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The ICPD vision: How far has the 11-year journey taken us? Report from a UNFPA panel discussion at the IUSSP XXV International Population Conference, Tours, France, 19 July 2005.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2006. 54 p.UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, decided to sponsor a Panel debate at the 25th IUSSP International Population Conference on progress towards achievement of the Plan of Action following the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), which took place in Cairo, Egypt in 1994. The title of the debate was "The ICPD Vision: How far has the eleven-year journey taken us?" Four distinguished speakers were invited to act as panel members. Two demographers, Professors John Cleland and Ian Pool, both advocated for a much stronger focus on population dynamics and were critical of the ICPD and, to some extent, also of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for not paying sufficient attention to macro-level demography. Two supporters of the Cairo agenda, Dr Pascoal Mocumbi and Professor Gita Sen, both stressed some important gains in the eleven years since the ICPD, but also stressed some of the constraints on significant progress including inadequate attention to health systems and the roles of wider political and cultural shifts. This document begins with an introduction and commentary on the panel debate by Professor John Hobcraft, which tries to place the discussions in their wider context. The second part contains revised statements from the four Panel participants: Professors John Cleland, Ian Pool and Gita Sen; and Dr Pascoal Mocumbi. The discussion was lively and the issues raised are of huge importance. The panelists were asked to relate their remarks not only to the ICPD, but also the MDGs, particularly the first goal of halving poverty by 2015. (excerpt)
Encounter. 2000 Jul-Aug; 3(4):38-52.Accordingly, the broad objective of this paper is twofold (1) To assess the state of progress of GUI country with emphasis on demography, economy and society. (2) To examine the challenges the country is likely to face in coming years. (excerpt)
National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.
[Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. , 64 p.Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
REPROWATCH. 1999 May 1-31; 19(3-4):5.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) stressed the importance of reproductive health over birth control with regard to the population issue in the Philippines. Satish Mehra, UNFPA representative to the Philippines, expressed concern about the number of mothers and babies dying during childbirth and the annual abortion rate in the country. He mentioned that to prevent abortions, interventions should be focused on the education of women in safe methods of avoiding pregnancy and controlling fertility. He further added that if the country's problem had been addressed long before, the growth rate would not be as high as 2.32% and per capita income would be much higher. He also stressed that the UNFPA merely wanted to respond to those Filipino women with unmet need for family planning and did not intend to fight with the Church or use coercion.
POPULI. 1999 Jan; 25(4):3-4.Revised population estimates released last month by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs indicate that fertility levels in developing countries are dropping, partly due to improved reproductive health and family planning services and education for women. HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality are also helping to slow the rate of population growth in certain developing countries. The available data indicate a long-term decline to below replacement level fertility in most industrialized countries. These declines in fertility levels have caused the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to push back the date when world population will reach 6 billion people from June 16, 1999, to October 12, 1999. World population, however, continues to grow by 78 million people every year. 97% of that increase is in developing countries, where access to family planning and reproductive health services is limited.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 10-6.The 1993 UN Population award was given to Dr. Frederick R. Sai of Ghana. In his acceptance speech, Dr. Sai gave special thanks to President Hurtado of Mexico and thanks for the opportunity of working at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. A special tribute was given by Dr. Sai to his 92-year-old mother, who though illiterate, widowed early, and very poor, encouraged her son educationally. His wife and family received thanks for their support of his chosen profession in clinical and public health nutrition. This field opened up his awareness of the need for family planning. The horror of kwashiorkor remains an important remembrance of the too close spacing of births. Special thanks were directed to Professor Scrimshaw of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, the late Professors Ben Platt of the University of London and Jean Mayer of Harvard and Tufts Universities, and Dr. Julia Henderson at the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Thanks also were given to Dr. Sai's staff and volunteers at IPPF and to the many unrewarded and unrecognized people who devote themselves to concerns for motherhood and child health, human rights, and quality of life through family planning. Dr. Sai dedicated his prize to all the malnourished children and their parents who trusted in the future and helped with the studies without knowing for certain whether they would survive the next rainy season. These mothers are the hope of Africa. The quotation from Thomas Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard is reoriented to the African context and restated as "Fair science frowns not on her humble birth, and Melancholy marks her for her own." Drudgery and melancholy appear daily in the lives of African girls whose lack of access to general and science education influences their ability to care for themselves and their children. The education of women is of great concern, and progress worldwide is still limited. The call is for all to work together, regardless of differences, to improving conditions for the education of women. Safe motherhood is still a goal. Technology is available, but women's full control of their own fertility and quality information and services are the best method.
MS.. 1994 Sep-Oct; 5(2):10-7.The population conference scheduled for 1994 in Cairo aims establish a new consensus and program objectives for the next decade. Feminists will be confronted by the population control establishment, which predicts dire consequences of population growth, and by the Vatican with its moralistic credos. Feminists have an agenda that urges that women's bodies not be instruments of population control institutions or of patriarchal institutions such as the church. Population policies have been directed in the past to targeting childbearing among specific demographic groups without regard to women's health, empowerment, or personal needs and desires. Population, family planning, and environmental groups will be going to Cairo with a hidden agenda to seek legitimacy and funding. When "population time bomb" mentality pervades discussions, little attention is focused on inequalities in the distribution of wealth, resources, and people regionally or locally. Population involves complex social relationships which affect births, deaths, and migration. Environmental and economic consequences stem from Northern industrialized consumption. Other features of economic and resource effects involve exploitative systems, militarism, and displacement due to urbanization and agribusiness. It is suggested that immediate cessation of population growth would not affect poverty or the environment. Feminists have been criticized for diluting or diverting the aims of population control. The counter arguments are that past failures of development policy have been blamed on population growth and that fertility control programs have been coercive. Feminists will go to Cairo to bring reproductive and sexual rights into discussions, regardless of the disagreement about concepts and terms. Securing women's rights is viewed by feminists as inseparable from change in economic and gender inequalities, and the distinctions go beyond US feminists' notions of choice. There will be insistence at Cairo on bodily integrity, equality, cultural diversity, and economic justice.
ICPD 94. 1994 May; (15):3.A brief presentation was given of the statements Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and Secretary General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), made before a meeting of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank on resource flows to developing countries, population, international trade, and migration. The meeting was attended by finance ministers from 24 countries. The IMF Managing Director gave an overview at the meeting of the world economic situation and the need for international assistance for effective population and family planning programs. Dr. Sadik emphasized this need as a requirement for implementation of the 20-year ICPD Programme of Action. The increased investment was considered beneficial because it would increase life expectancy, lower demand for health and education services, reduce pressure in the job market, reduce economic hardship, and increase social stability. The growth of prosperity was considered by Dr. Sadik to be tied to increased demand for housing, energy, and utilities. A slower and more balanced population growth would allow for government services to meet demands and for the world to adjust to increasing numbers of people. Several ministers supported the call for increased funding of population programs and poverty reduction programs. A special communique by ministers recognized that the connections between economic growth, population, poverty reduction, health, investment in human resources, and environmental degradation must be integrated into population policy. Ministers urged the ICPD to emphasize improvements in primary school enrollment in low income countries, in access to family planning and health services, and in maternal and child mortality rates. Ministers wanted to see increases in the proportion of aid directed to population programs above the current 1.25%. Requests were made for more research into the social, political, and economic impact of international migration among both host and origin countries.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
TIDSSKRIFT FOR DEN NORSKE LAEGEFORENING. 1991 May 30; 111(14):1729-33.The 4 cornerstones of reproductive health according to the WHO are family maternal care neonatal and infant care, and the control of sexually transmitted diseases. In recent years, the AIDS epidemic has caused concern in the world. The world's population doubled to 4 billion from 1927 to 1974, and it will reach 6 billion by the year 2000. The rate of growth is 1.4% in China and 2% in India vs. .3% in Europe. Contraceptive prevalence is 15-20% in Africa, 30% in South Asia, and 75% in East Asia. Shortage of contraceptives leads to abortion in eastern Europe. In 1985 in the USSR, there were 115.7 abortions/1000 women (mostly married) aged 15-44; and 6.4 million abortions for 5.5 million births in 1989. RU-486 or mifepristone combined with prostaglandin has produced abortion in 90% of first trimester pregnancies. After approval in France in 1987, it was used in 40,000 abortions in the following year. 90% of the estimated annual 500,000 maternal deaths occur in developing countries. In Norway, the rate is fewer than 10/100,000 births vs. 100/100,000 in Jamaica. In the mid-1980s, 26% of rural women in Thailand, 49% in Brazil, 54% in Senegal, and 87% in Morocco went without maternal care. In Norway, infant mortality is 6-8/1000 live births vs. 75-150/1000 in developing countries. A WHO investigation on causes of infertility in 25 countries found a 31% rate of tubal pathology in 5800 couples. In Africa, over 85% f infertility in women was infection related. Venereal diseases and infertility are associated with premarital sexual activity in young people. Various donor agencies and the WHO Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction are providing help and resources including AIDS research.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1992 Jul. , 21 p.The UN Family Planning (FP) Association briefing kit examines 10 key issues in the field of population and development: changes in population growth; balancing population growth in developing countries; population program needs for 2000; the right to FP; growing support for population policy; valuing women equally; balancing people with environmental resources; migration and urbanization; information, education, and communication (IEC); and overcoming the barriers to reliable statistics. These issues demand prompt and urgent action. World population is expected to reach 6 billion by 1998, or 250,000 births/day. 95% of population growth is in developing countries. There have been decreases in family size from 6.1 to 3.9 today, and population growth has declined, but the absolute numbers continue to increase. Over 50% of the world's population in 2000 will be under 25 years. Population growth is not expected to stop until 2200 at 11.6 billion. By 2020-25, the developed world's population will be under 20% and will account for 3% of the annual population increase. Africa's population growth is the fastest at 3.0%/year, including 3.2% in eastern and western Africa, while Europe's is .24%/year. The demographic trends are indicated by region. FP program funding needs to be doubled by 2000 to US $9 billion in order to achieve the medium or most likely projection. $4.5 billion would have to be contributed by developing countries to achieve coverage for 59% of women of reproductive age. Of the US $971 million contributed in 1990, the US contributed $281 million, followed by $64 million from Japan. Other large contributors were Norway, Germany, Canada, Sweden, the UK, and the Netherlands, including the World Bank. In 1990, 141 countries received international population assistance of US $602 million, of which Asia and the Pacific received 35%, sub-Saharan Africa 25%, Latin America 15%, the Middle East and North Africa 9%, Europe 1%, and interregional 15%. FP must be an attitude toward life. Having a national population policy and implementation of an integrated program with development is the objective for all countries. The best investment is in women through increasing educational levels and status and reducing maternal mortality. Policies must also balance resource use between urban and rural areas; urban strategies must include improvement in rural conditions.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 36 p.This atlas presents social, economic, and environmental statistics for 200 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies of the former Soviet Union. The following social/demographic indices are presented: population growth rate, 1980-1991; under-5 mortality rate, 1991; daily calorie supply/capita, 1989; illiteracy rate, 1990; and female labor force, 1991. GNP/capita, 1991; GNP/capita growth rate, 1980-91; and shares of agriculture, exports, and investment in GDP in 1991 comprise the economic data. Finally, GDP output/kilogram energy used, 1990; annual water use and annual water use/capita, 1970-87; forest coverage, 1989; and change in forest coverage, 1980-89, are presented as economic indicators. All figures are reported in color graphic format. Technical notes and World Bank structure and functions are discussed in closing sections. The text also cautions that the differing statistical systems and data collection methods and capabilities employed internationally demand that caution be taken against directly comparing statistical coverages and definitions.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, Population Division, 1991.  p.The 1991 Population Data Sheet produced by the UN Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) provides a large chart by country and region for Asia and the Pacific for the following variables: mid-1991 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, male life expectancy at birth, female life expectancy at birth, % aged 0-14 years, % aged 65 and over, dependency ratios, density, % urban, and population projection at 2010. 3 charts also display urban and rural population trends between 1980 and 2025, the crude birth and death rates and rate of natural increase by region, and dependency ratios for 27 countries.
NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 Apr 30; A12.The UN Population Fund's urgent plea for a sustained and concerted program to curb population growth in developing countries is reported. The reasons were to reduce poverty and hunger and to protect the earth's resources. The Fund released current world population figures which place 1992 population at 5.48 billion and project growth to 10 billion in 2050 with a leveling at 11.6 billion in 2150. These figures are 1 billion beyond projections made in 1980. The current rate of growth is at 97 million/year until 2000, 90 million/year until 2025, and 61 million/year until 2050. This rate of growth is the fastest the world has ever experienced. 34% of the rise will occur in Africa, and 97% in developing countries. The projected consequence of this growth is a continued migration to cities, increased hunger and starvation and malnutrition, and an increased pressure on the world's food, water, and other natural resources. This effect amounts to almost crisis conditions which places the world at great risk for future ecological and economic catastrophe. Food production has already lagged behind population growth in 69 of 102 developing countries between 1978-89. An urgent new campaign is called for to promote smaller families, better access to contraception, and better education and health care for women in developing countries. Women's status needs to be raised to allow for women being given property rights and improved access to labor markets. If the effort is successful, the population growth within the next decade could be reduced by 1.5-2 billion. Currently at least 300 million women do no have access to safe and reliable forms of contraception. The number of very poor has risen from 944 million in 1970 to 1.1 billion in 1985. The former strategy of urbanization and rising incomes have been found to be an unnecessary precondition for reducing family size. Poor countries, such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, have nonetheless shown sharp fertility declines with appropriate population policies, e.g., fertility dropped from 6.3 children/women in 1965 to 2.2 children/women in 1987. There have also been similar declines in fertility in China, Cuba, Indonesia, Tunisia and other poor countries. The agency's current budget is $225 million a year, and has been functioning without US aid since the 1976 ban over abortions in China.
POPULATION SCIENCES. 1990 Jul; 9:1-4.The world's population stands at about 5.3 billion. It increases by about 90 million/year. >90% of this growth is in the developing world where about 75% of the world population live. In Arab countries, the population is growing 2.6%/year and total fertility rates (TFRs) stand >5 whereas the TFR for the entire world is a bit >3. Much of the growth has occurred in cities, e.g., Cairo, where the population has outpaced basic services. Cities require food and fuel thereby stressing rural areas which rural-urban migration only exacerbates. Population growth and distribution have a more profound and long term effect on the planet than does the destruction of rain forests and desertification. Indeed they contribute heavily to these very problems. Even though people have the right to decide how many children they have and their spacing, they also have the responsibility, as Islam professes, to have only number of children they can afford. Likewise governments have the right and responsibility to develop population policies each suited to the individual nation's needs and conditions. Each government must set policies that improve the role and status of women, such as ensuring literacy and education for girls and women. In fact, women must be involved in designing and managing population and development policies to ensure success of any related endeavors. The Arab would agrees on the safer motherhood strategy (providing means to prevent and space births) as a means to reduce population growth. The UNFPA encourages the Arab world to develop a unique Arab population policy which is in accordance with Islamic teachings and is acceptable to all countries and to both men and women.
IN TOUCH 1987 Dec; 11(85):21-4.This paper discusses Bangladesh's overwhelming social, economic, and health obstacles to improving child health, and stands behind the UNICEF GOBI-FFF strategy as a low-cost alternative for rapid implementation. GOBI-FFF is an acronym for growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breastfeeding, immunization, food supplements for infants, female education, and family spacing. Specifically, the article endorses growth monitoring with the National Nutrition Council child health and nutrition card. The growth chart should be seen as an approach for the promotion of good health, prevention of malnutrition and infectious disease, and treatment of minor illnesses. The card has been designed for use among children 0-5 years of age at the primary health care level. The card includes messages and information on child health and nutrition. The actual process of growth monitoring requires a growth chart, growth chart manual, and a weighing scale. The paper describes growth measurement as the most scientifically effective measure of a child's nutrition and overall health. It is a simple and inexpensive manner of monitoring child health and nutritional status in the community.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 152.Despite Syria's high rate of population increase, the implementation of certain socioeconomic policies will lead to a reduction of the rate of growth. During 1960-70, the growth rate stood at 32.8/1000, increasing to 33.5/1000 during 1970-81, a product of the country's young age structure and stable -- but high -- fertility rate. The country has also experienced a drop in the mortality rate, from 15/1000 during the 1960s to 8.2/1000 during the 1970s. Should these figures remain unchanged, Syria's population will double by the beginning of the next century. Nonetheless, the high population growth rate and rural-urban migration has stimulated socioeconomic improvements within an already existing development framework designed to meet the needs of population increase, to improve income levels and income distribution. These improvements can be seen in Syria's per capita GNP growth, which more than doubled between 1970-1982. The government has also adopted measures to improve health, education, cultural, and housing conditions, and has sought to create a more balanced economy. These socioeconomic policies and others -- including women's education -- will ultimately reduce population growth.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1989; (27):13-29.This paper review progress over the past 5 years with respect to the 6 recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population 1984, which specifically address the situation of women. They include: 1) integrating women into development, 2) women's economic participation, 3) education, training, and employment, 4) raising the age at marriage, 5) the active involvement of men in all areas of family responsibility, and 6) the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Several important areas potentially relevant to population issues which were omitted from the Conference recommendations are identified and discussed--namely, the situation of women (in particular, older women, women who are the sole supporters of families, and women and migration) and the situation of women in times of severe economic adversity. Finally, progress made with respect to data on women is highlighted, and caution is advised with respect to continued calls for new data. In contrast to the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the recommendations are noted for implying an almost unresolvable conflict between women's biological and economic roles. However, it is pointed out that the goals of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women for full equality of men and women would require that the same choices be available to both sexes with respect to labor force participation. While it is too soon to have a clear perspective on the pace and direction of change during the past 5 years, the author finds it impossible to be optimistic about current trends because, in too many areas, progress regarding women has either stagnated or moved into reverse gear. The disappointing record is partially attributed to the tendency for policy makers to see the promotion of economic growth through sound economic policy and advancing the status of women as competing rather than complementary goals. (author's)
[New York, United Nations, 1986.] 27 p.The ongoing crisis confronting women and children in the Third World--where disease and hunger are taking millions of lives of young children every year and where population growth still proceeds at an unacceptably high rate--is actually worsening in some areas. The European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women, and Population: Integrated Strategies was held under the auspices of The Netherlands government and organized in cooperation with 3 UN organizations: the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the UN Fund for Population Activities. It is critical that the world regain the momentum of past decades in reducing appalling child mortality rates, improving the health and status of women, and slowing population growth. Development programs from health education to agriculture are hampered or crippled by the inability of development planners to recognize the centrality of the woman's role. Maternal and child health is the logical entry point for primary health care. Education is the springboard for rescuing women in the Third World from poverty, illness,endless childbearing, and lowly social status. One should educate women to save children. Women in the developing world must be given access to basic information to be able to take advantage of new, improved or rediscovered technologies such as 1) oral rehydration therapy, 2) vaccines, 3) growth monitoring through frequent charting to detect early signs of malnutrition, 4) breast feeding, and 5) birth spacing. Education is the single most documented factor affecting birth rate, status of women, and infant and child health. The presentations at The Hague threw into sharp relief the close links, the cause and effect chains, and the synergisms associated with all the factors connected, directly or indirectly, with child survival, women's status, and population--factors such as education, economic opportunities, and overall development questions. A 4-point agenda includes 1) encouraging UN agencies and organizations concerned with social development to work closely together and to enhance the effectiveness of their programs, 2) seeking greater support for the UN's social development programs, 3) focusing public attention on the interrelatedness of health, maternal and child survival and care, women's status, and freedom of choice in family matters, and 4) maintaining and strengthening commitment through the dialogue of parliamentarians.
In: Aspects of population change and development in some African and Asian countries. Cairo, Egypt, Cairo Demographic Centre, 1984. 43-56. (CDC Research Monograph Series no. 9)This paper examines the relationship between economic development and demographic change in the 13 states of the Economic Commission for West Asia (ECWA) region. Demographic variables considered include per capita income, proportion urban, proportion in urban areas with over 100,000 inhabitants, literacy among those over 15 years, and literacy among women. Unweighted rankings on these variables were added to produce a development ranking or general development index. Then this index was used to investigate the relationship between development and individual scores and rankings for various demographic indices. The development index exhibited a rough fit with the mortality indices, especially life expectancy at birth. Mortality decline appears to be most closely related to rise in income. At the same income level, countries that have experienced substantial social change tend to exhibit the lowest mortality, presumably because of a loosening in family role patterns. In contrast, the relationship between development and fertility measures seemed to be almost random. A far closer correlation was noted between the former and the general development index. It is concluded that economic development alone will not reduce fertility. Needed are 2 changes: 1) profound social change in the family and in women's status, achievable through increases in female education, and 2) government family planning programs to ensure access to contraception.
Humanist. 1984 Jan-Feb; 44(1):5-8, 45.Women's needs and human rights have been ignored in the ongoing political debates on family planning. It is the right of each woman to have access to contraceptives and to the essential and crucial information about reproduction and her own body's fertility and sexuality. The basic human right of every individual to choose, to decide freely, based on biological and factual information, whether or not to have children, continues to be denied to very large numbers of women. The vast majority of women in the developing world have no such options. Environmentalists and population planners continue to evade the issue, despite the price paid for this omission: the failure of many family planning programs. The correlation between "development" and population control was internationally discussed for the 1st time at the UN World Population conference in Bucharest, but not 1 word was said to show the far more convincing and clearly visible correlation between the educational status of women and declines in population growth rates. These facts continue to be ignored even today by most population experts and their funding sources, especially the US Agency for International Development (USAID). In countries where women as a group have access to education, both population growth rates and infant mortality noticeably decline. In the East and West African countries visited by this individual, it appears that family planning is making no progress. This is the case despite the fact that more and more money is spent in Africa by international family planning organizations. The primary reason why population growth is not soaring in many African countries is because infant mortality is so high, about 50% in many countries. The reason why family planning is failing in Africa is because every African man seeks to confirm his ego and his manhood by fathering as many children as possible. Male sexuality is totally out of control, not female sexuality as claimed by proponents of female circumcision and genital mutilation. There is no hope for change in settings where women are illiterate and the chattel of men. International family planning organizations, although spending millions on family planning in Africa, have entirely ignored the facts. Polygamy, as well as the failure of men to face their responsibilities for their children, are nowhere even mentioned by the international family planning establishment as reasons for the burgeoning population growth rates. Family planning programs in Africa are still almost totally directed toward women, while men--the real cause of the population growth rates--are never made to face the reality of their obligations. International family planning organizations have failed to make the information about reproduction accessible in easily comprehensive form. The "Universal Childbirth Picture Books" have been found to be easily adaptable to all environments and all cultures and explain the basic, biological facts that are shared by women everywhere.
Population dynamics of rural Cameroon and its public health repercussions. A socio-demographic investigation of infertility in Mbandjock and Jakiri districts.
Yaounde, Cameroon, Public Health Unit, Univ. Centre for Health Sciences, Univ. of Yaounde, 1979 Oct. 314 p.The preliminary findings of the Vital Statistics Survey Project, conducted under the auspices of the University of Yaounde in 2 rural districts of Cameroon in 1975-78, are reported. Vital statistics surveys were conducted in 20 villages in the Jakiri district and 3 villages in the Mbandjock district in 1976. Longitudinal surveys were conducted in 1976-77 and again in 1977-78 in Jakiri and in 1976-77 in Mbandjock. Jakiri's population is characterized by high fertility and high mortality. In contrast, Mbandjock shows low fertility and a stagnant or decreasing population trend. Data on factors related to fertility were collected from 3592 women in Jakiri and 251 women in Mbandjock. The crude birth rate in Jakiri was 37.5 livebirths/1000 population in 1976-77 and 27.5/1000 in 1977-78. In Mbandjock, the 1976-77 rates were 20.1, 31, and 12/1000 in the 3 villages surveyed. The average number of living children per woman was 2.67 in Jakiri and 1.55 in Mbandjock. 68.9% of Jakiro women and 79% of Mbandjock women ages 15-50 were currently married; however, the latter district is characterized by widespread marital instability. The average number of pregnancies per women was 3.1 in Jakiri and 2.67 in Mbandjock, with average child wastage ratios of 0.43 and 1.12, respectively. The infant mortality rate in Jakiri was 147/1000 livebirths in 1976-77 and 137/1000 in 1977-78. The rate in Mbandjock declined from 417/1000 livebirths in 1976 to 0 in 1977, a decrease attributed both to an effective measles campaign and the small sample size. The average desired family size was 9 in Jakiri and 6 in Mbandjock. Jakiri demonstrated a total infertility rate of 17%. The corresponding rates in the 3 Mbandjock villages were 48, 46, and 52%. The proportion of infertile women ages 20-29 was 18% in Jakiri and 22, 16, and 24% in the Mbandjock villages. According to the World Health Organization, a 15% infertility rate in this age group is the limit for declaring a serious public health problem. However, since Careroon authorities seem satisfied with the fertility situation in Jakiri, it is suggested that the limit be raised to 18%. Mbandjock, on the other hand, is considered to have a serious infertility problem. 4 recommendations are made to improve the health profile for this part of rural Cameroon: 1) family planning programs should be introduced in areas of population explosion; 2) health education campaigns should be directed against the high rates of communicable diseases and childhood immunization campaigns should be introduced; 3) nutrition education should be integrated into community development programs; and 4) vital statistics collection should be centrally supervised.
New York, UNFPA, 1978 Jun. 53 p. (Report No 3)The present report presents the findings of the Mission which visited Afghanistan from October 3-16, 1977 for the purpose of assessing the country's needs for population assistance. Report focus is on the following: the national setting (geographical, cultural, and administrative features; salient demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and economic development and national planning); basic population data; population dynamics and policy formulation; implementing population policies (family health and family planning and education, communication, and information); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral). The final section presents the recommendations of the Mission in detail. For the past 25 years Afghanistan has been working to inject new life into its economy. Per capita income, as estimated for 1975, was $U.S. 150, a relatively low figure and heavily skewed in favor of a very small proportion of the population. The country is still predominantly rural (85%) and agricultural (75%). In the absence of reliable data, population figures must be accepted tentatively. According to the 7-year plan, the population in 1975 was 16.7 million and the rate of growth around 2.5% per annum. The crude birth rate is near 50/1000 and the crude death rate possibly 25/1000. The Mission endorses the priority given by the government to the population census and recommends continued support on the part of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to help the Central Statistical Office in the present effort and in building up capacity for future work. The Mission recommends that efforts be concentrated on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality levels and that assistance be continued to the family health services and to programs of population education. Emphasis should be on services to men and women in rural areas. The Mission also recommends a training program for traditional birth attendants.
[Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development], 1981 Jul. 375 p.Population projections -- 1980-2000 and long-term (stationary population) are presented in tables for Africa, the United States and Canada, Latin America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. The base year for the projection of base total population and age/sex composition is 1980. The total population in 1980 was taken from a variety of sources, but the principal source was the United Nations Population Division -- "World Population Trends and Prospects by Country, 1950-2025: Summary Report of the 1980 Assessment, 1980", a computer printout. The base year mortality levels used in the projection of mortality level and trend are in general the same as those used in the recent United Nations projections. The principal source of the base fertility rates was also the revised United Nations population projections. Throughout the projections it was assumed that international migration would have no appreciable impact. Population projection was prepared separately for every country in the world. Since many countries reached stability only after 175 years of projection, the results of the projection are presented at 5-year intervals for the 1980-2000 period and at 25 year intervals thereafter. For each of the 165 separate units, the following information is presented in the accompanying tables: population by sex and 5-year age groups; birth rate, death rate, and rate of natural increase; gross reproduction rate, total fertility rate; expectation of life at birth and infant mortality rates for males and females separately; and net reproduction rates. According to this projection the total world population would increase from 4.416 billion in 1980 to 6.114 billion in the year 2000. The average growth rate during 1980-2000 would be about 1.63% per year decreasing from 1.71% in 1980 to 1.42% in the year 2000. The birth rate would decline by 5 points and the death rate by 2 points. The share of the population in less developed regions would be 1.94% per year compared to 0.59% per year for more developed regions. The estimated hypothetical stationary population of the world according to the present projection is 10.1 billion.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.