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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    NewsCAP: The WHO releases Consolidated Guideline on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Women Living with HIV.

    American Journal of Nursing. 2018 Jul; 118(7):17.

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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexual health and reproductive rights at a crossroad.

    The Lancet

    Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.

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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Using GRADE as a framework to guide research on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of women living with HIV - methodological opportunities and challenges.

    Siegfried N; Narasimhan M; Kennedy CE; Welbourn A; Yuvraj A

    AIDS Care. 2017 Sep; 29(9):1088-1093.

    In March 2016, WHO reviewed evidence to develop global recommendations on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of women living with HIV. Systematic reviews and a global survey of women living with HIV informed the guideline development decision-making process. New recommendations covered abortion, Caesarean section, safe disclosure, and empowerment and self-efficacy interventions. Identification of key research gaps is part of the WHO guidelines development process, but consistent methods to do so are lacking. Our method aimed to ensure consistency and comprised the systematic application of a framework based on GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to the process. The framework incorporates the strength and quality rating of recommendations and the priorities reported by women in the survey to inform research prioritisation. For each gap, we also articulated: (1) the most appropriate and robust study design to answer the question; (2) alternative pragmatic designs if the ideal design is not feasible; and (3) the methodological challenges facing researchers through identifying potential biases. We found 12 research gaps and identified five appropriate study designs to address the related questions: (1) Cross-sectional surveys; (2) Qualitative interview-driven studies; (3) Registries; (4) Randomised controlled trials; and (5) Medical record audit. Methodological challenges included selection, recruitment, misclassification, measurement and contextual biases, and confounding. In conclusion, a framework based on GRADE can provide a systematic approach to identifying research gaps from a WHO guideline. Incorporation of the priorities of women living with HIV into the framework systematically ensures that women living with HIV can shape future policy decisions affecting their lives. Implementation science and participatory research are appropriate over-arching approaches to enhance uptake of interventions and to ensure inclusion of women living with HIV at all stages of the research process.
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  4. 4

    Consolidated guideline on sexual and reproductive health and rights of women living with HIV.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 144 p.

    HIV is not only driven by gender inequality, but it also entrenches gender inequality, leaving women more vulnerable to its impact. Providing sexual and reproductive health interventions for women living with HIV that are grounded in principles of gender equality and human rights can have a positive impact on their quality of life; it is also a step towards long-term improved health status and equity.
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  5. 5

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Evaluation Brief.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016. 24 p.

    This evaluation focuses on how UNFPA performed in the area of family planning during the period covered by the UNFPA Strategic Plan 2008-2013. It provides valuable insights and learning which can be used to inform the current UNFPA family planning strategy as well as other relevant programmes, including UNFPA Supplies (2013-2020). All the countries where UNFPA works in family planning were included, but the evaluation focuses on the 69 priority countries identified in the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning as having low rates of contraceptive use and high unmet needs. The evaluation took place in 2014-2016 and was conducted by Euro Health Group in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute Netherlands. It involved a multidisciplinary team of senior evaluators and family planning and sexual and reproductive health and rights specialists, which was supervised and guided by the Evaluation Office in consultation with the Evaluation Reference Group. The outputs include a thematic evaluation report, an evaluation brief and country case study notes for Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Ensuring the complementarity of country ownership and accountability for results in relation to donor aid: a response.

    Germain A

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):141-5.

    This paper focuses on the topic of improving the impact of sexual and reproductive health development assistance from European donors. It touches on country ownership and accountability and uses International Health Partnership+ (IHP+) as an example. In addition, it discusses the need for better funding data and more activity around sexual and reproductive health and rights. It concludes with recommendations for improving aid impact and effectiveness and improving outcome measures.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Care and the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women: a transformative policy space?

    Bedford K

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.

    In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  8. 8

    Making the linkages: HIV / AIDS and sexual and reproductive rights.

    Ahumada C; Gonzalez Galeano A; Ribadeneira N; Russo M; Villa Torres L

    Ottawa, Canada, Youth Coalition, 2006. 30 p.

    The current global generation of young people is the first in history to have lived their entire lives in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, and are disproportionately affected. Millions of children and youth have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS; thousands of others are HIV positive themselves; and many others are affected by it in a variety of ways. None of us are immune to it. In response to the pandemic, governments and international organizations have adopted a variety of responses, but the numbers show that what has been done thus far clearly is not adequate. The reality is that none of these responses, initiatives or programs will be truly successful and effective until they integrate a sexual and reproductive rights and a gender perspective. Furthermore, every initiative must include youth from the beginning to ensure that we young people, have the youth-friendly information, education, services and products that we are entitled to as our human right, in order to make informed and healthy decisions about our sexual and reproductive lives. This guide is intended to: Provide an overview of the linkages between sexual and reproductive rights and HIV/AIDS; Explain the importance of HIV/AIDS initiatives having a sexual and reproductive rights perspective, as well as a youth perspective; and Discuss ways that young people can advocate for their sexual and reproductive rights within HIV/AIDS frameworks, in their countries, regions, and globally. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Human rights-based programming: what it is.

    Melo LA; Toure A; Angarita A; Heckadon S; Rasul Z

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec. [37] p.

    A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Access to modern contraception.

    Welsh MJ; Stanback J; Shelton J

    Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2006; 20(3):323-338.

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. (author's)
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  11. 11

    Statement at the Informal Interactive Hearings of the United Nations General Assembly by Geeta Rao Gupta, International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), June 23, 2005.

    Gupta GR

    Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 2005. 5 p.

    It is a tragic reality that in this, the 21st century, despite the progress made in economic development, women and girls in many parts of the world continue to suffer inequalities based on gender in health, education, and nutrition; face persistent constraints in access to economic and political opportunities; and continue to live lives that are marked by violence or the fear of violence not just in times of war but also in times of peace, not just within the home but also in the street. Yet, as a global community, we know, and have known for many decades, that freeing women from these disadvantages and injustices is fundamental to the fulfillment of their human rights and is critical for meeting the goals of economic and social development. In recognition of this important fact, each of you as members of this august General Assembly, in your shared vision of development, gave gender equality and the empowerment of women a prominent place among the eight goals listed as the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Conference in Amsterdam explores correlation between reproductive rights and culture.

    Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):15.

    A conference titled, “Cairo and Beyond: Reproductive Rights and Culture” was organized by the Dutch government and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on International Women’s Day, March 8th in Amsterdam. The event concluded with a pledge to “break the silence and taboos on culture and religion and their relation to reproductive and sexual health and rights,” by Agnes van Ardenne, Dutch Minister for Development Cooperation and Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, Executive Director of UNFPA. They also promised “to establish a permanent dialogue on these vital issues.” Over 100 experts from around the world attended the event and participants agreed that although progress has been made in the ten years since the 1994 ICPD in Cairo, many substantial challenges still remain. The conference focused specifically on those challenges related to the interconnections between culture and reproductive rights. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets related to reproductive health.

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2005; 13(25):11-18.

    Reproductive and sexual ill-health account for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men. The strategy presented in this document is the World Health Organization’s first global strategy on reproductive health. It was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2004. Five priority aspects of reproductive and sexual health are targeted: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combatting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. The strategy was developed as a result of extensive consultations in all regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, non-governmental organizations, United Nations partners and other key stakeholders. It lays out actions needed for accelerating progress towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other international goals and targets relating to reproductive health, especially those from the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 and its five-year follow-up. ‘‘The strong endorsement of this strategy by the WHA represents an unequivocal message that countries are committed to do all they can to achieve the goals and targets of the ICPD Programme of Action adopted in 1994.’’ (author's)
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Reproductive health and the millennium development goals: the missing link.

    Crossette B

    Studies in Family Planning. 2005 Mar; 36(1):71-79.

    This report was commissioned by the Population Program of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation in December 2004. The author was charged with analyzing the United Nations’ deliberations that led to the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to answer the question of why there is no specific reproductive health goal. This coverage of the MDG process will be complemented by a special section of Studies in the June 2005 issue on reproductive health and the MDGs. The section will include excerpts about reproductive health from the final report of the Millennium Development Project entitled “Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals,” which was submitted to Secretary General Kofi Annan in January 2005, as well as commentaries by leading scholars and policymakers in the fields of population and reproductive health. (author's)
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  15. 15

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD): what the Programme of Action really says.

    Marshall E

    New York, New York, International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC], [2003]. 7 p.

    Organized efforts to address key global health challenges of relevance to women—from childhood illnesses to basic family planning—began some 40 years ago. With encouragement from business, experts, and others, the United States played a leading role in launching international health efforts, which enjoyed broad political support in the country during the Nixon, Ford, and Carter Administrations. As a result, tremendous progress has been made in international health: Global life expectancy has doubled; Children’s health has been enhanced; Maternal mortality has been reduced; Preventable diseases have been eliminated; Women’s health and rights have been lifted. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Reproductive rights are human rights. 4th ed.

    Center for Reproductive Rights

    New York, New York, Center for Reproductive Rights, 2003 Jun. 52 p.

    In this publication, we set forth ten key international human rights, each of which encompasses reproductive rights. With respect to each of these rights, we cite only to selected provisions from major international legal instruments. We recognize that there are other human rights not discussed herein that can be crucial to the exercise of reproductive rights. For example, without the full ability to exercise their rights to free speech and association, women may have little possibility of fighting for their reproductive rights. Because recent United Nations conferences reaffirm governmental consensus on certain issues relating to international law, we have also included references to such documents. We have not included references to documents agreed to at the recent five-year review conferences of ICPD and Beijing. While these are crucial in providing additional guidance on implementation, they do not carry the same weight as the original documents. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    [Fundamental international legal principles. Reproductive rights of women] Bases legales internacionales. Derechos reproductivos de las mujeres.

    RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):14-15.

    Women's reproductive rights under international human rights legislation are a composite of various independent human rights. While a human rights perspective is not limited to legal principles, demands for reproductive self-determination may also be based on international law. Women's reproductive rights were a key topic at two recent international conferences, the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the 1995 United Nations Fourth International Conference on Women (Fourth World Conference on Women (CCMM, Spanish acronym). (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Declaration of intentions of the IPPF European Network, Brussels, 27 June 2003.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. European Network

    Choices. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Europe. 2003 Autumn; 35.

    Reaffirms the human rights basis of sexual and reproductive rights and the need to preserve, guarantee and expand these rights for all peoples in Europe and around the world; underlines its commitment to prioritise the human rights approach to sexuality and reproduction in all activities of the federation; recalls that sexual and reproductive rights are already the subject of international human rights law, jurisprudence, treaties and conventions; reaffirms that the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights outlining 12 rights provides the framework for work in progressing towards the full recognition of sexual rights as human rights; welcomes the recognition of other civil society groups of the human rights basis of their specific work in sexuality, reproduction, health and equality. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Implementing the reproductive health approach.

    Fathalla MF

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.

    The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    U.N. women's meeting deadlocks on violence, NGOs debate MDGS and Fifth World Women's Conference.

    Kindervatter S

    Monday Developments. 2003 Apr 14; 21(7):7, 13.

    This idea that women determine their own fate simply terrifies some people," asserted Dr. Naris Sadik, special adviser to U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan and special envoy for HIV/AIDS in Asia, at the U.N. Commission on the Status of Women meeting in New York March 3-14. The statement, made during a panel discussion related to reproductive health, also is an apt description for this 47th session of the Commission on the Status of Women given its failure to adopt agreed conclusions for one of the two focus issues, women's human rights and elimination of all forms of violence including the trafficking of women and girls. This was the first collapse in negotiations since the CSW began the procedure of adopting "agreed conclusions" in 1996. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Bush's other war: the assault on women's reproductive and sexual health and rights.

    International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]

    New York, New York, IWHC, 2003 Feb. 7 p.

    Internationally and domestically, in our courts and in our schools, at the UN and on Capitol Hill, it is no exaggeration to say that the White House is conducting a stealth war against women. This war has devastating consequences for social and economic development, democracy, and human rights—and its effects will be felt by women and girls worldwide. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Alarmed by global progress on reproductive rights, the religious right storms the United Nations. [Alarmée par les progrès du droit à la reproduction au niveau mondial, la droite religieuse livre l'assaut au Nations Unies]

    Butler J

    Religious Consultation Report. 2002; 6(1):5, 11.

    This article discusses the opposition of the US-based Religious Rights activists against the global progress of women's reproductive rights at UN meetings and the opposition of the Bush administration against women's rights and children's rights.
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  23. 23

    Working for women's sexual rights.

    Crossette B

    New York Times. 2000 Oct 2; 1 p..

    In this news article, UN Population Fund executive director Dr. Nafis Sadik talked about advocating women's sexual rights. Details from the report, entitled "Lives Together, Worlds Apart: Men and Women in a Time of Change" are also included.
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  24. 24

    The light is ours: memoirs and movements.

    Wadia AB

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2001. xiv, 706 p.

    This book is collection of personal memoirs of Avabai Wadia, a long-time family planning (FP) advocate. Wadia describes the beginnings of the FP movement in India and the international networks that led to the formation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), now the world's largest voluntary organization in the field of sexual and reproductive health. Launched in 2001, the International Year of the Volunteer, this book also illustrates the vision behind volunteering, and the instincts of the millions of volunteers who support IPPF.
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  25. 25

    [Women and reproductive rights: reflection and the fight for a new society] Mujeres y derechos reproductivos: reflexion y lucha para una nueva sociedad.

    Zurutuza C

    In: Cumbres, consensos y despues. Seminario Regional "Los Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres en las Conferencias Mundiales". / Reuniao de cupula, consensos e depois. Seminario Regional "Os Direitos Humanos de Mulheres nas Conferencias Mundiais", edited by Roxana Vasquez Sotelo. Lima, Peru, Comite de America Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer [CLADEM], 1996 Nov. 69-111.

    This examination of women and reproductive rights begins by assessing competing definitions of reproductive rights and scrutinizing documents from the UN world conferences and other international instruments that affirm unquestioned and unconditional protection of reproductive rights. The existence of the documents does not guarantee respect for reproductive rights, and much remains to be done to assure their universal observance. Past population policies implemented by national governments that have violated reproductive rights are then surveyed. Contributions of the women’s movement to the political debate about reproductive rights are examined; feminist thought influenced both the study of reproductive rights and their ultimate recognition as human rights. The women’s movement has sought to claim sexuality as an integral part of affective life, to decouple it from reproduction and to construct an identity for women not exclusively based on reproduction. Against the argument that these are purely private concerns, feminists launched the slogan “the personal is political”. Reproductive rights might be defined as the power to make informed decisions regarding family size, the raising and education of children, gynecological health, and sexual activity, and the resources to put the decisions into practice safely and effectively. Issues that remain unsettled are then discussed, beginning with questions about the scope and concept of reproductive rights. Specific themes in debate are discussed, including new technologies for infertility, formation of families by homosexuals, mental health and reproductive rights, and induced abortion. The final section discusses the need for mechanisms to mediate between social arrangements and individual decisions in order to help individuals exercise their rights of all kinds.
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