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  1. 1
    176957
    Peer Reviewed

    Child mortality associated with reasons for non-breastfeeding and weaning: Is breastfeeding best for HIV-positive mothers?

    Brahmbhatt H; Gray RH

    AIDS. 2003 Apr 11; 17(6):879-885.

    Objective: To estimate child mortality associated with reasons for the non-initiation of breastfeeding and weaning caused by preceding morbidity, compared with voluntary weaning as a result of maternal choice. Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys were analysed from 14 developing countries. Women reported whether they initiated lactation or weaned, and if so, their reasons for non-initiation or stopping breastfeeding were classified as voluntary choice or as a result of preceding maternal/infant illness. Rates of child mortality and survival analyses were estimated, by reasons for non-breastfeeding or weaning. Results: Mortality was highest among never-breastfed children. Child mortality among women who never initiated breastfeeding was significantly higher than among women who weaned. Preceding maternal/infant morbidity was the most common reason for not breastfeeding (63.9%), and the mortality of children never breastfed because of preceding morbidity was higher than in children not breastfed as a result of maternal choice; 326.8 per 1000 versus 34.8 per 1000, respectively. Mortality among breastfed children who were weaned because of preceding morbidity was higher than among those weaned voluntarily; 19.2 per 1000 versus 9.3 per 1000, respectively. Failure to initiate lactation was significantly more frequent among women reporting complications of delivery and with low birthweight infants. Conclusion: Child mortality as a result of the voluntary non-initiation of breastfeeding or voluntary weaning was lower than previously estimated, and this should be used as a benchmark when counselling HIV-positive mothers on the risks of non-breastfeeding or weaning to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. (author's)
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  2. 2
    070480

    The health of mothers and children: key issues in developing countries.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    IN POINT OF FACT 1990 Sep; (70):1-4.

    About 50% of children <1 year old in developing countries die during the 1st month of life, and 97% of all infant deaths occur in developing countries. Major factors contributing to these deaths are the mother's poor health before and during pregnancy, unhygienic childbirth practices, and inadequate care after delivery. Low birth weight, linked to mother's health, is considerably related to survival and development and growth. >500,000 women in developing countries die annually due to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal mortality risk in the poorest countries can be 200 times that of developed countries. Inappropriate timing and spacing, too many pregnancies, unsafe abortion, and insufficient prenatal care and care during delivery contribute to high maternal mortality in developing countries. Mothers <18 years old are at the highest risk of pregnancy complications, delivering a premature infant, and/or death. Postponement of marriage and better access to family planning would improve their and their infants chances of survival. Access to and acceptability of family planning promotes the health of women and children. Literate women and their children are healthier than those of illiterate women. A trained person attends only 20% of births in developing countries. Increasing the number of deliveries with a trained attendant and increasing immunizations of mothers with the tetanus toxoid will greatly reduce mortality. Infants leaving the uterus experience a drop in ambient temperature from 37 to 20 degrees Celsius. If they are not dried off, covered in a dry cloth, and/or allowed to be in physical contact quickly, they can experience considerable heat loss or even death. Further all infants should be exclusively breastfed for 4-6 months to ensure healthy growth and development and to provide protection against infections.
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