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International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):411-418.The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. How have gender inequality and discrimination against women affected the course of the HIV epidemic? This paper outlines the biological, social and cultural determinants that put women and adolescent girls at greater risk of HIV infection than men. Violence against women or the threat of violence often increases women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women’s empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic. (author's)
Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
The lack of equal rights for African women is a central cause of the rapid transmission of HIV / AIDS on the continent.
New York, New York, UNIFEM, 2003 May 13. 2 p.To focus international attention on the often ignored fact that women are now the majority of people infected by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, averaging 58% of all the infected population, Noeleen Heyzer, executive director of UNIFEM - The United Nations Development Fund for Women - is arriving in South Africa for consultations to assess the degree to which HIV/AIDS infects and affects women. The dialogue with women and youth AIDS organizations will result in specific strategic recommendations on how the perspectives and experiences of women can be better integrated into national AIDS programs and policies. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. vii, 32 p. (World Bank Policy Research Report)This conclusion presents an important challenge to us in the development community. What types of policies and strategies promote gender equality and foster more effective development? This report examines extensive evidence on the effects of institutional reforms, economic policies, and active policy measures to promote greater equality between women and men. The evidence sends a second important message: policymakers have a number of policy instruments to promote gender equality and development effectiveness. (excerpt)
[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], . , 34 p.Women are the heart of development since they control most of the nonmoney economy including subsistence agriculture, child bearing and raising, as well as play an important part in the money economy. The status of women will be crucial in determining future population growth rates. The woman's dependence offered her some protection in return for her production of sons, leading to practices which have existed for centuries and are woven into society. In developing countries women tend to marry young: 50% in Africa, 40% in Asia, and 30% in Latin America are married by the age of 18. In most societies women's social and economic standing is closely related to child bearing. In 8 out of 9 cultures there is a preference for sons over daughters and parents expect little from a girl once she is married. Childbirth anywhere has its risks but in developing countries the risks are multiplied. The youngest and oldest mothers are the most at risk. Women are normally the collectors of water and firewood. Environmental degradation forces them on long strenuous trips to get these vital resources. Migration is a growing phenomenon in the developing world. 1 in 3 households are without man because of migration. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is having a dramatic impact on women and their children, especially in developing countries where there is a lack of information, advice and service. Most of the health problems in developing countries could be solved by a combination of prevention and cure which centers around women since they are the providers as well as the recipients of health care. Education is a key factor since the more a women receives, the better the chances are for her children's survival. By reducing women's work load and making labor more profitable, family size might decrease which would decrease the load further. Recommendations include publicizing contributions, increasing productivity, providing family planning and health care, and expanding education and equality of opportunity for women.
A randomized comparative study of interval insertion of three intrauterine devices: the copper T 220c, the Nova T and the WHO levonorgestrel 2 ug IUD.
[Unpublished] 1985 May. 5 p. (Project: 82901)The objective is to compare the effectiveness and acceptability of 3 IUDs inserted in 300 health women, aged 24-38. All have had at least 1 full-term delivery. Subjects were randomly allocated to 1 of the 3 IUDS: the Copper T 220C (Tcu 220c), the Nova T, and the World Health Organization levonorgestrel 2 ug IUD. Insertion was done from the 3rd to the 5th day of menstruation between Feb. and Sept. 1984 and followed up at 48 hours, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after IUD insertion. 12 month data was collected for cumulative rates, based on life table procedures and analyzed with log-rank test. There was no loss to follow up and no insertion failure. All levonorgestrel IUDs have been removed because the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD has a relatively high risk of ectopic pregnancy. The use-related discontinuation rates of Tcu 220c, Nova T, and levonorgestrel IUD during 12 months of use, were 11.1, 2.4, and 12.7, respectively. The difference between Tcu 220c and Nova T were statistically significant (p.<0.01). The continuation rates of Tcu 220c, Nova T, and levonorgestrel during 6 months of use were 94.0, 99.0, and 96.0, respectively. During 12 months of use, they were 88.9, 97.6, and 87.3 respectively. 1 ectopic pregnancy occurred with the levonorgestrel IUD after 7 months of use. No pregnancy occurred in Nova T users. The pregnancy rates of Tcu 220c and levonorgestrel IUD during 12 months of use were 1.0 and 1.3, respectively. Removal rates for bleeding with Tcu 220c and levonorgestrel IUD during 12 months of use were 3.1 and 1.0, respectively. The removal rate for pain with Tcu 220c during 12 months of use was 2.0. The duration of bleeding and spotting with 3 IUDs, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of use are illustrated. Preliminary results show that the Nova T is superior to Tcu 220c and levonorgestrel IUDs. Expulsion is the main event in both Nova T and Tcu 220c. More attention should be paid to the insertion technique. The duration of bleeding and spotting of levonorgestrel IUD were longer in the last 3 months after insertion, but was shortest at 1 year of use when compared with Tcu 220c and Nova T.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1987. 163 p.The intent of this publication is to create a broader awareness among people in general as well as and decision-makers of the extent of women's contribution to national health development and the obstacles they face both within and outside the formal health system. It also seeks to create more awareness of the sources of the imbalance between men and women in the extent and nature of their participation in health care. Information is provided about the basic factors to be considered in the development of a longterm strategy to improve the socioeconomic status of women health care providers. the publication else seeks to guide women and men to plan relevant action and to prepare proposals for funding and other forms of support. Women outnumber men as health care providers both within and outside the family and in formal and non- formal settings. Gender-role differentiation is responsible for a sexual division of labor in the family and in the formal labor market. Due to the major contributions women make to people's health, education, and wellbeing, a change in attitude is indicated. The accomplishments of women in the health care field should be recognized, valued, and rewarded rather than concealed, denied, and trivialized.
Activities of the Special Program of Research, Training and Development in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization in the field of long acting contraceptives.
In: Bangladesh Fertility Research Program. Workshop on Injectable Contraceptives: Noristerat, Dacca, Bangladesh, April 25, 1980. [Dacca, Bangladesh, BFRP, 1980]. 70-80.Following a brief introduction to the World Health Organization (WHO) Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, established in 1972, focus is on what has been achieved thus far with long-acting injectable fertility regulating agents based on steroidal hormones and possessing a duration of action of at least 1 month. Over the last 20-year period, several estrogen-progestin combinations have been developed as monthly injectable contraceptives. The Special Program has initiated a series of clinical pharmacological studies aimed at developing new and improved estrogen progestin injectable formulations. 1 preparation, composed of norethisterone enanthate (50 mg) plus 5 mg of estradiol valerate, has shown promise in preliminary clinical studies. 3 progestogen only preparations with a duration of action of several months have been tested clinically: clormadinone acetate, depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone-enanthate. The 1st clinical trials utilizing the heptanoic acid ester of norethisterone raised considerable hopes, for no pregnancies were observed in 70 highly fertile women given the drug every 90 days. In a WHO trial preliminary data on Depo-Provera (DMPA) bleeding irregularities were responsible for the discontinuation of 9.3 subjects/100 women-years; prolonged amenorrhea accounted for the termination of 11.5 subjects/100 women years. There are several ongoing studies to evaluate the effects of the injectables on users. Norethisterone enanthate, although not possessing the same degree of effectiveness as DMPA, when adminstered every 3 months, remains an attractive injectable because of its lower incidence of amenorrhea.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
Intercom. 1980 Jan; 8(1):14.Guyana, a former British colony of about 830,000 population, in the 1970 Census had a composition of 52% East Indian, 31% African, and the balance Amerindian, Portuguese, Chinese, and mixed descent. The crude birth rate is believed to have peaked in 1957-59 at 44.5/1000; by 1978 the birth rate had dropped to about 28.3/1000. The World Fertility Survey of 1975 found that a total fertility rate of 7.1 children/woman in 1961 dropped to 4.4 in 1974. The largest decline in childbearing was in the over 30 age group and the under 20's. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is high; over 95% of a sample of ever-married women had heard of some method. Contraceptive usage is not as high as knowledge; of women exposed and with a partner, 38% said they were contracepting. The pill (11%) and female sterilization (10%) were the 2 most popular effective methods. Usage was lowest among women in common law marriages and visiting unions. Guyanese women overall preferred 4.6 children. Women age 20 thought 3.4 ideal; those over 40 reported 5.8 children as their choice. African women, who marry later than Indian women, preferred more children, 4.8, compared to 4.6 for Indian women. Rural women wanted 4.9 children while urban women wanted 4.3. The crude birth and death rates combine to give a rate of natural increase of 2.1% per year.
(London, IPPF), May 1975. 15 p.Population data was gathered by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to use for budgetary purposes. Statistical population tables are presented for 222 countries grouped into 8 large regions. The tables show: total population, growth rates and birthrates for the countries and regions for each year since 1970. Based on these figures, projections for 1976 are made. The number of women in the 15-44 year age group for each country and region is given. A standard formula yields the number of women at risk, correcting for sterile couples, sexually inactive women, and those not having 3 children yet. IPPF figures are compared with the latest United Nations projections.
Overview 1972: medical and clinical activities, family planning associations, western hemisphere region, January 1 - December 31, 1972.
New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Medical Division, 1973. 103 pInformation submitted by governmental programs and by International Planned Parenthood Federation member associations is compiled in this study and the analyzed data is summarized in the form of graphs, tables, etc. with the aim of providing a basis for comparison of the family planning associations in the Western Hemisphere region. This study essentially focuses upon the number and classification of attended visits and contraceptive services. The following statistics are presented: 1) clinics--number and categories, 2) female population of fertile age, 3) total number of visits, first visits, and revisits by method, 4) new acceptors by method, 5) hours devoted to contraceptive service, 6) male and female sterilizations. Analytical information is offered on the following: 1) new acceptors per female population of fertile age, 2) new accumulated acceptors for the same population subgroup, 3) average new acceptors per year, 4) contraceptive service per medical hours, 5) revisits per first visits, 6) percentage by total number of visits, and 6) percentage by methods for new accumulated acceptors. The countries included in the study are Antigua, Argentina, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles; Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, St Lucia, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela.