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  1. 1
    296556

    UNICEF Board reviews strategies on child survival, women, communications.

    UN Chronicle. 1987 Aug; 24:[3] p..

    Reducing by half the rates of infant and child deaths by the year 2000 was among the targets set for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) by its 41-member Executive Board at its 1987 session. The Board, in endorsing the programme objectives of its 1986-1990 medium-term plan, asked the Fund to give continued priority in both rural and urban areas to the "Child Survival and Development Revolution"--an initiative undertaken by UNICEF in 1983--through such measures as child immunization, oral rehydration therapy and diarrhoeal management, promotion of breast-feeding, improved nutrition and health education, and birth-spacing. The Fund should "work towards the retention of the child and its needs on the political agenda'. Special attention should be given to actions directed against the "causal roots of child and infant mortality'. Basic services should be stressed and child survival and development activities should be integrated into primary health care systems. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    179470

    Public health and the Persian Gulf War.

    Hoskins E

    In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 254-278.

    War has always been disastrous for civilians, and the Persian Gulf War was no exception. Yet the image that has been perpetuated in the West is that the Gulf War was somehow "clean" and fought with "surgical precision" in a manner that minimized civilian casualties. However, massive wartime damage to Iraq's civilian infrastructure led to a breakdown in virtually all sectors of society. Economic sanctions further paralyzed Iraq's economy and made any meaningful post-war reconstruction all but impossible. Furthermore, the invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent Gulf War unleashed internal political events that have been responsible for further suffering and countless human fights violations. The human impact of these events is incalculable. In 1996, more than five years after the end of the war, the vast majority of Iraqi civilians still subsist in a state of extreme hardship, in which health care, nutrition, education, water, sanitation, and other basic services are minimal. As many as 500,000 children are believed to have died since the beginning of the Persian Gulf War, largely due to malnutrition and a resurgence of diarrheal and vaccine- preventable diseases. Health services are barely functioning due to shortages of supplies and equipment. Medicines, including insulin, antibiotics, and anesthetics, are in short supply. The psychological impact of the war has had a damaging and lasting effect on many of Iraq's estimated eight million children. (excerpt)
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