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  1. 1
    100032

    Japan fully endorses ICPD Program of Action. Deputy expresses support for reproductive health and partnerships with NGOs.

    Kono Y

    JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Nov; (245):1.

    Japan as well as the US desire to promote the worldwide effort to respond to population and AIDS issues. The Global Issues Initiative, supported by both countries, was established in February 1994 for international support of population and AIDS. Japan, as part of its official development assistance, is the largest donor and plans to contribute between 1994 and 2000 about $3 billion. Japan also endorses the Program of Action recommended by the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in September 1994. Japan supports a comprehensive approach to the population issue which includes policies on basic health, education, and the status of women. Reproductive health is considered very important in addressing the population issue. There must be respect for human rights, improvement in the status of women, and promotion of women's participation in decision making. Japan's efforts toward this end have included the Global Initiative and distribution of a Maternal and Child Health Handbook, which includes reproductive health information for the adolescent, pregnant mother, and nurturing mother. Information is provided on child care, childbirth, and pregnancy and is directed to helping women make informed choices. Fertility and mortality decline in Japan has been accomplished through informed choice of women and changed attitudes and conduct of men. Governments and international organizations do not always deliver adequate services. The role of nongovernmental organizations in filling the gaps in service delivery is recognized by Japan as essential. Grassroots organizations complement existing structures and operations. Japan's endeavors to increase support for grassroots projects in its bilateral programs from planning stages through project implementation. Japan hopes that the UN Plan of Action will be adopted internationally, which would provide a supportive community for cooperative effort. The delegation to the ICPD was headed by Deputy Prime Minister of Foreign Affairs Yohei Kono, and this article provided a summary of his address to the ICPD.
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  2. 2
    073418

    Educating girls and women: investing in development.

    King EM

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. [2], 17 p.

    This brochure summarizes selected chapters from a forthcoming publication of a World Bank study on women's education in developing countries. The poorest benefit, and for girls and women, the benefits are many. Failure to raise the education levels of women has hugh consequences for increasing productivity and income and improving quality of life. Development has been affected both by the level of schooling of women and the gender gap. New approaches are being explored; policymakers must find and appropriate combination of actions to change families' opinions of and the economics of female education. Adult literacy is low in many developing countries; of the 14 out of 40 countries with data, only 1 in 5 adult females can read. Gross enrollment has increased from 45% in 1965 to 70% in 1985; only 41% of total primary school enrollment was girls in 1985. There are great regional differences. The gender gap is dramatic in South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa, e.g., in Bhutan girls school enrollment was 19% compared with 34% for boys in 1985, and in Pakistan 38% of girls vs 73% of boys. Differences were not as marked in Latin America and all East Asian countries. Dropout rates for girls are also higher than boys. Middle-income countries have experienced the greatest progress. The benefits of educating women are discussed in terms of the link with social and economic development. Families investment in girls education is low because the private returns are not large enough to balance the costs. Sons receive preference in many countries. Approaches to attracting more girls to schools are discussed: building schools is not enough; demand for girls education must occur. New ways of engaging rural students are being tried. Culturally appropriate facilities also boost enrollment. The best method is training and placing teachers close to home. Financial incentives and lower opportunity costs attract more girls to school. National media campaigns to raise awareness are effective. Limited resources and rapid population growth demand a realignment of priorities.
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  3. 3
    042591

    An evaluation of Pathfinder's early marriage education program in Indonesia, November-December 1984.

    Dornsife C; Mahmoed A

    Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, Pathfinder Fund, 1986 Feb. 41 p. (Pathfinder Fund Working Papers No. 4)

    Indonesian government officials determined in the early 1970's that an increase in marriage age as well as in the use of contraceptives would be needed to reduce the country's growth rate. In 1974, the Marriage Law Reform Act increased the minimun marriageable age, but compliance was rare. In 1981, Pathfinder initiated a campaign to address this. The 1st objective was to educate influentials (e.g. religious leaders). The 2nd objective was to gather information and promote discussion of societal norms that lead to early marriage and childbearing. The underlying assumptions were that non-compliance arose from a lack of knowledge about the marriage law and that norms promoting early marriage and fertility were amenable to change. The program reviewed in this working paper covers 6 projects with 5 prominent Indonesian organizations--3 women's groups, a national public health association, and a branch of the Family Planning Coordinating Board. The activities began with national seminars to discuss objectives. National and local-level activities followed, ranging from the publication of a national bulletin to training marriage counselors. Women's groups incorporated the education program into their ongoing functions. Program effects were widespread. Evaluators' assessment in 1984 found that the controversial topic of adolescent fertility has been intensively discussed at national and local levels. Their recommendations include: focusing work on large-impact organizations, evaluation of certain projects, support for various projects, concentrating on key issues. The training project management should be integrated into Pathfinder's schedule. Studies should be performed to make sure this desin is not too ambitious. Baseline data should be incorporated. The 2-year approach should be extended to 5, since the impact of marriage age legislation will not be felt for several years.
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  4. 4
    024733

    IPPF plan 1985-87. Adopted by the Member's Assembly, November 1983.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1984 Feb. 26 p.

    This 3-year plan describes how the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) intends to pursue the common goals of its membership: guide and encourage program development at all levels; indicate IPPF international strategies which support the work of Family Planning Associations (FPAs); and provide a statement to the outside world of IPPF's contribution to family planning during the plan period. The Plan has 7 Action Areas which reflect IPPF's overall priorities: the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning; promotion of family planning as a basic human right; coverage and quality of family planning services; meeting needs of young people; women's development; male involvement in family planning; and resource development. Within each Action Area, the discussion suggests national strategies by which FPAs can achieve their objectives, while international strategies identify activities through which volunteers and staff can carry out their roles at the international and regional level. Action Area 1 outlines measures to carry out IPPF's basic commitment to support the efforts of FPAs in their national environments and describes how IPPF intends to play its full part as an international federation of voluntary family planning organizations. Continued efforts are needed thoughout the Federation to increase understanding of the pioneering role of FPAs and IPPF in advancing family planning as part of overall development and social change. The objectives of Action Area 1 -- the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning -- are to improve FPA program effectiveness, to strengthen the contribution of volunteers to planned parenthood; to broaden community participation in family planning; and to intensify understanding of the role of nongovernmental organizations in family planning. The objectives of Action Area II are to increase adherence to family planning as a basic human right, to overcome obstacles to the exercise of the human right to family planning, and to increase awareness of the interrelationship between people and development, resources, and the environment. Objectives of the remaining 5 Action Areas include: ensure greater availability and accessibility of family planning services; raise and maintain standards of family planning services and increase their acceptability; improve and expand the education components of family planning programs; improve and extend family life education and counseling activities for young people; improve and expand efforts at the community level to intergrate family planning with women's development; increase male contraceptive practice; and focus effort on meeting unmet need.
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  5. 5
    258357

    Suggestions for U.N. assistance in population programmes.

    Hussein A

    Paper presented at meeting of Ad Hoc Committee of experts on programmes in fertility, United Nations, Sept. 1966. 13 p

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