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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007.  p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec.  p.A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2006 Aug 25. 23 p. (A/61/292)The present report provides a review and update of the programme and activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) for 2005. The report tracks overall progress and highlights concrete results in the implementation of its multi-year funding framework 2004-2007 during the year under review. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on how the development and organizational effectiveness of UNIFEM can be further strengthened. (author's)
Project appraisal document on a proposed interim trust fund credit in the amount of SDR 222.5 million (US $300 million equivalent) to India for a woman and child development project.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, South Asia Region, Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Unit, 1998 May 27. 18,  p. (Report No. 17052-IN)This publication presents the project appraisal document on a proposed interim trust fund credit in the amount of SDR 222.5 million (US$300 million equivalent) to India for a woman and child development project. Such project aimed to improve the nutrition and health of pre-school-aged children and women, by increasing the quality, impact, and cost-effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. In addition, it aimed to strengthen the ICDS program in the remaining states and union territories, by improving the quality of worker training in each of them. Divided into nine sections, in which each section covers topics on project development objectives; strategic context; project description summary; project rationale; summary project analysis; sustainability and risks; main loan conditions; readiness for implementation; and compliance with International Development Association policies. Several annexes are also included in this document.
Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development. 1996; 3(1-2):1-14.In the space of two and a half decades, documentation of African rural women's work lives has moved from state of dearth to plethora. Awareness of women's arduous workday, and the importance of women agriculturists to national economies are now commonplace among African policy-makers and western donor agencies. Throughout the dramatic upheaval in African development policy of recent years, as state and market forces realign, donor agencies have consistently espoused a concern to improve the material conditions and status of rural women's working day throughout sub-Saharan Africa overwhelm donor's scattered projects directed at alleviating women's workload. The central question posed is how external donor agencies can extend beyond localized project efforts to help provide the material foundation for widespread change in women's working day of a self-determining nature. Still local in scale and last on the agenda, will measures to address women's work be elevated to a more central position in international development program efforts in sub-Saharan Africa? (author's)
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 2 p.In this document a statement concerning the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) population for the years 1998-99 is presented. The work of ESCAP has focused on (1) the strengthening of monitoring and evaluation systems for measuring progress in reproductive health and family planning programs; (2) the strengthening of policy analysis and research on female migration, employment, family formation, and poverty; and (3) aging implications for Asian families and the elderly. ESCAP's programs constitute adequate strategies, policies and measures for problem solving in the area of population and development. They involve the organization of training courses, seminars and workshops in developing countries. ESCAP, with additional support from bilateral resources, has continued to implement a number of projects dealing with such issues as the effect of globalization on population change and poverty in rural areas.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. iv, 218 p. (A/CONF.177/20/Rev.1)The report of the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995 contains materials on conference preparations, agenda, and proceedings. The report's first chapter presents the full texts of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. The Platform includes a mission statement, sections describing the global framework and critical areas of concern, 12 strategic objectives and accompanying lists of actions to be taken by specified agencies, and descriptions of institutional and financial arrangements. The strategic objectives concern women and poverty, education and training, health, violence, armed conflict, the economy, power and decision-making, institutional mechanisms for advancement of women; human rights, the media, the environment, and the girl child. Chapter 2 provides information on pre-conference consultations, attendance, conference opening and election of officers, adoption of rules of procedure and agenda, and organization of work. Chapter 3 lists statements of conference participants and the sessions at which they occurred. The report of the main committee regarding organization of work and consideration of the draft platform for action and declaration is presented in chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes adoption of the Declaration and Platform for Action and presents the statements of reservation and interpretation made by several countries. The final three chapters concern the report of the credentials committee, adoption of the conference report, and closure.
Washington, D.C., American Association for World Health, 1998. 47 p.World Health Day, established by the World Health Organization (WHO), is celebrated on April 7 in the 191 WHO member countries. WHO has designated Safe Motherhood as the common theme for 1998 World Health Day activities. Safe Motherhood is an international initiative aimed at ensuring women have safe pregnancies and deliveries and healthy infants. This manual was prepared as a resource for those involved in the planning of World Health Day 1998 in the US, where the slogan is: "Invest in the Future: Support Safe Motherhood." After providing background information on the global importance of the prevention of maternal mortality and morbidity, the manual sets forth detailed guidelines on forming an organizing committee, selecting events and activities, choosing a location, creating a planning schedule, identifying community resources, defining target audiences, using the mass media to publicize events, hospitality arrangements, and program evaluation. World Health Day activities appropriate for individuals, communities, workplaces, schools, religious organizations, government agencies, and health care settings are suggested. Also included, for possible reproduction, is a series of fact sheets on topics such as pregnancy-related mortality in the US, maternal nutrition, sexually transmitted diseases, family planning, prenatal care, warning signs during pregnancy, and breast feeding. Finally, lists of state contacts and hotlines are appended.
THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY. 1995; 16(3):477-93.This article gives a brief history of how women's groups internationally have shaped UN and World Conferences for Women, the changes in the relationship between women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the UN over time, and effective strategies for putting the women's agenda on international agendas. The article focuses on three recent UN conferences: the Rio conference on the environment, the Vienna conference on human rights, and the Cairo conference on population. The UN Decade for Women reshaped the international women's movement by including new players and by increasing the number and types of women's groups, particularly in developing countries. Women's NGOs learned how to operate on a global scale and to gain attention. New NGO alliances and networks were formed that were cross-regional and crossed North-South divisions. An increasing number of women's groups contributed to national and international policy-making situations. Women's groups were successful in receiving international and national recognition because of the effort expended to become well prepared in collecting, knowing, and analyzing their facts and in building broad-based coalitions. The key strategies that were used in participating effectively in the conference preparatory process and formal policy-making groups involved five types of activities: 1) NGOs mounted global campaigns on a variety of issues having to do with women's rights and women's involvement in the process; 2) NGOs held multiple strategic planning meetings and built coalitions and consensus at all levels; 3) women's NGOs drafted policy documents, resolutions, treaties, protocols, conventions, and platform documents; 4) women's NGOs gained seating on official delegations by publishing reports, holding meetings, and lobbying and nominating women as representatives; and 5) women's NGOs formed caucuses that met at a daily time and place for holding dialogues with official delegates and policy-makers.
In: Beyond the numbers. A reader on population, consumption, and the environment, edited by Laurie Ann Mazur. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1994. 267-72.Women's health advocates from Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, the United States, and Western Europe in conjunction with the International Women's Health Coalition drafted a declaration on population policies in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Population policies were viewed as part of development policies that were based on principles of social justice and the promotion of well being. Conditions that affected both men's and women's health were identified as unequal distribution of wealth, changing patterns of sexual and family relationships, political and economic policies that restricted female access to health services and methods of fertility regulation, and laws, beliefs, and practices that denied women's basic human rights. The government is in a powerful position to affect conditions. Current economic conditions globally jeopardize governments willingness and ability to establish appropriate support. The design, structure, and implementation of population policies needs to be changed. The empowerment of women should be the goal of population policies and a goal in its own right. Fundamental ethical principles must provide the foundation of population policies and assure the following: women's ability to make responsible decisions, women's right to determine the nature of their sexuality, women's right and social responsibility to determine how, how many, and when to have children, men's personal and social responsibility for their own sexual behavior and fertility, the need for nonviolence, equity, noncoercion, and mutual respect between men and women, women's right to be involved in policy making and implementation, and women's right to not be subordinated to the interests of partners, family members, ethnic groups, religious institutions, health providers, researchers, policymakers, the state, or anyone else. There were six basic program requirements. It is necessary that women make decision maker, have financial resources, have a women's health movement, and accountability mechanisms are available.
UN CHRONICLE. 1994 Sep; 31(3):47.The draft action plan of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) calls for enhancing women's participation in all levels of the political process and public life, promoting women's education and employment with attention to alleviation of poverty and illiteracy, halting discriminatory practices against women, establishing women's rights, and improving women's ability to earn income and achieve economic self-reliance. The document specifically refers to the importance of girls beyond their traditional roles as potential childbearers and caretakers. The action plan requests actions to enforce minimum marriage age laws and to assure women's choice in spouse selection. Female genital mutilation is prohibited. Preventive efforts are to be directed to infanticide, prenatal sex selection, trafficking in girls, female prostitution, and pornography. The men who are in positions of power have a particular responsibility to bring about gender equality and to focus on men's responsibility in parenthood and child support. Fertility is related to women's paid employment and higher educational levels. The longterm success of population programs is dependent on women's ability to make informed decisions at all levels and in all spheres of life.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1993. xv, 143 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 202)Women in developing countries face up to a 200 times higher risk of death from pregnancy, childbirth, and unsafe abortions than women in developed countries. The failure to take clear, scientifically informed action in the 1990s will likely result in more pregnant women dying than in any other decade. About 7 million newborns die each year due to maternal health problems. Maternal death also adversely affects the health and socioeconomic prospects for surviving children, families, and communities. In 1987, the World Bank, WHO, UNFPA, and many other organizations began the Safe Motherhood Initiative to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity (cost of a substantial reduction = about US $2/capita/year). Its short-term goals include improving the quality of, increasing access to, and educating the public about family planning services and maternal health care. Longterm goals encompass improving women's socioeconomic status. The Initiative helps countries develop safe motherhood programs, including a workable health infrastructure and targeting behavior. Research in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Guatemala shows that community-based approaches, such as family planning and training and use of midwives, reduce maternal mortality in high mortality areas. Appropriate referral and treatment of emergency obstetric complications are needed for considerable and sustained reduction of maternal death. Safe motherhood depends on interlinked steps: adolescent's nutritional status, woman's knowledge about contraception, danger signs during pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, access to trained health providers, and access to health care facilities or emergency transport to these facilities. National and political support of a safe motherhood program is needed. This report provides various approaches to tailoring a program to its setting, ranging from one with a limited health infrastructure to one with extensive services.
HYGIE. 1992; 11(3):17-27.Commentary is provided on the objectives of health for all as it is linked to education for all. Health education in developed and developing countries is necessary for 1) in-school youth, 2) out-of-school youth, and 3) adult literacy and education. After a general statement of what is involved in educating children for healthy living, international health policy recommendations for strong national policy support of health education are presented. Examples of health learning experiences in school are given for the US, Colombia, Uganda, Chile, Bolivia, Senegal, Syria, Swaziland, and other countries. Opportunities that augment health education curriculum are a sanitary school environment, maintenance of a school health service, nutritious meals at school, a positive social environment with congenial relationships, and after-school sports and group activities. Links with the community are important for student training and transmission of knowledge and healthy practices to others. Specific attention must be paid to AIDS education, nutrition education, and water supply and sanitation. 8 challenges for action are identified. Health education for out-of-school children (105 million children 6-11 years in 1985) is equally important, particularly since 70% are in developing countries and 60% are girls. The numbers are increasing in spite of UNESCO's efforts to mobilize nations to place health education on national agendas. Most out-of-school youth are served by private organizational efforts. Many of these children are destitute without families or from very poor landless families in rural areas. Brazil's program for street youth and Bangladesh's program for functional literacy in short-term, part-time learning help to fill the need. Underprivileged children also reside in urban areas and may not value or be able to afford school. The health sector needs to identify target groups and programs that are appropriate to children's requirements. Information is needed on health hazards, skills to avoid hazards, and a supportive environment. 9 points for action are identified. Adult literacy programs are necessary for survival and improving the quality of life. Joint ventures with other development efforts are common. Women's functional literacy is a separate challenge. 5 actions are identified. A worldwide and multisectoral commitment is needed.
In: Women's health and apartheid: the health of women and children and the future of progressive primary health care in Southern Africa, edited by Marcia Wright, Zena Stein and Jean Scandlyn. New York, New York, Columbia University, 1988. 84-9.There is a large discrepancy between maternal mortality rates in developed and developing countries, with maternal mortality as a leading cause of death of young women in poor countries. There has been renewed interest in maternal mortality among international agencies and major foundations quite recently. Women and children form up to 2/3 of the population of many developing countries, and over 1/2 of primary health care resources are devoted to maternal and child health programs. Nevertheless, little of this is directed at maternal mortality; most goes to immunization, oral rehydration for diarrhea, monitoring children's growth, and promoting breastfeeding. While some of the international health community attribute the long neglect of maternal mortality to not knowing the extent and severity of the problem before, prior data existed demonstrating the alarmingly high rates. Low maternal mortality in the West may have distracted attention from the international problem. Sexism may have been a major factor, as even today efforts to reduce maternal mortality need to be justified in terms of the implications for the family, children and society as a whole. The reasons for the current concern are not clear, but may relate to an interest in concrete issues after the United Nations Decade for Women, or real surprise in the international community once the problem was pointed out. As various agencies rush to establish maternal mortality programs, it is imperative to evaluate which approaches will be really effective. Critical evaluation of programs is necessary to capitalize on the current interest.
World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
Design of studies for the assessment of drugs and hormones used in the treatment of endocrine forms of female infertility.
In: Diczfalusy, E., ed. Regulation of human fertility. (Proceedings of the WHO Symposium on Advances in Fertility Regulation, Moscow, USSR, November 16-19, 1976) Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1977. p. 135-154The lack of uniformity in diagnostic selection of women for treatment of infertility, in choice of therapy, in monitoring of therapy, and in follow-up, frequently does not allow a meaningful comparison of results reported from different centers. To design studies assessing effectiveness of therapy of endocrine forms of female infertility, it is essential to consider: 1) mechanism controlling reproductive functions (e.g., process of ovulation); 2) cause(s) responsible for infertility (mechanical factors, ovarian failure, and pituitary failure); and 3) the mechanism of action of agents used for therapy (e.g., gonadotropins stimulate gonadal function, clomiphene stimulates gonadotropin secretion, and ergoline derivatives inhibit prolactin secretion). Patients selected for therapy should be grouped according to etiology: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary failure; 2) hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction; 3) ovarian failure; 4) congenital or acquired genital tract disorder; 5) hyperprolactinemic patients with a space-occupying lesion in the hypothalamic-pituitary region; 6) hyperprolactinemic patients with no space-occupying lesion; and 7) amenorrheic women with space-occupying lesion. Ideally, an infertile couple should be diagnosed and treated as a unit.
In: Diczfalusy, E., ed. Regulation of human fertility. (Proceedings of the WHO Symposium on Advances in Fertility Regulation, Moscow, USSR, November 16-19, 1976) Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1977. p. 236-252A 4-stage clinical testing program to test for effectiveness and untoward side effects of contraceptive drugs or devices is outlined tabularly and discussed. Stage 1, clinical pharmacology, requires few subjects (10-20) and a short (10 days) study period, performed at a single testing center. Stage 2, to determine or indicate effectiveness, would involve about 50 subjects during a trial of about 3 months. Stage 3 necessitates controlling conditions to evaluate effectiveness and side effects; 1000-2000 subjects would participate for 6 months-1 year in this stage of testing. Field condition effectiveness and problems constitute Stage 4, involving different cultural and socioeconomic populations for 1-2 years of testing. Completion of each stage and analysis of all results favorably are required before proceeding with the next testing step. This methodology is equally applicable to device (e.g., IUD testing during Stage 1 would test for local irritation effects rather than systemic ones) testing as to contraceptive drug evaluation.
London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1982. 67 p.Add to my documents.