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  1. 1

    Building on traditional patterns for women empowerment at grassroots level.

    Bakhteari QA

    Development. 1988; (4):55-60.

    UNICEF aided the Basic Urban Services for Katchi Abadie (BUSTI) in performing and action research project in order to study and improve the role of poor women in Pakistan. The study was conducted in Baldia Town Karachi (pop. 200,000 in 1979) and lasted over 6 years (1979-1986). Women and children were hired to work on the Baldia Soakpit Pilot project and were found to be illiterate. Distance, lack of money, and the need for help around the house were cited as reasons for illiteracy among children. The women in the community organized a traditional program of home schooling in 1981 and hired 10 girls who had at least a high school education to teach. 300 children participated in this program. The Baldia Memon Jamat NGO offered a health training program for young girls of the community. Several criteria, including teaching experience and economic status, were used to choose among the applicants. The home school program has expanded since 1981. 120 teachers and 4000 children took part in the program in 1988. The teachers organize a mothers' meeting once a month and are now registered as the Home School Teachers' Welfare Organization. Primary care and vaccinations are given through the home schools. Women play crucial roles in the development of the project, as developers, managers, and organizers. Young women have gained independence through education without sacrificing traditional values. The utilization of women in and by this program has helped increase women's self-esteem and has increased respect for these women from the community. The hope is that traditional barriers against the participation of women in community development will eventually be eradicated.
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  2. 2

    The integrated project in Zambia.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Evaluation and Management Audit Department

    INTEGRATION. 1989 Mar; (19):10-23.

    The Integrated Project (IP) was started in Zambia in 1984 by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Africa Bureau in connection with the Zambia Flying Doctor Service (ZFDS) and the Planned Parenthood Association of ZAMBIA (PPAZ). The project was begun in 3 areas, Kabushi, Fiwale, and Kapata. Its 1st major task was a survey of parasite infestation, nutritional status, and family planning knowledge and practice. This was done between 1985 and 1987. Also at this time field educators carried out many activities. A PPAZ evaluation of the Kabushi project in 1987 found that although family planning knowledge was fairly widespread, there was no accompanying increase in practice. There is a downward trend in parasitosis in Fiwale and Kapata but no reduction in Kabushi. However, there were variations in sampling, so these results are questionable. Environmental sanitation measures are being taken. The prevalence of malnutrition is around 26% in each. Community participation is essential. Women's clubs have been formed in all 3 areas where family planning and other matters can be discussed. In 1987 the ZFDS trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs). 23 TBAs have also been trained in family planning. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) provided project guidelines. Numerous problems have been experienced in the 1st 3 years of the project. The IP National Steering Committee (NSC) has had to deal with 3 separate agencies (IPPF, PPAZ, and ZDFS). The project has worked well with ZFDS. 1 of the problems is personnel. Some of the personnel need specific training and orientation. Parasite control activities could be improved. A more active family planning program is being planned. It is recommended that during the remaining 3-year pilot period PPAZ should take on financial monitoring, and the staff should have an overall plan and more detailed annual plans.
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