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Washington, D.C., Action Aid, 2007. 76 p.In response to the growing body of evidence on violence and HIV&AIDS, and in response to calls by human rights advocates for effective action on these issues, international institutions and national governments have articulated a concern to address gender-based violence, including within the context of HIV&AIDS. Little is known, however, about what is actually being done to address these issues in policies, programming and funding, and whether the efforts that are underway are truly based on the human rights and health agenda advocated for so long by women's movements throughout the world. In order to better understand the level of resources - in policy, programming and funding -- committed to this deadly intersection, a report was commissioned by an international coalition of organizations working on women's human rights, development, health and HIV& AIDS. This report, "Show Us the Money: is violence against women on the HIV&AIDS donor agenda?" analyses the policies, programming and funding patterns of the four largest public donors to HIV&AIDS: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/US), the UK Department for International Development (DFID), and the World Bank, and UNAIDS (the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS). The report is the first step in an effort by this coalition to monitor the policies, programmes, and funding streams of international agencies and national governments, and to hold these agencies accountable to basic health and human rights objectives. (excerpt)
PLoS Medicine. 2006 Apr; 3(4):e211.One of the most unsettling images for newcomers to many parts of Africa is the sight of undernourished women bearing unfeasibly large vessels of water long distances over rough terrain to supply the needs of their families. A sense of outrage that anyone should have to live like this in the 21st century forms the basis of the humanitarian imperative that drives development programs, especially those that focus on basic needs such as access to safe water. When such a program reduces from three hours to 15 minutes the time that women spend fetching water each day, surely it can be described as a success, without the need for any "scientific" assessment of what has been achieved? In this issue of PLoS Medicine, we publish a study that did assess such a program. Mhairi Gibson and Ruth Mace (DOI: 10.1371/journal. pmed.0030087)--from the University of Bristol, United Kingdom--compared villages in Ethiopia that benefited from a tapped water supply with other villages that did not. Outcome measures included the nutritional status of women and children, mortality rates, and birth rates. There were a number of surprising findings, most notably the large increase in birthrate in the villages where the water supply intervention took place. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, .  p. (What's Real. Issue No. 2)Violence against women is a global health crisis of epidemic proportions and often a cause and consequence of HIV. Violence and the threat of violence dramatically increase the vulnerability of women and girls to HIV by making it difficult or impossible for women to abstain from sex, to get their partners to be faithful, or to use a condom. Violence is also a barrier for women in accessing HIV prevention, care, and treatment services. That is why the UNAIDS-led Global Coalition on Women and AIDS has made stopping violence against women a top priority. (excerpt)
POPLINE. 2003 Mar-Apr; 25:2.A monumental effort by UNICEF and Afghanistan's interim administration in 2002 succeeded in enrolling one million girls - out of 3 million students - in classes last year. But Bellamy said those numbers were still unacceptably low. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Global Health Council, 2002 May. 20 p. (Technical Report)This document includes the following chapters: Towards an Evidence-Based Approach to Decision Making; Reducing Maternal Mortality Through Evidence-Based Treatment of Eclampsia; Reducing Postpartum Hemorrhage: Routine Use of Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor; The WHO Reproductive Health Library (RHL) Better Births Initiative: A Programme for Action in Middle- and Low-Income Countries; and Using Evidence to Save the Lives of Mothers.
[London, England], IPPF, 2002 Oct 22. 1 p.Kiyoko Ikegami, 51, became the director of the first Tokyo office of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) last month. Believing that education is the key to eradicating poverty and controlling population growth, her first task is to improve public recognition of the organization's activities. (excerpt)
[London, England], IPPF, 2002 Oct 18. 2 p.This news article traces the progress of the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand's efforts in addressing the issue of domestic violence against women and children since its pilot study in 1997. Its focus on reproductive health (RH) services has expanded to include training, counseling and services on sexual and RH, family planning, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections, women's empowerment, promotion of male responsibility and services for adolescents.
Chennai, India, Voluntary Health Services, AIDS Prevention and Control Project, . 43 p.In Tamil Nadu, India, there are no research studies undertaken to establish the prevalence of HIV among women in prostitution. However, the clinical data from various sources reveal that a significant proportion of them are infected with HIV. The situational assessment conducted by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) partners facilitated by AIDS and Prevention and Control (APAC) revealed various factors, which made women more prone to the infection. It was mainly due to the inconsistent usage of condoms; various myths and misconceptions; lower empowerment; lower social status and educational level. To this effect, the APAC project adopted the implementation of holistic, participatory gender specific and culture sensitive prevention programs among women in prostitution. It provides relevant information to risk population groups, promotion of quality condoms, enhancement of sexually transmitted disease and counseling services, and explorative research for increasing the effectiveness of the project. It is noted that APAC supports six NGOs in six towns in Tamil Nadu to implement the targeted intervention among women in prostitution.
Future generations ready for the world. UNFPA's contribution to the goals of the World Summit for Children.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2001. 27 p.This paper summarizes UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) contribution to the goals of the 1990 World Summit for Children. It notes that UNFPA has focused on four major areas of work addressing young people: promoting girls' education, the promotion of adolescent reproductive and sexual health, HIV/AIDS prevention, and the reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity.
Female employment in Afghanistan: a study of decree # 8. Inter-agency task force study on Taliban decree and its implications.
[New York, New York], Inter-Agency Taliban Edict Task Force, 2001 Feb 6. 61 p.This document presents an analysis by the Inter-Agency Taliban Edict Task Force of Decree #8, which is focused on female employment in Afghanistan. Findings note that difficulties with female employment in the country did not begin and will not end with the Taliban, but are a deeply ingrained feature of Afghan society. The decree serves as a warning to those who would even indirectly challenge the Taliban's views on gender, Kabul women, women's morality and ownership of that morality.
Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development. 1996; 3(1-2):1-14.In the space of two and a half decades, documentation of African rural women's work lives has moved from state of dearth to plethora. Awareness of women's arduous workday, and the importance of women agriculturists to national economies are now commonplace among African policy-makers and western donor agencies. Throughout the dramatic upheaval in African development policy of recent years, as state and market forces realign, donor agencies have consistently espoused a concern to improve the material conditions and status of rural women's working day throughout sub-Saharan Africa overwhelm donor's scattered projects directed at alleviating women's workload. The central question posed is how external donor agencies can extend beyond localized project efforts to help provide the material foundation for widespread change in women's working day of a self-determining nature. Still local in scale and last on the agenda, will measures to address women's work be elevated to a more central position in international development program efforts in sub-Saharan Africa? (author's)
Uganda's efforts in the implementation of the Children Statute and related legislation: an assessment for UNICEF.
Kampala, Uganda, UNICEF, 2000 Nov 24. 68 p.This final report presents final recommendations to UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) to more fully integrate children's and women's rights into UNICEF’s new program in Uganda. In addition, it summarizes findings of three prior reports on Uganda’s compliance with UN conventions on the rights of children and women. Following the introduction, part two details a review on the gaps in Uganda's laws and the obligations of the government under the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Part three focuses on the impediments in the implementation of Uganda's juvenile justice system. Lastly, part four presents district activity reports in UNICEF's implementation of the Children Statute.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2001 Nov; 9(18):191.In 1997 UN International Children's Fund, WHO, and UN Population Fund developed guidelines for monitoring obstetric services, offering relevant process indicators which used proxy measures for maternal mortality, because counting deaths had been highly inaccurate. The Malawi Safe Motherhood Project covers half the country's population of 5 million and was the first large project to adopt the use of the recommended indicators within routine monitoring procedures, albeit with significant adaptation. Development of the monitoring process required: a needs assessment, including identification of sources of data and definition of terms, such as for obstetric conditions; development of tools for data collection: and actual operations research. The research considered patient flow in obstetric clinics; recording of complications; and identification of maternal deaths, referral systems and the origin of patients, in order to determine the catchment populations for each service point. Subsequently, when the new monitoring system was deemed to be feasible and effective, training programs were conducted by trainers from each district, and information was disseminated. The intention is that the Safe Motherhood information system training modules will eventually be incorporated into all basic and in-services training for maternity staff. Introduction of the indicators in Malawi was characterized by wide consultation, systematic clarification of all definitions, rigorous testing and use of already established systems. All of these steps were required to gain support and motivate staff involved in data collection and analysis. (full text)
Development. 2001 Sep; 44(3):129-32.Claudia Garcia-Moreno describes the approach of the WHO to violence against women (VAW) as a major public health issue. She explains how the focus of WHO's work is on building the knowledge base for policy and action and identifying the role of the health sector in the prevention of VAW and in providing care for those experiencing abuse. (author's)
[New York, New York], UNIFEM, .  p.At the UN, the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) is the women's fund that provides financial support and technical assistance to innovative programs promoting women's human rights, their economic and political empowerment, and gender equality. Founded in 1976, UNIFEM function as a catalyst, with the goal of ensuring the appropriate involvement of women in mainstream development activities, as often as possible at the pre-investment stage. Moreover, it plays an innovative and catalytic role in relation to the UN's overall system of development cooperation. UNIFEM implements its empowerment framework agenda through five core strategies that build on the Fund's comparative advantages: building the capacity and leadership of women's organizations and networks; leveraging political and financial support for women from a range of stakeholders in the development process; forging new synergies and effective partnerships between women's organizations, governments, the UN system and the private sector; undertaking pilot and demonstration projects to test innovative approaches to women's empowerment; and building operational knowledge base to influence mainstreaming.
In: Breaking the earthenware jar. Lessons from South Asia to end violence against women and girls, [by] Ruth Finney Hayward. Kathmandu, Nepal, UNICEF, Regional Office for South Asia, 2000. 403-5.This appendix presents a summary of some of the UN milestones for women and girls' human rights. It compares the way women's human rights were addressed first in the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR) with the way various women's human rights have been treated over the years, so far as the UN system and its treaties and declarations are concerned. Highlighted is the 1945 UN Charter, which makes no special mention of women's rights but affirms equality between women and men and prohibits distinction on the basis of sex. Other achievements of the UN highlighted in this appendix include the adoption of the UDHR, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Conventions on the Rights of the Child, the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the 1993 Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, the International Conference on Population and Development, the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. In addition, through the agreements reached at Vienna, Cairo, and Beijing, governments commit themselves to eliminating violence against women. Moreover, committed organizations are beginning to work together for the fulfillment of the human rights of both women and children, and to focus on what happens in the family.
National mother, global whore, and transnational femocrats: the politics of AIDS and the construction of women at the World Health Organization.
FEMINIST STUDIES. 1998 Spring; 24(1):115-39.This article examines the early discourse on women and AIDS in the Global Program on AIDS (GPA). It also analyzes the subsequent efforts of women and the AIDS strategy group to create a mechanism by which GPA could help redress sexual and gender inequality. The data for analysis were gathered by interviews and archival research at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. Overall, it is argued that internationalist constructions of women's needs dominate because of the organizational interests of the UN femocrats. These interests stem from the fact that the WHO derives its legitimacy from member states perceptions of it as an apolitical agency. In addition, although feminists participation in such an ideology is at times conscious and challenged, it is an organizational imperative. If they challenge the nation-state's rights to control women, they challenge their legitimacy as experts in an international technical bureaucracy. For the femocrats, they occupy a truly contradictory ground. Such contradictions do not disappear because at one moment some of them are able to advance an agenda that appears to limit the potential threat of feminist politics to organizational practices.
New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 1992. iii, 38 p.Gender violence needs to be exposed and documented more fully as part of shaping programs that will lead toward the human development envisioned by the UN s Development Programme in its series of Human Development Reports. Through this article, the UN Development Fund for Women leads to reconceptualize violence as it affects development. This process is essential in devising a step that will realize a vision of human development that works for women. It is within this context that the importance of Carillo's thesis is examined, asserting that development plans cannot succeed if gender based violence hindering women's participation in development is ignored. Discussion involved violence as part of the development agenda, gender violence as an obstacle to development, and eradication of gender violence. An appendix is attached discussing the UN initiatives relating to violence against women.
New York, New York, UNIFEM, .  p.This article discusses the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) program in Latin America and the Caribbean, which is undergoing major political, legal, and economic transformation. The role of UNIFEM in the region has been to help develop women's capacities to take control of their own lives by building their strengths so that they can voice their own concerns and be their own advocates. The work revolves primarily around three programs. 1) Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation -- The work of UNIFEM was focused on the areas of credit, technical and managerial training for women, appropriate agricultural practices, and women's role in food production and other income-generating activities. Environmental issues, being of special concern, are integrated throughout. 2) Citizenship and democratization -- UNIFEM aims to promote the strength and visibility of women as leaders and decision-makers at both the national and the grassroots level by becoming participants in the political process. 3) Eliminating violence against women -- Some of the most dynamic work of UNIFEM in Latin America and the Caribbean has been to broaden the concept of human rights to include women's rights and to put a stop to violence against women. This program supports direct advocacy work in shelters and women's centers, and broad-based public education programs.
JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Feb; (296):1.An induction workshop for LAO/97/P01, a UNFPA project, was held in Vientiane during December 7-8, 1998. The project is part of the Reproductive Health (RH) Sub-Program in the Lao P.D.R. supported by UNFPA. The sub-program includes 3 other projects related to women's rights and gender equality, adolescent health needs, and sexuality education in schools. National directors of the 4 implemented projects participated in the workshop. Areas in which to develop information, education, and communication materials in RH were noted in the opening ceremony, followed by presentations of the directors of each project on the current status and activities of their respective projects. Each presentation was followed by a question and answer session, including questions from the floor.