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  1. 1

    WHO fact sheet. Violence against women.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Press Office

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996 Aug. 3 p. (Fact Sheet No. 128)

    The WHO Global Commission on Women's Health, a high level advocacy body which promotes women health issues nationally and internationally, focused on the issue of violence against women at its meeting in 1996. Violence against women has become widely recognized as a major issue of women's human rights; however, there has also been growing awareness of the impact of violence on women's mental and physical health. Studies have shown that the most pervasive form of gender violence is violence against women by their intimate male partners or ex-partners, including the physical, mental and sexual abuse of women and children and adolescents. Approximately 40 population-based quantitative studies conducted in 24 countries revealed a range of 20-50% of women being victims of physical abuse by their partners; 50-60% of them were raped as well. Victims of violence are likely to develop behaviors that are self-injurious, such as substance abuse and smoking.
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  2. 2

    In the wake of the bombings -- Kosovo's legacy for women.


    This article reports the effects of the Kosovo crisis on the lives of Albanian women. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Children's Fund stated cases of sexual harassment, torture, rape, trafficking, forced prostitution, discrimination, and exploitation of women and children refugees. One of the cases of rape was reported by the Los Angeles Times regarding a 13-year-old girl, Pranvera Lokaj, along with 20 other girls who experienced gang rape by Serb soldiers for several nights. When Lokaj returned home and narrated her story hoping for comfort, her father sent her to the Kosovo Liberation Army to escape shame from her family. The reason for this is that in an Albanian community, rape is a sensitive issue, which traumatized the rape victims leading them to lie about the crime than to be shunned by their families. Furthermore, Albanian women have also assumed a new role that being single mothers since their husbands are forcibly separated from them and killed.
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  3. 3

    Further promotion and encouragement of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the question of the programme and methods of work of the commission. Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences.

    Coomaraswamy R

    [Unpublished] 1997 Feb 12 36 p. (E/CN.4/1997/47)

    This report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women focuses on all forms of violence against women in the community. The introduction briefly reviews the past and projected work of the Rapporteur. Section I defines violence in the community and the role of the community in women's lives, especially in controlling women's sexuality and limiting or supporting women's human rights. Section II reviews international human rights law relating to violence against women, especially that contained in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Section III considers rape and sexual violence against women, including sexual harassment, offering heinous examples from various countries and considering the response of the criminal justice system as well as the legal framework and state strategies to combat rape and sexual violence. Section IV focuses on trafficking in women and forced prostitution, again using specific examples to illustrate the points and considering national laws on trafficking in women and the few noteworthy state strategies to combat trafficking and forced prostitution that have been instituted in response to pressure from nongovernmental organizations. Section V deals with violence against women migrant workers, and Section VI reviews violence resulting from religious extremism. The final section offers general and specific recommendations of actions to end the violence.
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  4. 4

    [Resolution No.] 47/96. Violence against migrant women workers [16 December 1992].

    United Nations. General Assembly


    This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on violence against migrant women workers. The resolution notes with concern increasing reports of violence committed against women migrant workers by some of their employers in some host countries and expresses grave concern over the plight of these women. All countries are asked to cooperate to protect the rights of women migrant workers and all relevant organizations are asked to report the extent of the problem to the Secretary-General and to recommend measures to protect these women.
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  5. 5

    [Resolution No.] 48/110. Violence against women migrant workers [20 December 1993].

    United Nations. General Assembly


    On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution concerning the plight of women migrant workers. The resolution opens by recalling relevant principles adopted by the UN and by the World Conference on Human Rights relating to the elimination of gender-based violence and all forms of sexual harassment and exploitation and to human rights and equal rights of men and women. The resolution notes that women from developing countries are increasingly forced to seek employment in more affluent countries. In these cases, the sending countries have a duty to protect the interests of their citizens and the receiving countries have a duty to protect the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all persons within their borders (especially those, such as migrant women laborers, who are in vulnerable positions). The resolution expresses concern for women migrant workers who are victimized by their employers and calls upon the international community to protect the rights of women migrant workers and to consider adopting the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. Trade unions are asked to assist women migrant workers in self-organization, and treaty-monitoring bodies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and UN agencies are asked to report to the UN on the situation of women migrant workers and to include recommended actions to improve their plight. NGOs are further requested to conduct training sessions on human rights instruments, especially as they pertain to this problem. All states are asked to provide support services to women who have been traumatized by violations of their rights by unscrupulous employers and/or recruiters. The organizers of the Fourth World Conference on Women are urged to include this topic in their agenda, and the Secretary-General is requested to report on the implementation of this resolution.
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