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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007.  p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
Right to education during displacement: a resource for organizations working with refugees and internally displaced persons.
New York, New York, Women' s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006.  p.This resource is the first in a series of tools that identifies everyone's right to education, with a focus on refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons (IDP). This version is designed for use by local, regional and international organizations, United Nations (UN) agencies, government agencies and education personnel working with displaced communities. Is it mean to serve as: an awareness raising tool to encourage humanitarian assistance agencies to implement education programs - and donors to found them; training and capacity-building resource for practitioners and others working with displaced populations on international rights around education; and a call to action for organizations and individuals to promote access and completion of quality education for all persons affected by emergencies. (excerpt)
Ottawa, Canada, Youth Coalition, 2006. 30 p.The current global generation of young people is the first in history to have lived their entire lives in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, and are disproportionately affected. Millions of children and youth have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS; thousands of others are HIV positive themselves; and many others are affected by it in a variety of ways. None of us are immune to it. In response to the pandemic, governments and international organizations have adopted a variety of responses, but the numbers show that what has been done thus far clearly is not adequate. The reality is that none of these responses, initiatives or programs will be truly successful and effective until they integrate a sexual and reproductive rights and a gender perspective. Furthermore, every initiative must include youth from the beginning to ensure that we young people, have the youth-friendly information, education, services and products that we are entitled to as our human right, in order to make informed and healthy decisions about our sexual and reproductive lives. This guide is intended to: Provide an overview of the linkages between sexual and reproductive rights and HIV/AIDS; Explain the importance of HIV/AIDS initiatives having a sexual and reproductive rights perspective, as well as a youth perspective; and Discuss ways that young people can advocate for their sexual and reproductive rights within HIV/AIDS frameworks, in their countries, regions, and globally. (excerpt)
Statement by Regional Director Carmen Barroso at the 36th Session of the Commission on Population and Development, United Nations, New York, 2 April 2003.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region [WHR], 2003 Apr 2.  p.In a speech before the 36th Session of the U.N. Commission on Population and Development in New York on 2 April 2003, Carmen Barroso, Regional Director of IPPF/WHR, emphasized the paramount importance of comprehensive sexuality education for young people, and urged the United Nations to give it much greater attention in its future program of work in the area of population. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec;  p..The call to action was driven in part by the frustration with the priorities and pace at which the current players on the world scene are addressing issues, such as extreme poverty, human rights and the environment. Out of this frustration, however, came a major gift--the gift of hope and possibility. Worldwide participants were inspired and inspiring, and the organizations involved were doing inspiring and effective work. The results were equally impressive. For example, one business leader contributed desperately needed computers to schools in Cambodia; two individuals teamed up to teach conflict resolution in South Africa; another volunteered to fund ongoing dialogues between the Palestinians and Israelis. Participants came away with a new vision of what is possible and realized that global public opinion and individual initiative might indeed become the world's second super-power and help bring about change in global priorities. (excerpt)
Economic and Social Council considers issues relating to human rights, women, drugs, homeless, southern Africa.
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..Action by the 54-member Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1986 concerned a wide range of issues, including human rights, illicit drug traffic, the homeless, the status of women, crime control, racial discrimination, population, youth and the disabled. Particular situations relating to southern Africa, the Middle East and other areas of the world were also the focus of Council attention. The Council, in adopting 43 resolutions and 35 decisions during its four-week session (New York, 28 April-23 May), also reviewed matters relating to the International Year of Peace, being observed during 1986. Debate on some human rights situations and issues concerning southern Africa, including transnational corporations (TNCs) and mercenaries, resulted in votes reflecting opposing views. The Council condemmed collaboration by TNCs with South Africa in the nuclear, military and economic fields, and the increased recruitment, financing, training, assembly, transit and use of mercenaries to destabilize and overthrow certain African Governments. (excerpt)
London, England, OneWorld International Foundation, 2003 Aug 4. 3 p.In a recent report on the State of Children's Rights, 2003, by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Child Workers in Nepal (CWIN), 9.9 percent of the HIV infected population consists of children below 19. "HIV has already infected 41 children below 13 years of age," says CWIN president Gauri Pradhan. Although HIV cases are rising, the government is yet to provide sufficient funds to combat the syndrome. It sanctioned US $5 million for an AIDS prevention and control program in 2002. Donors contributed more than that. Another major hitch is a shortage of test centers. There are only a dozen HIV test facilities in Nepal's major hospitals. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], Population Council, 2000. viii, 28 p.In 1993 UNICEF/Myanmar launched an innovative project aimed at preventing the further spread of HIV/AIDS in Myanmar through the promotion of reproductive health. One of the activities undertaken was life-skills training for women and youth, conducted in collaboration with the Myanmar Red Cross Society (MRCS) and the Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association (MMCWA). The objective of the life-skills training activities was to encourage and promote informed decision making and care-seeking behavior among youth and women. The training aims to provide detailed and accurate information concerning sexuality, birth spacing, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and HIV/AIDS, and to provide skills for youth and women to enable them to cope with their daily lives and become proponents of community mobilization. This report presents findings of a participatory evaluation of the life-skills training activities implemented in late 1997 and early 1998. At the time of the evaluation, life-skills training had been conducted in 27 project townships. MRCS activities targeted youth aged 15-25 years, and MMCWA worked primarily with married women aged 20-40 years. Eight project townships were identified as project evaluation areas and one township was selected as a comparison township for each of the implementing organizations. In each of the selected project townships in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were conducted with trained and non-trained individuals in urban and rural areas. The evaluation used a highly participatory approach in order to encourage self-reflection among the local implementing agencies. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations resulting from the participatory evaluation. (excerpt)
London, England, IPPF, 1999. 80 p.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is a federation of national Family Planning Associations (FPA), funded by donations. On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Federation's founding, in 1992, IPPFs Members' Assembly approved a Vision 2000 Strategic Plan to guide IPPFs work in the decade up to the year 2000 and beyond. In 1996, the Federation's Central Council requested IPPFs Director-General to provide a guide for the implementation of the Strategic Plan at national, regional and global levels. The Compendium of Activities that follows constitutes that guide. This Compendium lists a number of activities which will help FPA in shaping the activities which they will carry out in order to achieve their own strategic plans which were developed on the basis of IPPFs Vision 2000 Strategic Plan. The Compendium also reconciles IPPF autonomy with donors' demands, since it spells out the activities the Federation contemplates undertaking in fulfillment of its Vision 2000 Strategic Plan. Finally, this Compendium of Activities includes a whole program devoted to strengthening and modernizing the Federation's management system.
[AIDS: the second decade. Centering efforts on women and children] SIDA: la deuxieme decennie. Centrer les efforts sur les femmes et les enfants.
[New York, New York], UNICEF, . 30 p.Each day, 5000 people worldwide are newly infected with HIV, mostly children and young people. The HIV infection rate is 2-3 times higher among female adolescents than among male adolescents. Regarding AIDS, more attention is given to attitudes and individual sexual behaviors than to social attitudes and behaviors affecting women, youths, and the poor. However, social behaviors influence sexuality and often lead to engagement in risky sex practices which facilitate HIV transmission. The risk of contracting HIV is higher among poor and disenfranchised populations. This brochure describes UNICEF policy on the HIV/AIDS pandemic and which social conditions facilitate its global spread. It also describes the coordinated measures needed to slow and possibly stop the spread of the AIDS pandemic. Those measures need to combat both risky sexual behavior and harmful social attitudes. Drawing from principles and accords established in the Child Rights Convention and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women, UNICEF is working in a number of ways to effect positive social change, while according priority attention to population groups at particular risk in developing countries, such as women and young people.
Arlington, Virginia, Center for International Health Information, 1997 Dec. 16 p.This booklet presents highlights of 1995-97 activities of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID's) HIV/AIDS program. After a brief description of the current status of the pandemic, USAID's response, and its new strategy, the booklet provides a more in-depth examination of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the highlights of USAID HIV/AIDS prevention activities during the past decade, and USAID's focus on prevention, which focuses on promoting safer sex behavior, increasing condom availability and use, and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The next section of the booklet reviews USAID's proven interventions, such as behavior change communication and research, condom social marketing, and the development of services to prevent and treat STDs. An example is then given of how the three interventions were used successfully to stem transmission in Thailand. The booklet continues by explaining how USAID has targeted its response to developing countries (where it can have a significant impact on slowing the pandemic), youth, and women, and how peer educators and community outreach activities have been used to spread the prevention message. Next, the booklet discusses how USAID has expanded its partnerships with the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS, with UNAIDS, and with Japan. The final section details the new USAID strategy for the future that will continue to focus on the three aspects of prevention and will also seek to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals and communities. The booklet also contains case studies of various USAID-funded projects.
In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 129-57.This document (the sixth chapter in a UN Gender Working Group book on the overlay of science and technology [S&T], sustainable human development, and gender issues) considers health issues from women's viewpoint to highlight the fact that S&T has failed to guaranteed improved health for women. This failure is exemplified by the use of amniocentesis for sex selection that leads to abortion of female fetuses. The chapter explains why gender and health deserve consideration in the S&T debate by looking at women as victims of health care systems, the fact that women's contributions have been undervalued, and the failure of health research and statistics to treat gender as a scientific variable. The issues specific to national-level technology transfer are grouped for preliminary review into 1) women's access to health S&T, 2) the impact of S&T on gender equality, and 3) women's roles in the development of health S&T. After outlining the need for a national S&T policy across sectors, the chapter reviews global activities of such groups as the UN, women's nongovernmental organizations, and the World Health Organization to meet this challenge. Next, recommendations are offered for 1) strategic actions that focus on youth, build on previous successes, and emphasize IEC (information, education, and communication) and 2) research and development. It is concluded that women's right to health is a fundamental human right that, when achieved, will benefit entire societies.
Washington, D.C., CEDPA, . 20 p.This 1996 annual report of the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) opens with a message from CEDPA's board, which notes that the organization's activities have continued to expand through efforts to improve health, development, human rights, and gender equality in Africa, Asia, eastern Europe, and Latin America. In particular, CEDPA worked with nongovernmental organizations and funding agencies to achieve continued growth of women's advocacy, activism, and leadership. During 1996, CEDPA used participatory processes to provide technical assistance and training to 73 community organizations that acted as policy advocates, advanced women's rights, extended media impact, and mobilized interfaith action. Also during 1996, CEDPA's gender-focused family planning and reproductive health projects were expanded; CEDPA conducted a Democracy and Governance Initiative, which involved leading women's groups in an effort to build civil society in Nigeria; family planning, reproductive health, and maternal/child health were promoted in Nepal; and maternal health services were strengthened in Romania. In the area of youth and leadership, CEDPA provided training, funding, and technical assistance to 40 partners in 20 countries and sponsored conferences in the US and India. The Better Life Options for Girls and Young Women program flourished, and adolescent reproductive health was promoted in Africa and Latin America. Girls in Egypt received education and training, and youth rights were promoted in Africa and Asia. CEDPA's capacity-building training program reached 841 people representing 54 countries, and CEDPA partners moved to attain program sustainability and increase gender equity in programs, projects, and institutions. Regional networks strengthened training and advocacy efforts. In addition to describing these activities, this annual report lists CEDPA's training participants by region, sponsors of the global training program, training mentors, partners, supporters, board and staff members, publications, and offices and provides a financial statement for 1996.
WORLD HEALTH. 1996 Sep-Oct; 49(5):24-5.The executive director of the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its human rights advisor addressed the annual meeting of the UN Commission on Human Rights in April 1996. The address summed up the extent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: more than 21 million people, 1.5 million of whom are children and 9 million of whom are women, are infected with HIV; more than 5 million have died of AIDS; and 5 people are infected every minute. The protection of human rights is crucial to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Key rights include the rights to information, education, health, and non-discrimination. Coerced sex and sexual violence against females must be stopped, since these actions put women and girls at risk of HIV infection. A conspiracy of silence keeps people and communities from knowing that AIDS is in their communities. It keeps governments from taking urgent action. An act of the Commission keeping HIV-related human rights a top priority will lead to breaking through this conspiracy of silence. More than 50% of new HIV cases are 15-24 years old. Among new HIV cases 15-19 years old, in some regions the girl to boy ratio is 2:1. The increase in the HIV infection rate in females leads to an increase in HIV-infected infants. By the year 2000, about 5 million children will have lost parents to AIDS. HIV/AIDS also adds the misery of stigmatization and discrimination to children infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. Governments need to implement efforts to reduce children's vulnerability to HIV, to protect children against HIV discrimination, and to provide children and their families with the support and services they need. Children have the right to HIV-related education and information. The prevalence and spread of HIV in prisons is increasing worldwide. Prison officials deal with the activities that spread HIV (sex and drug use) by using discipline rather than by providing education and condoms. Prisoners have the right to health, security of person, equality before the law, and freedom from inhuman treatment.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1993 Apr. 30,  p.UNICEF has published this booklet to communicate its view of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the underlying societal conditions that caused HIV/AIDS to emerge and that continue to inflame its global spread. UNICEF lays out actions that we must all do in concert to decelerate and eventually stop HIV's fatal spread. These actions must address unsafe sexual practices and unsafe societal practices. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women serve as a plan of action that covers the degree of social mobilization needed to produce social change as well as to focus attention on those at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS in developing countries--women and youth. AIDS combines issues of poverty, inequality, culture, and sexuality in complex ways. UNICEF-advocated actions to effect necessary change include: promoting the healthy development of youth so they can control their lives, providing sexual and reproductive health services, improving health care practices, and caring for and counseling families afflicted by AIDS. Focusing on out-of-school youth will reach most youth. Reorientation of curricula toward improved teacher education, better peer support, youth-friendly health services, life skills education, counseling, and community awareness is needed for schools. Promotion of sexual and reproductive health is essential. Youth and women's groups need the support of the media, religious leaders, policymakers, human rights organizations, the private sector, and parent-teacher groups. Societal tools, not scientific tools, will slow the spread of HIV infection. Youth and women must have access to education and vocational training to improve their quality of life. They need access to a safe, receptive place where they can talk about reproductive and sexual issues and secure condoms. Empowerment of youth and women will lead to a stop in the spread of HIV/AIDS.
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], HIV and Development Programme, 1993 Nov. , 9,  p. (Issues Paper 12)UNDP's HIV and Development Programme has identified issues of the HIV epidemic that challenge accepted ways of understanding health and human development and demand new styles of competence and holistic responses. Societies have not yet understood that being a young women is an independent variable for HIV infection. Women are increasingly becoming infected with HIV and at a much younger age than men. The proportion of girls, female adolescents, and women in their early 20s infected with HIV is greater than that of older women. Researchers and public health specialists have known for years that many women have been infected with HIV, yet they remain silent about women and HIV. This report discusses young women, this silence, and the HIV epidemic and calls for effective, sustainable, and compassionate ways of responding to the urgency of the HIV epidemic, especially in the case of young women. It examines age as an independent variable for HIV infection and situational factors, and questions whether anatomy is destiny. An example of a situational factor is that nonconsensual, hurried, or frequent intercourse inhibits mucous production and relaxation of the vaginal musculature, both of which increase the probability of vaginal injury. An action agenda should be composed of challenges at every level (from the individual to the international level), a new reconceptualized research agenda, an examination of all factors contributing to susceptibility to HIV infection among young women, political will, and pressure for change. Other topics examined are breaking the silence, changing the operational research agenda, sanctuaries, sanctions, safety, restructuring gender, and the circle of the dance.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
Development. 1990; (1):7-12.A study carried out by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) confirmed that teenage pregnancy and childbearing have a substantial adverse effect on young women's health, education, and employment opportunities. In developing countries, most women carry onerous workloads, including food preparation, childcare, domestic agricultural labor, and often employment in the formal or informal sector. These multiple roles have significant implications for the life choices made by young women and their prospects for self-fulfillment outside of the family context. The UNFPA is committed to development activities that enable young girls to avoid too early and too closely spaced pregnancies, keep them in school longer, and provide them with access to adequate reproductive health care. There must be greater awareness of the impact of young women's reproductive and productive choices on their performance as co-architects of future societies--a task that is difficult in developing societies where early marriage and childbearing are promoted and parents are not motivated to invest in the education of daughters. Even family planning programs in Third World countries often ignore teenagers as a target group for services because of the taboo against premarital sexual activity. Many UNFPA-assisted projects now focus on educating the public and national opinion leaders about the health risks involved in very early pregnancy and childbirth as well as their longterm impact on socioeconomic well-being. whether channelled through the formal school system or the community, these projects seek to involve young people themselves in the planning and implementation of services intended to meet their needs. UNFPA has also supported conferences of international women leaders and provided funds for research on adolescent sexuality.
1987 report by the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund. State of world population 1988. UNFPA in 1987.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. 189 p.Of major significance to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in 1987 was the fact that the world's population passed the 5 billion mark in that year. Although population growth rates are now slowing, the momentum of population growth ensures that at least another 3 billion people will be added to the world between 1985-2025. This increasing population pressure dictates a need for development policies that sustain and expand the earth's resource base rather than deplete it. Successful adaptation will require political commitment and significant investments of national resources, both human and financial. It is especially important to extend the reach of family planning programs so that women can delay the 1st birth and extend the intervals between subsequent births. Nearly all developing countries now have family planning programs, but the degree of political and economic support, and their effective reach, vary widely. In 1987, UNFPA assistance in this area totalled US$73.3 million, or 55% of total program allocations. During this year, UNFPA supported nearly 500 country and intercountry family planning projects, with particular attention to improving maternal-child health/family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa. As more governments in Africa became involved in Family planning programs, there was a concomitant need for all types of training programs. Other special program interests during 1987 included women and development, youth, aging, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This Annual Report includes detailed accounts of UNFPA program activities in 1987 in sub-Saharan Africa, Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Also included are reports on policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluation, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of supplies and equipment, multibilateral financing for population activities, and income and expenditures.
Bangkok, Thailand, DEEMAR, 1983 Nov. , 27,  p. (UNFPA/FAO Project THA/83/PO4; J.9616)This evaluation research reports on the effectiveness of the Thai learning program for 500 civil servants who then incorporate the population education into their jobs as trainers. A sample of 100 trainers representing 6 provinces and regions were evaluated for content and process of integration information, for innovative approaches, for identifying systems which facilitate integration, and for identifying bottlenecks. Informal contact and monthly meetings or already formal groups have been the vehicles for transmission of information. Horizontal integration among staff and co-workers is high as well as among villagers in vertical integration. No follow-up is made after contact and little active participation occurs after POPED. In order to expand contact with the rural population, more training among middle management position needs to be addressed within the organization. Interorganization is overall 86%. The most talked about topics among villagers were population growth and natural resources (86%), age at marriage (81%), population density and land distribution (79%), and nutrition (70%). The most difficult topics were migration (21%), planning for a family (13%), economic and social consideration in marriage (14%), and sex of children (14%). Trainers perceived family planning in general as the most important topic and key to the success of the effort.