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In: Labour force participation and development. 2nd ed., [by] Guy Standing. Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1981. 165-206.The constraining influence of fertility and the associated demand for childcare time have often been considered to be the principal determinants of female labor force participation. International organizations, academics, and planners in low-income countries have therefore tended to enthusiastically support policies designed to accelerate the growth of female labor force in hopes of slowing the rate of population growth. While much research has been conducted on the topic, recent research casts doubts on the inverse relationship between female labor force participation and fertility. Some hold that the relationship, if it exists, depends upon the type of employment. This paper explores whether fertility constrains female labor force participation and if so, when and to what extent; whether female participation depresses fertility and if so, what type of participation is most likely to do so; and what is the nature of the relationship, if any. Sections consider the theoretical framework of fertility, participation, and the opportunity costs of time; evidence on empirical relationships in industrialized economies; the effect of empirical relationships on the influence of female participation on fertility in low-income countries; and evidence from low-income countries on fertility as a constraint on female labor force participation. Analysis uncovered mixed evidence from empirical analyzes which are often methodologically questionable and based on inadequate data. It was nonetheless concluded that the general demand for childcare time is less constraining on female participation in rural areas and where domestic employment predominates; and an inverse relationship is more likely in urban-industrial areas although it remains unclear whether or not the effect is greater for women with relatively low opportunity wages.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1981; 19(1/2):225-240.Add to my documents.
[Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development], 1981 Jul. 375 p.Population projections -- 1980-2000 and long-term (stationary population) are presented in tables for Africa, the United States and Canada, Latin America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. The base year for the projection of base total population and age/sex composition is 1980. The total population in 1980 was taken from a variety of sources, but the principal source was the United Nations Population Division -- "World Population Trends and Prospects by Country, 1950-2025: Summary Report of the 1980 Assessment, 1980", a computer printout. The base year mortality levels used in the projection of mortality level and trend are in general the same as those used in the recent United Nations projections. The principal source of the base fertility rates was also the revised United Nations population projections. Throughout the projections it was assumed that international migration would have no appreciable impact. Population projection was prepared separately for every country in the world. Since many countries reached stability only after 175 years of projection, the results of the projection are presented at 5-year intervals for the 1980-2000 period and at 25 year intervals thereafter. For each of the 165 separate units, the following information is presented in the accompanying tables: population by sex and 5-year age groups; birth rate, death rate, and rate of natural increase; gross reproduction rate, total fertility rate; expectation of life at birth and infant mortality rates for males and females separately; and net reproduction rates. According to this projection the total world population would increase from 4.416 billion in 1980 to 6.114 billion in the year 2000. The average growth rate during 1980-2000 would be about 1.63% per year decreasing from 1.71% in 1980 to 1.42% in the year 2000. The birth rate would decline by 5 points and the death rate by 2 points. The share of the population in less developed regions would be 1.94% per year compared to 0.59% per year for more developed regions. The estimated hypothetical stationary population of the world according to the present projection is 10.1 billion.
Women in development: 1980 report to the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs United States House of Representatives.
Washington, D.C., USAID, . 400 p.This report describes the women in development programs, projects, and activities of USAID since 1978, including activities relating to the 1980 UN Mid-Decade Conference on Women in Copenhagen. The report has 6 sections: a background on the UN Decade for Women; a description of activities and projects related to the Copenhagen conferences; the activities at and results of Copenhagen and the women in development goals set by that conference; an update on the projects and activities of the Agency relating to women in development; a summary and recommendations; and, an appendix, including a copy of the Programme of Action and Resulutions adopted at the Copenhagen meeting. USAID is only begininning to restructure projects around the concept of women as agents and active contributors to development. Improvements in the analysis of the female beneficiary population is discernible in data such as the number of female headed households, high levels of migration, or number of women active in agricultural production. There are very few women-specific projects and they are small in size. Concern over women's roles in development is not a western idea improsed on the Third World, but is an idea with worldwide acceptance. Progress has been more steady than rapid. In percentage terms, out of a total development assistance budget in 1980 of $1.24 billion, all women in development activities account for little more than 2%.
People. 1981; 8(1):30.The International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF's) new medical advisory body, the International Medical Advisory Panel, has approved the continued distribution of the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera (DMPA). The conclusion of the 5-member panel endorses similar recommendations from other bodies, among them the World Health Organization and the United States Food and Drug Administration's Scientific Advisory Committee. IPPF is the largest nongovernmental supplier of DMPA to developing countries. At this time it supplies 400,000 3-monthly injections of the injectable each year to its member family planning associations in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Sarawak, Zaire and other countries. 3 characteristics are cited in the Panel's report as being responsible for the high acceptability of injectables over other reversible methods of contraception in developing countries: effectiveness of injections; convenience for use; and acceptability because it is free of the cardiovascular side-effects associated with the oral contraceptive which contains estrogen. The approval of the Panel comes at a time when the controversy surrounding the injectables is becoming more vocal. The controversy has primarily focused on its use in developing countries where agencies are accused of "dumping" harmful drugs on unsuspecting women. The fact that the United States Food and Drug administration has failed to approve DMPA for use in the U.S. lends support to proponents of this view. The Panel found that among an estimated 10 million women who had used DMPA for varying periods in the 15 years it has been in use, there has not been a single causal association. The most disturbing and immediately apparent side-effect from the perspective of the user, is the disruption of the menstrual cycle.