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[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.Why Women and Peace? The theme imposed itself. The last year of the 20th century represented an invitation and challenge to recapitulate and remember as well as to compare scores and balance sheets of the turbulent epoch we were leaving behind. No doubt, the 20th century was the century of wars. As never before in human history civilians paid the highest price of conflicts and conflagrations. In the two world wars and innumerable local wars, interventions, internal ethnic clashes, revolutions and coups, more than 100 million people were killed - the vast majority of them being civilians. Sometimes they were directly targeted; at other times they were "collateral damage" - to use an ugly euphemism coined by NATO during its 1999 intervention against Yugoslavia. From Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Vietnam to Pol Pot's Cambodia to Iran-Iraq to Afghanistan to Liberia to Sierra Leone to Rwanda to Burundi to Colombia to Iraq again... it is the civilians who suffered the most and among them, women and childrenas the most vulnerable ones. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 4 p.Unfortunately, this is extremely well documented in countries in conflict. Many of the reports submitted to the Security Council include mention of the use of rape as a weapon of war. Recently, a report of the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) on the situation of human rights in Ituri provided information on this problem which is as specific as it is frightening. But, paradoxically, in countries which are not in conflict, the issue of violence against women is often neglected, where it is not concealed. But the private sphere cannot be an area where rights do not apply. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.In 1999, I stood among a sea of 20,000 desperate people on a dirt airfield outside Skopje, Macedonia, listening to one harrowing story after another. I had come to the Stenkovec refugee camp to record those stories and to help set up a system for documenting atrocities in Kosovo. The refugees with whom I spoke described being robbed, beaten, herded together and forced to flee their villages with nothing but the clothes they were wearing. Yet, what I remember most vividly are the lost expressions on the faces of the young women and girls in the camp. At first, they did not speak a word. Their silence acted as a veil, concealing crimes that they could not emotionally recollect. However, slowly, through time and comfort in speaking to female counsellors, their stories emerged. The brutality and systematic consistency of the sexual violence perpetrated on these women were mind-numbing. The widespread practice of rape against Muslim women was more than a consequence of war, it was an instrument of war with the intent of destroying the cultural fabric of a targeted group. This experience brought home to me a truism in international and national conflict: women suffer disproportionately to the atrocities committed against civilians. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Basic Education, Literacy and Non-Formal Education Section, 2003 Jul.  p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of UNESCO workshops partially funded by the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA). The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is a health as well as a social, cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and media professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessments of their potential readers. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Basic Education, Literacy and Non-Formal Education Section, 2003 Sep.  p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of UNESCO workshops. The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is simultaneously a health and a social, cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and media professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessments of their potential readers. (excerpt)
[Activities of the Oficina Provincial de la Mujer for the prevention of adolescent pregnancies continue] Siguen actividades de la Mujer en prevencion de embarazos en adolescentes.
Logros. 1999 Nov-Dec; 4(1):9.The Provincial Office for Women, in coordination with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), has given several workshops for mayors, health workers, political leaders, agronomists, and others. (excerpt)
[A guide to providing reproductive health services] Guia para prestacao de services em saude reprodutiva.
Fortaleza, Brazil, Secretaria da Saude, 1998. xxvi, 432 p.The Viva Mulher [Healthy Woman] Program developed by the Secretariat of Health of the State of Ceará (SESA-CE), in partnership with several local, national and international institutions, was conceived after recognition of the unfavorable health situation of women throughout the State. Sensitized by the size of the problem and encouraged by other successful initiatives, such as the Community Health Agent program and the Healthy Child program, the results of which were translated into a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in the coverage of Basic Health Actions, the State Government resolved to promote a broad mobilization of institutions interested in the problems so as to develop intensive joint efforts involving society as a whole in an attempt to make a significant change in the health profile of women in Ceará. The first concrete act was the holding of the "Woman, Health, Life" seminar in Fortaleza in August 1992, which had more than 1,000 participants, to launch the Healthy Woman program on the basis of directives from the Ministry of Health (PAISM). The Healthy Woman program was associated from the beginning with the United Nations Population Fund (FNUAP), which proposed to offer technical assistance and financial resources through a four-year cooperation project with the State Government. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), collaborating agencies of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and other international entities later joined in the process and have been cooperating in various complementary manners. (excerpt)
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Oct; 3(4):3-4.The Alliance held its first Regional Seminar in Central America July 2-5,1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. This was the first meeting held within the framework of the two- year Alliance program in Latin America supported by the Commission of the European Union. The theme was "Civil- Military Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean." (excerpt)
The role of the traditional midwife in the family planning program. Report of National Workshop to Review Researches into Dukun Activities related to MCH Care and Family Planning.
[Jakarta], Indonesia, Department of Health, 1972. 83 p.A number of studies conducted already have revealed that there are possibilities of using dukuns as potential helpers in the family planning programme. Bearing in mind that the number of dukuns at the present time is large, it is easy to imagine that they are capable of contributing a great deal towards progress in our family planning programme provided that the dukuns are assigned a role which is appropriate. In this respect, I am only referring to dukuns whose prime function is helping mothers during pregnancy and immediately afterwards, and who have close contact therefore, with the target of the family planning programme, i.e. the eligible couples. It would indeed be very helpful, if we could find out from the available data and from the results of applied research what exactly is the scope and usefulness of dukuns in the family planning programme. It seems to me that in this project we have to consider a twofold problem. The first aspect of the problem is that the dukuns are mostly of an advanced age and they are illiterate. The second aspect is that in spite of relationships with MCH centers extending over a period of years most of the dukuns still prefer their own way of doing things and they remain unaffected by modern ways of thinking. (excerpt)
Integrating women's component into population programmes. Report of a training workshop for UNFPA field staff in the Africa and Middle East Regions, Mombasa, Kenya, 18-21 January 1988.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. iv, 12  p.The Mombasa Training Workshop held in 1988 was the first in a series organized to address the problems of women's role in development. The aim was to impart skills and understanding to the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) field staff and to learn ways of integrating women's concerns into population programs. 36 UNFPA field staff from 24 countries participated. The Workshop featured background papers presented by Deryck Onyango-Omuodo and Hilda Mary Tadria who outlined the concerns of integrating women into development and population programs. Christine Oppong spoke about African women's fertility and the link to unequal status and roles. Participants presented short background statements on the status of women and population programs in their respective countries; priorities for support were identified. 5 projects were examined: the 1988 Population Census of Tanzania, demographic training at the University of Zambia, assistance to the Ghana Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (FP) Program, support for FP based on primary health care in Nigeria, and Population, Human Resources, and Development Planning in Gambia. The workshop was evaluated by participants and recommendations, were made for follow-up. The themes of significance gleaned from the background papers and country reports were 1) the need for more knowledge on women and constraint to women's access to education, employment, and health care. 2) There was also a need for policymakers and planners to be more aware and sensitive to women's issues. 3) Better use of resources in integrating women's concerns into project development was also needed. Ways of improving existing projects were identified, i.e., none of the 5 projects mentioned women as a target group and provision of matrices and checklists was insufficient. Changes in attitudes and perceptions and constant vigilance of women's issues are needed. Project design improvements included local participation, a variety of types of expertise, strengthening women's groups, giving time to an appropriate design, and learning from the past. Suggested directions for UNFPA were given.
[Unpublished] 1986 Feb 4. Prepared for United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Forty-second session, 3 February - 14 March 1986. Item 19 of the provisional agenda. (E/CN.4/1986/42)The results of the working group on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children as presented during the 42nd session of the UN Commission on Human Rights are reported. Among the various traditional practices identified was the problem of female circumcision. Several aspects of female circumcision were explored; namely, the definition of female circumcision, forms of female circumcision and the age at which it is carried out, origins and scope of the phenomenon, evolution of the problem, countries practicing female circumcision and reasons for the practice, effects on physical and mental health of women and children, and measures undertaken for the eradication of female circumcision at the regional, national and international levels. Conclusions that were drawn from available data and the recommended actions to abolish female circumcision are presented.
Highlights from the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group on FGM Meeting, Cairo, Egypt, November, 1996.
[Unpublished] 1996. 13 p.In November 1996, more than 34 representatives from 20 organizations attended the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group meeting on female genital mutilation (FGM) in Cairo, Egypt. After opening remarks by the Chairperson of the Task Force on FGM in Egypt and the Egyptian Under Secretary of the Ministry of Health and Population, other discussions placed FGM in the larger context of women's human rights, reviewed the background of the Global Action Against FGM Project and the goals of the Inter-Agency Working Group, and provided an overview of the activities of RAINBO (Research, Action, and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women). A report was then given of a research workshop organized by RAINBO and the Egyptian Task Force on FGM immediately prior to the Working Group meeting. It was noted that data from the recent Demographic and Health Survey revealed an FGM prevalence rate of 97% in Egypt, and areas requiring more research were highlighted. Discussion following this presentation included mention of qualitative methods used in a recent study in Sierra Leone and recent research in the Sudan that led to recommended intervention strategies. During the second day of the Working Group meeting, participants provided a preview of the work of the Egyptian Task Force Against FGM; a description of RAINBO's effort to develop training of trainers reproductive health and FGM materials; and summaries of the work of nongovernmental organizations, private foundations, UN agencies, and bilateral donors. This meeting report ends with a list of participants.
Bethesda, Maryland, Sisterhood is Global Institute, 1996. , xiv, 168 p.This manual presents a multidimensional framework that allows grassroots Muslim women from various backgrounds to examine the relationship between their basic human rights as inscribed in major international documents and their culture. The introduction contains the manual's objective and background, the major international sources of women's rights, the major premises upon which the manual is based, the theoretical framework of the communication model (involving a communicator, an audience, a medium, and a message), the general structure of the model, and a note to facilitators. The next section presents the learning exercises that can be used by facilitators and participants to discuss women's rights 1) within the family; 2) to autonomy in family planning decisions; 3) to bodily integrity; 4) to subsistence; 5) to education and learning; 6) to employment and fair compensation; 7) to privacy, religious beliefs, and free expression; 8) during times of conflict; and 9) to political participation. Section 3 contains a workshop and facilitator evaluation form. Appendices contain auxiliary material such as relevant religious passages, descriptions of the first heroines of Islam, samples of Arabic proverbs concerning women, the text of international human rights instruments, and a list of various human rights and women's organizations in selected Muslim societies. The manual ends with an annotated bibliography.
SAFE MOTHERHOOD. 1996; (20):10.During a 1994 workshop sponsored by the World Health Organization and the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), participants discussed 1) women's right to family planning information, education, and services; 2) women's right to a choice of options and to voluntary decisions concerning their health; and 3) the link between women's rights and women's health. Participants noted that obstetricians and gynecologists must expand their role to become women's advocates and must insure that women's rights to informed choice and informed consent are protected. Women should participate as equals in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of policies which affect them so that they can make fully informed decisions. The workshop produced the following recommendations: 1) FIGO should discourage practices that abuse women's rights to information and education on the procedures and treatments they face; 2) adolescents should receive reproductive health information, counseling, and services; 3) obstetricians and gynecologists should be trained in communication and counseling skills; and 4) national societies of obstetricians and gynecologists should encourage the provision of comprehensive reproductive health services, discourage female genital mutilation, and encourage provision of counseling for female victims of violence.
JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Jan; (235):1.An Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Workshop for the Production of Video Script on Women's Health was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and JOICFP and held in Japan from November 29, through December 4, 1993. It produced 4 different prototypes for use in Asia that reflected the range of women's health issues and cultural differences involved. Representatives of family planning (FP) associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), IEC experts, and health officials from both government and NGOs attended. Dr. Shizuko Sasaki spoke about various legal issues of women's health in Japan, while Colleen Cording spoke concerning the impact of social and policy changes on women's lives and health in New Zealand. Participants were then divided into 4 groups for discussion of target populations and their needs. 4 sets of illustrations were designed to stimulate discussion by instructors and were presented with 10-15 min scripts. The 4 videos included Christie and Me, Proud to Be a Girl, One Day at the Beach, and Happy to Be Me. The 1st film features a uterus as narrator who explains menstruation, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraception; the 2nd focuses on positive self images for girls; the 3rd, on a range of sexual topics discussed during a couple's seaside stroll; and the 4th, on a woman's love of self and cycle of life from puberty to old age. Participants are expected to produce similar material with adaptations to their specific countries from these prototypes. Participants also discussed their experiences in women's health education and methods of distributing and marketing educational materials.
In: Tradition and transition: NGOs respond to AIDS in Africa, edited by Mary Anne Mercer, Sally J. Scott. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Institute for International Programs, 1991 Jun. 15-22.Many people at risk of HIV infection are changing their behavior drastically when they are referred for HIV testing, as a result of more access to information. Featured as a theme for World AIDS Day, women are particularly vulnerable, since they have less power than men to influence their interpersonal relationships. Women with HIV/AIDS often are asked to make the unrealistic decision to avoid childbearing, but the status of a women in Africa depends on her reproductive ability. The traditional role of women as caregivers both as professional health workers, or in home care, is critical in HIV/AIDS disease. Preservation of the health of the 5-14 age group, who is uninfected, is a priority. Adolescents must be specially targeted in preventive counseling on the consequences of early sexual activity such as teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Sex education in the schools should start at a much earlier age. Studies in Zimbabwe show that women are being infected 5-10 years earlier than men, and there are even cases in 15, 16, and 17 year old women. Most HIV-infected people are afraid of being ostracized or fired from jobs. Women have lost their jobs when their HIV status became known, although the Minister of Health has issued a directive that HIV infection is not a valid reason for discharging an employee. Women are especially vulnerable because they may be rejected by their families and their partners, while having small children who also may be infected. Empowerment of women is needed so that destructive relationships do not continue only because of economic dependence. Ministries of Health, Labor, and Social Welfare need to develop strategies with NGOs to cope with demand to find resources for increasing numbers of desperate people. Community-based care is ideal, and positive trends are emerging to combat the destructive effects of AIDS that divide families leaving the most vulnerable uncared for.