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  1. 1

    The new information technologies and women: essential reflections. [La nueva tecnología de la información y la mujer: reflexiones fundamentales]

    Bonder G

    Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America [ECLAC], 2003 Jul. 56 p. (CEPAL - SERIE Mujer y Desarrollo No. 39)

    Although in Latin America and the Caribbean there is growing concern to take into account the issue of gender in public policies, this process is still embryonic and fragmented in the case of economic and technological policies. The Women and Development Unit of ECLAC is therefore implementing the project "Institutionalization of gender policies within ECLAC and sectoral ministries". The objective of this project is to strengthen technical policies, strategies, tools and capacities, both within ECLAC and in selected countries of the region, in order to encourage equity between men and women in the process and benefits of development, especially with regard to economic and labour policies. One of the activities of the project, organized by the Women and Development Unit together with the International Trade Division of ECLAC and the Centre for Women's Studies and Social Gender Relations of the University of São Paulo, was a meeting of experts on "Globalization, technological change and gender equity" in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, on 5 and 6 November 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the most relevant aspects of the opportunities and restrictions imposed by the processes of globalization and technological change, with the aim of proposing areas for research, as well as an agenda of public policies that would help to achieve equity. This document was presented as a background study for the discussion at the meeting of experts. It is clear from the text that the new technologies are taking us into a dizzy time of new exclusions, and that in addition to being a material reality they are also a discursive product with effects on institutions, public policies and individuals. The study reviews an extensive amount of theoretical literature, as well as most of the research concerning the inclusion and relationship of women in connection with the new information technologies and skills. This review identifies the major obstacle to reinforcing the potential positive impacts of the new technologies as the lack of information on how they, and especially computers, can help policies, and also individual women, to achieve their goals. It is also shown that we are dealing with two disconnected concepts: the information society and the information economy, and the gender perspective is presented as a means of linking them. As for the impact on social and gender equity, and the current digital divide, according to this document research is needed on more than access alone. There is patently a need for policies to regulate and democratize the new information and knowledge technologies, and it is important to analyze the collective imaginary that is being constructed around them and the different forms of subjectivity that the Internet is encouraging, within a perspective of the future and of changes in social relations. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Gender issues, the digital divide and the WSIS.

    Turley A

    Media Development. 2002; 49(4):27.

    There is growing recognition that those who most need the boost that information communication technologies (ICTs) can provide are least able to take advantage of it. The bridging of this 'digital divide', is, therefore, now high on the global development agenda with multi-lateral and bi-lateral agencies channelling millions of dollars into projects which aim to support the ability of the marginalised to harness the power of ICTs. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Social, cultural and technological determinants of maternal and neonatal health.

    Faundes A; Cecatti JG

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 1998 Dec; 63 Suppl 1:S1-2.

    This editorial introduces an issue of the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics that publishes the proceedings of the International Association for Maternal and Neonatal Health's (IAMANEH) 1997 conference. The editorial opens by describing IAMANEH as a non-profit nongovernmental organization (NGO) created in 1977 to improve maternal and neonatal health worldwide. IAMANEH is a federation of approximately 36 national societies and is different from other international associations in this area because it clearly prioritizes developing countries and is based in NGOs. IAMANEH conferences are distinguished by the fact that they are organized to draw attention to a specific theme; for 1997, this was the social, cultural, and technological determinants of maternal and neonatal health. The proceedings of this conference deal with the maternal/neonatal health determinants of violence, the appropriate use of technology, abortion, adolescence, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, the role of midwives, and the role of traditional birth attendants.
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  4. 4

    Who benefits? Measuring the differential impact of new technologies.

    Mitter S

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 219-42.

    This document (the 10th chapter in a UN Gender Working Group book on the overlay of science and technology, sustainable human development, and gender issues) highlights how new technologies are improving the quality and quantity of women's modern sector employment, identifies the gender differential effects of these technologies, explores the socioeconomic reasons for such differentials, and points out where policy-makers can intervene to redress gender imbalances. Discussion of the relevance and definition of new technologies includes a look at trade flows and technology transfer. Description of the impact of technological changes 1) considers whether biotechnology is a friend or enemy of women; 2) highlights the effects of computer-aided technology on automated manufacturing, the organization of work, and information technology in the service industries; and 3) looks at the telecommunication revolution and distant working as well as the relocation of data-entry jobs. After an assessment of women in the decision-making process, the chapter explores the impact of new technologies on small- and medium-sized enterprises, on labor standards, and on training for corporate jobs. Finally, the chapter offers a research agenda to guide policy-makers, outlines the role and concerns of UN agencies, and describes a new research initiative that is focusing on improving the advocacy skills of organizations of women workers by giving them access to key information.
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  5. 5

    Looking at health through women's eyes.

    Yoon SY

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 129-57.

    This document (the sixth chapter in a UN Gender Working Group book on the overlay of science and technology [S&T], sustainable human development, and gender issues) considers health issues from women's viewpoint to highlight the fact that S&T has failed to guaranteed improved health for women. This failure is exemplified by the use of amniocentesis for sex selection that leads to abortion of female fetuses. The chapter explains why gender and health deserve consideration in the S&T debate by looking at women as victims of health care systems, the fact that women's contributions have been undervalued, and the failure of health research and statistics to treat gender as a scientific variable. The issues specific to national-level technology transfer are grouped for preliminary review into 1) women's access to health S&T, 2) the impact of S&T on gender equality, and 3) women's roles in the development of health S&T. After outlining the need for a national S&T policy across sectors, the chapter reviews global activities of such groups as the UN, women's nongovernmental organizations, and the World Health Organization to meet this challenge. Next, recommendations are offered for 1) strategic actions that focus on youth, build on previous successes, and emphasize IEC (information, education, and communication) and 2) research and development. It is concluded that women's right to health is a fundamental human right that, when achieved, will benefit entire societies.
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  6. 6

    Claiming and using indigenous knowledge.

    Appleton H; Fernandez ME; Hill CL; Quiroz C

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 55-81.

    This document is the third chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter addresses the nature of indigenous knowledge systems, their potential role in sustainable and equitable development, and possible strategies for promoting mutually beneficial exchanges between local and S&T knowledge systems. The introduction notes 1) that local knowledge science systems differ from modern S&T because they are managed by users of knowledge and are holistic, 2) gender roles lead to differentiation in the kind of local knowledge and skills acquired by women and by men, and 3) sustainable and equitable development depends upon full recognition and reinforcement of local knowledge systems. The chapter continues with an analysis of 1) gender, biodiversity, and new agrotechnologies; 2) gender and intellectual property rights, especially in regard to biotechnological developments based on local knowledge; and 3) the work of governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and local groups in the areas of S&T programs with women, general women's programs, and programs focused on indigenous knowledge (with an emphasis on research in gender and indigenous knowledge systems, women promoting diversity, the comparative advantage of indigenous knowledge, and the role of NGOs and information networks). Next, the chapter considers the work of the UN and its agencies through a review of documents containing S&T agreements; support for women's rights; and work in the areas of indigenous people, biodiversity, and intellectual property rights. The chapter ends by identifying areas of critical concern and research needs.
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  7. 7

    Key paths for science and technology. On the road to environmentally sustainable and equitable development.

    Kettel B

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 27-53.

    This document is the second chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter identifies key pathways for S&T research and policy formulation that will support women's environmental perceptions, needs, and interests. The introduction notes that women and men have different environmental needs and interests; that these differences are manifest in gender-based division of labor, access to resources, and knowledge systems; and that the emerging "gender and environments analysis" framework reveals the potentially negative effect on women, families, and the environment of S&T interventions geared towards men's needs and interests. This chapter, therefore, uses a gender and environment approach to reveal how issues of gender equity, environmental sustainability, and S&T for development overlap and to outline ways to create a gender-sensitive approach to the use of S&T in development interventions. After addressing the topics of 1) the invisibility of women in the development process, 2) discovering women and the environment, 3) the price of complacency and gender bias, and 4) shaping a gender-sensitive agenda for sustainable and equitable development, the chapter presents key policy themes and suggestions for future research in the areas of 1) the environment and women's health; 2) alleviating women's poverty; 3) women, technology, and entrepreneurship; 4) environmental literacy and access to information; and 5) national-level participation and decision-making. The chapter then reviews the role of UN agreements and other key documents and ends by reiterating the importance of following the five key pathways identified above to achieve gender sensitive S&T research and policy formation.
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  8. 8

    World survey on the role of women in development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. [2], 238 p.

    This overview of women in development includes chapters devoted to women's participation in the labor force and the invisibility of some work, the benefits for women from economic development and the impact on women from economic trends, and a cost-benefit analysis. Other chapters focus on women's role in agriculture, industrial development, finance, science and technology, and trade; on women's use and conservation of energy resources; and on the concept of self-reliance and integration of women in development. Statistical tables and a bibliography accompany each of the sections. Conclusions are drawn on self-reliance that neither development in specific industrial areas nor cooperation within each area is sufficient to respect the need for selecting women specifically as the targeted group. Most developing countries were found not to have a detailed analysis of the development role of women. There appears to be a conceptual lack of clarity about priorities for improving the status of women versus changing their development role. Women themselves are viewed as the arbiters of what their role in development should be. The self-reliance strategy is considered an integral approach to development and one in which the full productive and social emancipation of women is required. Social change in developing countries will come about when the role of women in society changes regardless of the culture and in tune with changes in women's position in the world at large. Development models need to be changed in ways which recognize the "true" economic role of women and their social role. The international community should maintain better communication and closer cooperation nationally, internationally, and within existing institutions that are concerned with developing countries.
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  9. 9

    Acceptance statement.

    Sai FT

    In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 10-6.

    The 1993 UN Population award was given to Dr. Frederick R. Sai of Ghana. In his acceptance speech, Dr. Sai gave special thanks to President Hurtado of Mexico and thanks for the opportunity of working at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. A special tribute was given by Dr. Sai to his 92-year-old mother, who though illiterate, widowed early, and very poor, encouraged her son educationally. His wife and family received thanks for their support of his chosen profession in clinical and public health nutrition. This field opened up his awareness of the need for family planning. The horror of kwashiorkor remains an important remembrance of the too close spacing of births. Special thanks were directed to Professor Scrimshaw of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, the late Professors Ben Platt of the University of London and Jean Mayer of Harvard and Tufts Universities, and Dr. Julia Henderson at the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Thanks also were given to Dr. Sai's staff and volunteers at IPPF and to the many unrewarded and unrecognized people who devote themselves to concerns for motherhood and child health, human rights, and quality of life through family planning. Dr. Sai dedicated his prize to all the malnourished children and their parents who trusted in the future and helped with the studies without knowing for certain whether they would survive the next rainy season. These mothers are the hope of Africa. The quotation from Thomas Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard is reoriented to the African context and restated as "Fair science frowns not on her humble birth, and Melancholy marks her for her own." Drudgery and melancholy appear daily in the lives of African girls whose lack of access to general and science education influences their ability to care for themselves and their children. The education of women is of great concern, and progress worldwide is still limited. The call is for all to work together, regardless of differences, to improving conditions for the education of women. Safe motherhood is still a goal. Technology is available, but women's full control of their own fertility and quality information and services are the best method.
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  10. 10

    Population planning: a development priority.

    POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1989 Nov; 15(7):3-6.

    The 1989, UN Population Fund report has recommended 7 broad interventions, with suggested detailed actions to place population at the forefront of development for the 1990s. Family planning is a development priority: it should compare 1% of each country's GNP. Women should empower themselves to shape their own lives. The recommendations are: 1) women's contributions should be documented. 2) Women's productivity should be increased, and their double burden lessened, by giving them credit, ownership of resources, equal pay, better domestic technology and child care at the workplace. 3) Family planning should be ensured with a variety of choice and full information. 4) Women's health should be improved by training birth attendants and all women for decision-making in health, and supplementing food for girls, and young pregnant teens and mothers. 5) Female education should be expanded to at least 4:5 ratio in primary and a 1:2 ratio in secondary schools, and pregnant teens should be allowed to continue their education. 6) Women should be given equal opportunity in all sectors. 7) Goals for 2000 are: international assistance for family planning of $2.5 billion annually; family planning services for 500 million; at least 1 prenatal visit for all; maternal mortality should be reduced 50%; and infant mortality to 50/1000.
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  11. 11

    1989 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. [2], vii, 397 p. (ST/CSDHA/6)

    This is the 1st update of the World Survey on the Role of Women in Development published by WHO. 11 chapters consider such topics as the overall theme, debt and policy adjustment, food and agriculture, industrial development, service industries, informal sector, policy response, technology, women's participation in the economy and statistics. The thesis of the document is that while isolated improvements in women's condition can be found, the economic deterioration in most developing countries has struck women hardest, causing a "feminization of poverty." Yet because of their potential and their central role in food production, processing, textile manufacture, and services among others, short and long term policy adjustments and structural transformation will tap women's potential for full participation. Women;s issues in agriculture include their own nutritional status, credit, land use, appropriate technology, extension services, intrahousehold economics and forestry. For their part in industrial development, women need training and/or re-training, affirmative action, social support, and better working conditions to enable them to participate fully. In the service industries the 2-tier system of low and high-paid jobs must be dismantled to allow women upward mobility. Regardless of the type of work being discussed, agricultural, industrial, primary or service, formal or informal, family roles need to be equalized so that women do not continue to bear the triple burden of work, housework and reproduction.
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  12. 12

    Is there a better way?

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. Promotion and Support for Women's Participation in the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade

    New York, New York, UNDP, Division of Information, 1985 Jun. 10 p.

    Women are mainly responsible for household sanitation and the provision of water for their families, and any absence of adequate facilities severely affects the health of women, their families, and their communities. Recognizing this fact, the United Nations launched the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in 1980 to address these problems. All too often, however, billions of dollars and hundreds of technicians are deployed to drill wells, install pumps, and construct latrines. The majority of these projects prove unsuccessful because women and other community users were not included in the planning and designing of the projects. The introduction of these technologies in communities without considering the primary gathers and users of water often leads to misuse, underuse, and disrepair (WHO predicts that 40-80% of hand pumps break down within 3 years of installation). To correct his situation, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) introduced an interregional project to support and promote women's participation in drinking water and sanitation development. UNDP has organized projects that demonstrate how women and communities can successfully assist in project design, execution, and maintenance. The projects' efforts show that women involved in water and sanitation facilities make the facilities more effective and enduring. This is because women are consulted and actively involved in all phases. In addition, by being participants of decision making bodies, they have control of the solutions to their water supply, sanitation, related health problems. Further financial, technical, and information support are needed to continue the success of water and sanitation projects.
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  13. 13

    Women taking hold of technology.

    International Women's Tribune Centre [IWTC]

    New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Center, 1984 Sep. iv, 116 p.

    The 1st 2 issues of newsletters in this volume, Women and Appropriate Technology, Parts I and II, emphasize resource materials and appropriate technology groups and projects from around the world that might be found useful. The 3rd issue, Women and Food Production, focuses specifically on the need for women to have greater access to land, technology, and capital in the production of food crops, whether for their own use or as crops for marketing. The last issues, Women MOving Appropriate Technology Ahead, concentrates on strategies for introducing appropriate technology ideas and approaches into one's own community. Together, these 4 issues combine several issues related to women's access to and uses of appropriate technologies, with practical information for concrete action and sample projects involving women from countries around the world. Originally published between 1978 and 1973, all 4 newsletters in this volume have been updated and edited in some parts to assure their continued relevance. Resource groups, UN news and conferences, available periodicals, training, credit and loan information, cash crops, international nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies are all discussed.
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  14. 14

    WHO/UNICEF meeting on infant and young child feeding.

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1979 Dec; 33(12):435-43.

    At the WHO/UNICEF meeting on infant and young child feeding which was held in Geneva during October 1979, urgent action was called for to promote the health and nutrition of infants and young children by governments, international agencies, nongovernmental organizations and the infant-food industry. The primary concern of the meeting was with the development of practical measures to improve infant and young child feeding practices. The themes for discussion at the meeting included the following: 1) how to encourage and support breastfeeding; 2) promotion and support of appropriate weaning practices; 3) promotion of information, education and training of health workers concerning breastfeeding; 4) the health and social status of women in relation to infant and young child feeding; 5) appropriate marketing and distribution of breastmilk substitutes; and 6) suggested actions for governments and other groups. A statement which was adopted by consensus is included. It highlights poor infant feeding practices and their consequences as a major problem in the world and as a serious obstacles to development. The full text of the recommendations made is also provided.
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