Your search found 5 Results
Decreased emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in a cohort of Ugandan women initiating option B+ for PMTCT.
PloS One. 2017; 12(5):e0178297.BACKGROUND: Since 2012, WHO guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend the initiation of lifelong antiretroviral combination therapy (cART) for all pregnant HIV-1 positive women independent of CD4 count and WHO clinical stage (Option B+). However, long-term outcomes regarding development of drug resistance are lacking until now. Therefore, we analysed the emergence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in women initiating Option B+ in Fort Portal, Uganda, at 12 and 18 months postpartum (ppm). METHODS AND FINDINGS: 124 HIV-1 positive pregnant women were enrolled within antenatal care services in Fort Portal, Uganda. Blood samples were collected at the first visit prior starting Option B+ and postpartum at week six, month six, 12 and 18. Viral load was determined by real-time RT-PCR. An RT-PCR covering resistance associated positions in the protease and reverse transcriptase HIV-1 genomic region was performed. PCR-positive samples at 12/18 ppm and respective baseline samples were analysed by next generation sequencing regarding HIV-1 drug resistant variants including low-frequency variants. Furthermore, vertical transmission of HIV-1 was analysed. 49/124 (39.5%) women were included into the DRM analysis. Virological failure, defined as >1000 copies HIV-1 RNA/ml, was observed in three and seven women at 12 and 18 ppm, respectively. Sequences were obtained for three and six of these. In total, DRMs were detected in 3/49 (6.1%) women. Two women displayed dual-class resistance against all recommended first-line regimen drugs. Of 49 mother-infant-pairs no infant was HIV-1 positive at 12 or 18 ppm. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the WHO-recommended Option B+ for PMTCT is effective in a cohort of Ugandan HIV-1 positive pregnant women with regard to the low selection rate of DRMs and vertical transmission. Therefore, these results are encouraging for other countries considering the implementation of lifelong cART for all pregnant HIV-1 positive women.
New Courier. 2005 May; 47-49.Responsible for half the world's food production, women play a key role in sustainable food security, particularly in developing countries. Yet they have considerably less access to land and investment funds than men. That is why microcredit, celebrated by an International Year in 2005, often seems like the only solution to break poverty's vicious circle. An example: In the province of Chiapas (Mexico) women are taking advantage of both loans and literacy classes, provided by a programme UNESCO supports. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2001. 178 p. (Occasional Paper No. 5)This report considers how human rights laws can be applied to relieve the estimated 1,400 deaths world-wide that occur every day, an annual mortality rate of 515,000, that women suffer because they are pregnant. Human rights principles have long been established in national constitutional and other laws and in regional and international human rights treaties to which nations voluntarily commit themselves. The intention of the report is to facilitate initiatives by governmental agencies, nongovernmental groups and, for instance, international organizations to foster compliance with human rights in order to protect, respect and fulfill women’s rights to safe motherhood. The report outlines how the dimensions of unsafe motherhood can be measured and comprehended, and how causes can be identified by reference to medical, health system and socio-legal factors. It introduces human rights laws by identifying their sources and governmental obligations to implement them, and explains a range of specific human rights that can be applied to advance safe motherhood. The rights are shown to interact with each other, and for purposes of discussion, they are clustered in the following ways: rights to life, survival and security; rights relating to maternity and health; rights to nondiscrimination and due respect for difference; and rights to information and education relevant to women’s health protection during pregnancy and childbirth. The setting of performance standards for monitoring compliance with rights relevant to reproductive health, and availability and use of obstetric services are addressed. In conclusion, the report considers several strategies to encourage professional, institutional and governmental implementation of the various human rights in national and international laws relevant to reduction of unsafe motherhood, and to enable women to go through pregnancy and childbirth safely. (excerpt)
[Tamoxifen or tamoxifen in combination with chemotherapy in adjuvant therapy of breast carcinoma. Results of a multicenter randomized study] Tamoxifen nebo tamoxifen v kombinaci s chemoterapií v adjuvantní lécbe karcinomu prsu. Vysledky multicentrické randomizované studie.
Sbornik Lékarsky. 2001; 102(1):65-76.Between April 1994 and May 1997 103 breast cancer patients (pts), pT1c-3a, pN0-1, M0, were randomised after surgery to adjuvant tamoxifen (20 mg per day) or to tamoxifen plus CMF (C 500 mg/m2, M 40 mg/m2 and F 600 mg/m2 on days 1st and 8th q 28 day) in 6 cycles. The median age (49-72 years, median 58), tumour size, number of involved lymphnodes (0-3), estrogens receptor status, grade (I-III) and type of operation were well balanced among the 50 pts on tamoxifen and the 53 pts on tamoxifen plus CMF pts, preferably postmenopausal. Results. Grade of toxicity according to WHO criteria was not higher than two in both arms. Toxicity both haematological and non-haematological was higher in the group treated with chemotherapy (0 vs 32 resp. 20%) except weight gain +5% (52% in both group). After median follow-up of 42 mos five recurrences in tamoxifen and seven in tamoxifen plus CMF pts were observed (p=NS). The projected 3-y DFS is 92% for tamoxifen and 88% for tamoxifen plus CMF (p=NS). The 3-y OS is 88% for tamoxifen and 80% for tamoxifen plus CMF pts (p=NS). Conclusions. Both regimens are equally effective with higher toxicity in the group with combined chemo- and hormonal therapy. (author's)
Women and Environments International. 2003 Spring; (58-59):52.The Magdalena Pacifica Festival in Cali exhibited performances from some 30 Colombian companies, all of which focused on issues relating to women. The second part of the festival took place in Bogota at the invitation of Patricia Ariza, one of the most important and well-respected theatre activists in Colombia. (excerpt)