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  1. 1

    WHO information update: Considerations regarding reuse of the female condom.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2002 Jul. [4] p.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of a new male or female condom for every act of intercourse where there is a risk of unplanned pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted infection, including HIV. Since access to female condoms may be limited and reuse of female condoms has been reported, WHO has convened two consultations to address considerations regarding such reuse. Based on these consultations, WHO does not recommend or promote reuse of female condoms. Recognizing the urgent need for risk-reduction strategies for women who cannot or do not access new condoms, the consultation developed a draft protocol for safe handling and preparation of female condoms intended for reuse. This protocol is based on the best available evidence, but has not been extensively studied for safety and has not been evaluated for efficacy in human use. Given the diversity of cultural and social contexts and personal circumstances under which female condom reuse may be acceptable, feasible and safe, and since the balance of risks and benefits varies according to individual settings, the final decision on whether or not to support reuse of the female condom must ultimately be taken locally. WHO continues to support research on female condom reuse and will disseminate relevant information, study results and guidelines for policy makers as additional data on reuse become available. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Pregnancy -- unplanned, unwanted and aborted.

    SAFE MOTHERHOOD NEWSLETTER. 1994 Mar-Jun; (14):10.

    Recent studies conducted by the World Health Organization's Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction reveal high rates of unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion in selected developing countries. In a Colombian study, 30% of women undergoing illegal abortion could not explain why they became pregnant, 40% believed that a woman bears sole responsibility for contraception, and almost 50% did not know when the likelihood for conception was greatest. In a study of pharmacists and herb vendors in Mexico, only 35% of those in the former group and none of those in the latter group could describe the mechanism of action of modern contraceptives, despite the fact that they were frequently consulted about pregnancy prevention. 25% of abortion seekers in a Cuban study had used no contraceptive method and the abortion ratio was highest (2 for every live birth) among women under 20 years old. The majority of the unwanted pregnancies occurring to contraceptive users involves use of an IUD that is not appropriate for young, nulliparous women. Finally, a study conducted in Tanzania found that a third of illegal abortions involved women under 17 years of age. 90% of whom had no knowledge of a family planning method.
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