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    The prevalence of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is rapidly increasing, and it is estimated that 2 million women and over 500,000 infants will be infected by the end of 1989. Although transplacental transmission during the 1st trimester of pregnancy appears to be the source of most pediatric HIV infection, the virus can also be transmitted during delivery or postnatally. The role of breastfeeding as a risk factor is an urgent research priority given the beneficial health effects of this practice. Clarification of the effect of the stage of maternal infection on transmission also is needed. Women with symptomatic HIV infection appear more likely to transmit the disease, yet recently acquired infection may be more highly infectious. Prospective studies of children of HIV-infected women should seek to elaborate the natural history of disease, cofactors such as breastfeeding and nutritional status that may influence the course of the disease, predictive factors for an unfavorable prognosis, the influence of immunizations and prophylactic treatments to prevent superinfection, and the impact of optimal prenatal care on the child's prognosis. Health education that teaches women of childbearing age how to avoid contracting HIV remains the most effective measure against the perinatal transmission of HIV. To ensure that the public receives consistent information, HIV prevention campaigns should be closely linked to existing programs in maternal-child health, sexually transmitted disease control, family planning, and immunization.
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  4. 4

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on Virology and Immunology.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on Virology and Immunology

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 23-4. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    Large gaps exist in knowledge of the clinical, immunologic, and virologic correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from infected mothers to their infants. Physiological changes in the immune system of pregnant women as well as maternal antibodies to certain virus-encoded proteins may affect the natural history of HIV infection. Also relevant may be the stage of the mother's infection and the time of HIV transmission to the fetus. There is some evidence that maternal antibodies to the immunodominant hypervariable loop in gag protein 120 may reduce the risk of transmission to the fetus. More basic research in virology and immunology is needed for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to maternal-infant HIV infection. Research priorities include the following: the impact of pregnancy on clinical outcome and virological and immunologic markers in HIV-infected women; correlates of perinatal transmission such as virus characteristics and load, neutralizing antibodies, and cell-mediated immunity; possible immunologic or chemotherapeutic interventions to decrease perinatal transmission; and the standardization of virologic and immunologic markers for pediatric HIV infection.
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  5. 5

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on HIV / AIDS and Families.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on HIV / AIDS and Families

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 30-2. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    All social policies dealing with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) must be scrutinized in terms of their impact on the family, specifically enhancement of the family unit to cope with the impact of AIDS and promotion of an integrated approach in which families are kept together whenever possible. Thus, health and social welfare interventions should seek to support and complement the family as a functional unit rather than to replace it. Family counseling and self- help groups should be organized to enhance coping skills and prevent family disruption. Young families in particular lack the problem solving skills required to deal with the crisis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the marital conflict this diagnosis creates. Not only can infected individuals become isolated within their own families, but the family unit itself is often shunned by the community. The psychosocial stress is exacerbated by the poverty that results from the frequent loss of work and income. HIV-infected illicit drug users tend to isolate themselves from sources of medical care and are unable to provide infected offspring with the care required. The families of homosexual and bisexual men may become aware of the parent's sexual orientation at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection. Uninfected mothers become overwhelmed with dealing with unpredictable medical needs of family members under conditions of economic and emotional stress, and there is a need for respite care. Since women play a key role in maintaining the family unit, government policies should seek to empower women and children to express their own needs.
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  6. 6

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on the Demographic and Economic Impact of HIV Infection / AIDS in Women and Children.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on the Demographic and Economic Impact of HIV Infection / AIDS in Women and Children

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 44-6. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    Extrapolation modelling of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic suggests a cumulative total of 1 million cases of AIDS worldwide in adults by 1991. Although major increases in child mortality rates are anticipated in areas with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women, few projections have been made specifically for women and children. If HIV-infected women and their children are to be allocated adequate resources in terms of their health and social service needs, this deficit must be addressed. In severely affected areas, such as Central Africa, AIDS in women and children can be expected to consume more economic resources than any other disease. Even in developed countries, direct medical car costs for children with AIDS are higher than those for adult AIDS patients. In general, research must prioritize projections of the numbers and trends of HIV infections and AIDS cases in women and children as well as disease-related costs. Attention must also be given to the indirect costs associated with AIDS in women in developing countries. Women's contribution to Third World economies is often equal to that of their male counterparts due to women's role as food producers and homemakers. Evaluations of the costs of HIV infection in women and children should be conducted within the context of the prevalence and costs of other diseases also in need of resource allocation.
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  7. 7

    Women's role in food chain activities and the implications for nutrition.

    Holmboe-Ottesen G; Mascarenhas O; Wandel M

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Administrative Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition, 1989 May. [6], 110 p. (ACC / SCN State-of-the-Art Series; Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 4)

    This UN state-of-the-art nutrition policy discussion paper focuses on the role of African and Asian women in food-related activities and the consequences for nutrition. Special emphasis is placed on constraints and opportunities for women in providing adequate nutrition for their families, obstacles and potentialities for women in catering to their own nutrition and other basic needs, and areas of conflict and congruence between these two roles. The main obstacles are women's high workloads, seasonal variations in food availability and food chain work, women's low productivity in the food chain, women's low status, and the lack of infrastructure and services relevant to women. Greater female participation in food production and income generation may increase total household food availability and give women control of cash and food as well as improve their status. However, these gains also may increase women's workload and thereby have a negative effect on their health and that of their families. Recommended is a household food security framework that emphasizes food adequacy, viability in procurement, and sustainability. The literature suggests the following criteria for operation of successful woman-oriented programs: a holistic approach, consideration of gender relations, sensitivity and flexibility in planning and implementation, community participation, interaction with rural women on their own terms, and a combination of interventions.
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  8. 8

    Protection of the human rights of women and children.

    Hussein RH

    In: Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia, [compiled by] Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [and] Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Rome, Italy, Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo, 1989. 129-32.

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948. The provisions of that declaration have inspired many of the measures taken by the UN bodies to advance women's status. The issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) was considered in 1981 by the Human Rights Working Group on Slavery. That group considered information received from a nongovernmental organization on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children and recommended that the information be brought to the attention of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities decided in 1982 and 1984 that a study should be undertaken on all aspects of FGM and how the problem may be resolved. An interagency working group was subsequently commissioned to conduct the study. At its last session of 1989, the Commission on Human Rights asked the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities to consider measures to be taken at the national and international levels to eradicate the practice of FGM, and to submit a report to the commission at its 46th session in 1990. The author also briefly describes UN actions with regard to protecting the rights of the child.
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  9. 9

    WHO activities in the area of female circumcision and women's health.

    Wassef HH

    In: Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia, [compiled by] Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [and] Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Rome, Italy, Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo, 1989. 43-5.

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) interest in promoting women's status and improving their role in economic and social development was formally acknowledged in its declaration of 1975 as International Women's Year and the proclamation of the next decade as the United Nations Decade for Women. The 1975 World Health Assembly passed a resolution urging governments to widen the range of opportunity for women in all aspects of health and to ensure their further integration in health activities. The assembly gave special attention to traditional practices and their effects upon women's health, with the main goal of promoting proven useful customs and eliminating harmful ones. The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional office has worked to collect information and stimulate interest in female genital mutilation (FGM). Adequate data have been collected to clearly document the deleterious health effects of FGM. Efforts must now be made to convince people at the local level to terminate its practice.
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  10. 10

    Statistics and indicators on women in Africa. 1986. Statistiques et indicateurs sur les femmes en Afrique. 1986.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 225 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 7)

    This compendium provides statistics by country on a number of measures of women's status and participation in decision making in Africa. Chapters are devoted to statistics on population composition and distribution, households and families, economic participation and not in the labor force, national household income and expenditures, education and literacy, health and health services and disability, housing conditions and settlement patterns, political participation, and crime. The last chapter gives information on population statistics programs. The time reference period covers 1970-86. 31 statistical tables are given. Population estimates and projections use statistics available as of 1984 from the Compendium of Human Settlements Statistics and the Demographic Yearbook. First marriage is calculated on the basis of a single census or survey according to procedures described by Hajnal. The economically active population refers to work for pay or profit or availability for work. Employment includes enterprise workers, own-account workers, employees, unpaid family workers, members of cooperatives, and members of the armed forces. Attempts are made to more accurately present women's work, particularly for unpaid family work for production for own or household consumption and own-account workers. Occupational groups include professional, administrative, and clerical. Agricultural, industrial, and forestry workers are included in the total. Educational levels pertain to ages 5-7 and lasting about 5 years, ages 10-12 and lasting about 3 years, ages 13-15 and lasting 4 years, and ages 17-19 and lasting at least 3 or 4 years. Health indicators include mortality and survival rates, causes of death, selection female measures, cigarette consumption, and disability. Housing is differentiated by availability of electricity, piped water, and toilets. Women's political participation refers to representation in parliamentary assemblies and as professional staff in the UN Secretariat. Crime includes arrests and prison population. Population programs include data collection in censuses, household surveys conducted under the UN Survey Capability Program, and civil registration systems.
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  11. 11

    Resolution No. 44/76. Elderly Women, 8 December 1989.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:151, 562.

    The United Nations (UN) General Assembly Resolution No. 44/76, December 1898, regarding elderly women, begins with a review of past resolutions concerning the situation of elderly women in the world. It recognizes the necessity of considering the elderly an important and necessary element in the development process at all levels within a given society; that age segregation, in addition to sex stereotyping, makes the social and economic problems of elderly women even more acute; that elderly women are often viewed only as beneficiaries and not as contributors to development; and that while statistics form an essential ingredient of planning and policy evaluation, few statistics are available on the situation of elderly women. The resolution recommends that the UN take the lead in recognizing the important contributions made by older women and their potential to participate in and shape the future of their societies; reaffirms Economic and Social Council resolution 1989/38, requesting the Secretary-General to organize a seminar, within available budgetary resources, to study questions arising from an in-depth analysis of the situation of women as they age, to transmit the results to the Commission on the Status of Women, under the priority theme of development, at its 1992 session, during the observance of the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the International Plan of Action on Aging. The resolution invites the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women and the Statistical Office of the Secretariat to pay specific attention to older women in their efforts to improve methodology for data-gathering on women.
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  12. 12

    Resolution No. 44/75. Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat, 8 December 1989.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:136, 557-8.

    Resolution No. 44/75, December 8, 1989 of the UN General Assembly calling for the Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat begins by remembering the relevant paragraphs of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, in which importance is attached to the appointment of women at senior decision-making and managerial levels, with the deployment of a senior-level officer in a position designated as the focal point for women in the office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Human Resources Management, to be responsible for all aspects of the action program for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat; the resolution also remembers past resolutions pertaining to the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat, as well as other relate resolutions, decisions, and reports, such as the October 1989 report of the Secretary-General on the composition of the Secretariat, in which 22 of 24 Under-Secretary-General positions are held by men, that 17 of 17 Assistant Secretary General positions are held by men, that 78 of 85 D-2 positions are held by men, and that 220 of 235 D-1 positions are held by men. The resolution request the Secretary-General to intensify his efforts to increase the number of women employed throughout the UN system, particularly in senior policy-level and decision-making posts, in order to achieve an overall rate of participation by women of 30% by 1990; it requests renewed efforts to ensure equitable representation of women from developing countries in posts subject to geographical distribution; reiterates its request to Member States to continue to support efforts of the UN and its specialized agencies to increase the proportions of women in the Professional categories, nominate more women candidates, and encourage women to apply for vacant posts, and requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its 45th session an outline of a program for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat for the period 1991-1995.
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  13. 13

    Resolution No. 44/73. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 8 December 1989.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:124, 548-9.

    Resolution 44/73 of the UN General Assembly concerns the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of discrimination against Women, December 8, 1989. It begins with acknowledgements that one of the purposes of the UN is to promote universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction of any kind, including distinction as to sex; it notes the emphasis placed by the "World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace" on the ratification of and accession to the Convention and acknowledges the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the Convention. After noting that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women agreed to take due account of the different cultural and socio-economic systems of States parties to the Convention, the Resolution welcomes the ratification of or accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women by an increasing number of Member States, and offers a series of recommendations to further its goals, including the proposals of the Secretary-General for full funding of the Committee, and requests that the program budget for 1990-1991 provide for attendance at all the Committee's meetings by relevant professional staff from the Division for the Advancement of Women of the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat, legal staff experts in human rights treaty implementation and adequate secretarial staff, and for the necessary facilities for the effective functioning of the Committee in order to enable it to carry out its mandate as efficiently as the human rights treaty bodies.
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  14. 14

    Resolution No. 44/78. Improvement of the Situation of Women in Rural Areas, 8 December 1989.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:124, 550-1.

    The UN General Assembly's December 1989 resolution No. 44/78, addresses Improvement of the Status of Women in Rural Areas. It begins with the recollecting of prior resolutions, an acknowledgement of the importance given to the problems of rural women in Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/29 of May 1988, in which the Council urged Governments and development agencies of the UN system to pay particular attention to the role of women in rural development, and it takes note with satisfaction of the results of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects." The resolution recognizes that the economic crises in many developing countries has severely affected the socio-economic status of women, especially in rural areas, requiring the urgent need to take appropriate measures aimed at improving the situation of women in rural areas. Beginning with praise for the Secretary-General's report on the national experience relating to the improvement of the situation of women in rural areas, it then calls upon Member states to make use of the report and the main conclusions and recommendations of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects" to endeavor to reflect them in national development strategies, paying special attention to 1) setting up or strengthening national machineries for the advancement of women in order to ensure effective execution, monitoring, and evaluation of national strategies in the field of rural development and to strengthen liaison with agricultural and rural development institutions, 2) identifying and formulating more comprehensive priority development projects aimed at improving the situation of rural women and integrating them into national development plans at all levels, 3) taking measures to give rural women broader access to material resources. The resolution also requests that the organizations of the UN system promote the realization of programs and projects aimed at the improvement of the situation of rural women and that the Secretary-General prepare a report on the implementation of the present resolution and submit it to the General Assembly at its 48th session, through the Economic and Social Council.
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    [Immunological birth control] Immunologische Geburtenkontrolle.

    Hinney B


    The Special Program of Research Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of WHO has been supporting new and improved methods of contraception since the 1970s for about 600 million couples in reproductive age in developing countries. A new approach is the immunological influencing of fertility by vaccine. In man spermatozoa surface antigens, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadotropin, and sexual steroids serve as target antigens. In women the potential antigens are more spermatozoa surface antigens, zona-pellucida antigens, trophoblast surface antigens, and embryonal antigens as well as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), GnRH, gonadotropins, and sexual steroids. Most of these produced untoward side effects. The most promising is the immunization against spermatozoa surface antigens and against HCG. Anti-HCG antibodies bound to tetanus toxin carrier produced contraception in primates, but its drawback was the cross reaction of the beta chain of the HCG molecule with luteinizing hormone (LH). This was avoided by using a synthetic peptide bound to diphtheria toxin. 43 women aged 26-43, who had been sterilized, were injected with this vaccine. In all 30 women who remained in the study dose-dependent antibody levels increased to provide contraception within 6 weeks that lasted 6 months. Side effects included mild myalgia, pruritus exanthem (2 cases), plasma cortisone increase (1 case), and menstrual disorder (5 cases). Outstanding questions remain: reversibility, allergic reactions, cross reaction with other organ systems, failure at the time of implantation, or immune reaction developing during pregnancy. These will preclude their universal introduction for some time to come.
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  16. 16

    Convention on the Nationality of Married Women.

    United Nations


    The government of Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ratified this UN Convention on the nationality of married women on May 16, 1989.
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  17. 17

    The position of women and changing multilateral policies.

    Joekes S

    Development. 1989; (4):77-82.

    Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
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  18. 18

    [Integration of women in development. Panel-forum] Integracion de la mujer al desarrollo. Panel-foro.

    Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia de Guatemala [APROFAM]. Programa de Poblacion y Desarrollo. Unidad de Educacion, Informacion y Adiestramiento

    [Guatemala City], Guatemala, APROFAM, 1989. 53 p.

    This document contains papers from a 1989 forum Integration of Women in Development presented in Guatemala City under the sponsorship of the Association for Family Welfare (APROFAM), the National Office for Women, the Ministry of Labor and Social Insurance, and the Interamerican Commission on Women. The 1st paper, on application of the strategies of Nairobi and their impact on the current situation of women, is followed by 4 others that examine women and health, employment, education, and culture. The analysis of application of the strategies of Nairobi begins with a review of the creation and history of the UN, which is intended to provide perspective on the Decade for Women. A resolution of the UN General Assembly declared 1976-85 the Decade for Women, with the themes of equality, development, and peace and the subthemes of employment, health, and education. The 1985 conference in Nairobi and its papers serve as a mark of reference for monitoring the progress of women at the national and international levels. Programs for promoting the role of women in development of the UN Development Program, the UN Fund for Development of Women, the UN Population Fund, and UNICEF are described. It is clear that, despite widespread agreement with the strategies of Nairobi, the question of how best to structure practical programs for impoverished women in development remains to be resolved. The discussion of women and health focuses on the relationship between socioeconomic factors and health, the special health needs of fertile-aged women and their impact on infant and child health, and the role of women in maintaining and improving the health of the entire population. The section on women and employment traces the roots of unequal access to employment for women in Guatemala, assesses the significance of employment from various socioeconomic and human perspectives, presents some data on female employment in Guatemala, and makes some recommendations for future policies and interventions to promote greater employment opportunities for Guatemalan women. The section on women and education points out that the average Guatemalan has had 2.9 years of schooling and then discusses the repercussions of educational status on development. The final section, on women and culture, briefly examines different definitions of culture and the role of culture as a factor in development, and assesses the participation of women in cultural development in Guatemala.
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  19. 19

    The role of the U.N. for advancement of women -- a proposal.

    Haq K

    Development. 1989; (4):49-51.

    In 1970, the United Nations adopted a long-term women's advancement program and other initiatives to raise consciousness on women's issues and to identify appropriate actions to take in promoting gender equality and women's integration in development. Setting its objective as equality between the sexes by the year 2000, the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies is also a UN system-wide medium-term plan with specific activities to implement over the period 1990-95. These UN actions have, therefore, prepared the way for women's advancement in the 1990s and beyond. Efforts do, however, need to be made to build upon and expand these initiatives to facilitate the total integration, participation, and recognition of women in the social, economic, and political lives of countries throughout the world. Present UN strategy suffers from multiple focal points, a diffused mandate, limited financial resources, and inadequate interaction with national governments. The development of an UN Special Agency for Women's Development is suggested as a way of solidly propelling women ahead toward globally-recognized equality and greater overall opportunity. This agency would be the umbrella over existing and future related programs and activities, armed with a clear and specific mandate, an independent executive board, an independent fundraising ability, institutional arrangements to undertake in-country projects, and field offices.
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  20. 20

    Strengthening development co-operation for primary health care: a DAC concern.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]. Development Assistance Committee

    Paris, France, OECD, DAC, 1989. 62 p.

    This publication contains the discussions and conclusions of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), which met on September 14-15, 1988 to address the issue of strengthening development cooperation for primary health care. As the forward by DAC Chairman Joseph C. Weeler explains, the world community acknowledge the importance of primary health care during a 1978 meeting in Alma Ata. But many developing countries, supported by international agencies, continue to focus on curative services rather than on primary health care. Among its conclusions, DAC reaffirmed the importance of primary health care, especially for poor and rural populations. It also noted the need to help developing countries formulate and execute primary health care programs. In order to succeed, health programs must get the family -- especially the mother -- involved in the management of the health system. DAC also pointed out the need to strengthen aid coordination, with the recipient providing the leadership in the coordination process. To make primary health care programs sustainable, the public sector, the community, and the private sector must work as partners. DAC stressed the importance of birth spacing, immunization, and oral rehydration, and emphasized the need for data on the health status of populations in developing countries and on the services provided. The publication also includes reports by consultants that address the following: 1) the theory and practice of primary health care; 2) the evolution of primary health care; and 3) the role of donor agencies in strengthening primary health care. Finally, the report provides the findings of a review by DAC's Expert Group on Aid Evaluation.
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  21. 21

    Population planning: a development priority.

    POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1989 Nov; 15(7):3-6.

    The 1989, UN Population Fund report has recommended 7 broad interventions, with suggested detailed actions to place population at the forefront of development for the 1990s. Family planning is a development priority: it should compare 1% of each country's GNP. Women should empower themselves to shape their own lives. The recommendations are: 1) women's contributions should be documented. 2) Women's productivity should be increased, and their double burden lessened, by giving them credit, ownership of resources, equal pay, better domestic technology and child care at the workplace. 3) Family planning should be ensured with a variety of choice and full information. 4) Women's health should be improved by training birth attendants and all women for decision-making in health, and supplementing food for girls, and young pregnant teens and mothers. 5) Female education should be expanded to at least 4:5 ratio in primary and a 1:2 ratio in secondary schools, and pregnant teens should be allowed to continue their education. 6) Women should be given equal opportunity in all sectors. 7) Goals for 2000 are: international assistance for family planning of $2.5 billion annually; family planning services for 500 million; at least 1 prenatal visit for all; maternal mortality should be reduced 50%; and infant mortality to 50/1000.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Clinical features of paediatric AIDS in Uganda.

    Lambert HJ; Friesen H


    A total of 177 children seen at 2 hospitals in Kampala are described who were strongly suspected of having acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), either on clinical grounds or because they fulfilled WHO case- definition criteria for diagnosis of pediatric AIDS. Blood was taken from the 177 children and 154 of their mothers and tested for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Altogether, 119 (67%) children were seropositive, but only 85 (71%) fulfilled the WHO case-definition criteria, and they were significantly older than the 34 who did not fulfill the criteria. A further 58 children were seronegative but fulfilled the WHO criteria. Of the 119 seropositive children, only 3 had a history of previous blood transfusion, but 103 (98%) of 105 mothers were HIV seropositive: consequently, their children were considered to have been infected in utero or perinatally. 13 (26%) of 49 mothers of seronegative children were seropositive. 80% of HIV-infected children were under 2 years of age at diagnosis and 23% died within 3 months of diagnosis. None of the parents was known to be an intravenous drug user, a prostitute, or bisexual. The difficulty of accurate diagnosis of AIDS presents a major problem in Africa, as the WHO clinical case-definition criteria alone are clearly not adequate. (author's)
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  23. 23

    1989 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. [2], vii, 397 p. (ST/CSDHA/6)

    This is the 1st update of the World Survey on the Role of Women in Development published by WHO. 11 chapters consider such topics as the overall theme, debt and policy adjustment, food and agriculture, industrial development, service industries, informal sector, policy response, technology, women's participation in the economy and statistics. The thesis of the document is that while isolated improvements in women's condition can be found, the economic deterioration in most developing countries has struck women hardest, causing a "feminization of poverty." Yet because of their potential and their central role in food production, processing, textile manufacture, and services among others, short and long term policy adjustments and structural transformation will tap women's potential for full participation. Women;s issues in agriculture include their own nutritional status, credit, land use, appropriate technology, extension services, intrahousehold economics and forestry. For their part in industrial development, women need training and/or re-training, affirmative action, social support, and better working conditions to enable them to participate fully. In the service industries the 2-tier system of low and high-paid jobs must be dismantled to allow women upward mobility. Regardless of the type of work being discussed, agricultural, industrial, primary or service, formal or informal, family roles need to be equalized so that women do not continue to bear the triple burden of work, housework and reproduction.
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  24. 24

    Targeted interventions and infant mortality.

    Lovel H


    The main causes of infant mortality in 71% of the cases are diarrhea, measles, acute respiratory infection, and neonatal tetanus. A UN child survival strategy includes growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breast feeding, immunization, fertility, food and female literacy (GOBI-FFF). Previous research has shown a correlation between low levels of infant mortality and high levels of female literacy. Educated women are more likely to delay marriage, and childbearing. Child mortality is much higher for those born to women under 20 years old and also much higher for those born within 1 or 2 after the previous birth. Maternal mortality is also higher for mothers under 20 and with closely spaced births of 3 or more children. The majority of adults in developing countries have knowledge of family planning but teen pregnancy is a concern. Better nutrition during pregnancy would decrease infant deaths. Growth monitoring is another way to reduce infant mortality and morbidity. The difficulties are in the reluctance to adapt programs to local traditional methods of growth monitoring and going to direct recording scales. Immunization is estimated to have prevented over 3 million deaths from measles, tetanus, whooping cough and polio in 1984 alone. In spite of progress, only 50% of children in developing countries are immunized against diphtheria, pertussis, polio, and tetanus by the age of 1 year. these activities must be integrated into primary health care and community development projects to make better contact with people needing this service. oral rehydration therapy not only reduces mortality from diarrhea but can reduce morbidity by reducing the duration of the illness and by increasing the weight gain. Breast feeding has been shown in many studies to reduce the risk of deaths of infants. The promotion of breast feeding includes the issues of maternity leave, job security, and child care at the work place.
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  25. 25

    Contraception research.

    ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY. 1989 Jun 17; 24(24):1308-9.

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) research program in human reproduction has been criticized by health and women's organizations for its use of poor, illiterate women in developing countries as "guinea pigs." In response, an impact assessment team--currently in India--was established to seek ways of making the WHO research program more acceptable to women. A fundamental shortcoming of this assessment process, however, is the team's assumption that ethical guidelines regarding informed consent are being followed in WHO clinical trials. Women who participate in trials of new contraceptives such as injectables, implants,a nd pellets are not being given unbiased information about possible risks. Another concern is the recent effort to reduce the intensity of the animal studies that precede human testing. It has been argued that animal research, which has in many cases revealed serious drug side effects, is not applicable to humans. Finally, the surveillance of participants in contraceptive trials--a basic guideline for research activities--has proved infeasible. Both health and women's groups have documented violations of medical ethics that occurred in WHO-sponsored multicenter clincial trials of the injectable contraceptive, Net-En. Unfortunately, the assessment team has been less critical in its review of the program.
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