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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, .  p.This document is one important step in a process for improving access to quality of care in family planning by reviewing the medical eligibility criteria for selecting methods of contraception. It updates the second edition of Improving access to quality care in family planning: medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, published in 2000, and summarizes the main recommendations of an expert Working Group meeting held at the World Health Organization, Geneva, 21-24 October 2003. The Working Group brought together 36 participants from 18 countries, including representatives of many agencies and organizations. The document provides recommendations for appropriate medical eligibility criteria based on the latest clinical and epidemiological data and is intended to be used by policy-makers, family planning programme managers and the scientific community. It aims to provide guidance to national family planning/reproductive health programmes in the preparation of guidelines for service deliveryof contraceptives. It should not be seen or used as the actual guidelines but rather as a reference. (excerpt)
Does insertion and use of an intrauterine device increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease among women with sexually transmitted infection? A systematic review.
Contraception. 2006 Feb; 73(2):145-153.Concerns exist as to whether the insertion of copper and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs) increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among women with sexually transmitted infection (STI). We searched the MEDLINE database for all articles published between January 1966 and March 2005 that included evidence relevant to IUDs and STIs and PID. None of the studies that examined women with STIs compared the risk of PID between those with insertion or use of an IUD and those who had not received an IUD. We reviewed indirect evidence from six prospective studies that examined women with insertion of a copper IUD and compared risk of PID between those with STIs at the time of insertion with those with no STIs. These studies suggested that women with chlamydial infection or gonorrhea at the time of IUD insertion were at an increased risk of PID relative to women without infection. The absolute risk of PID was low for both groups (0-5% for those with STIs and 0-2% for those without). (author's)
In: WHO updates medical eligibility criteria for contraceptives, by Ward Rinehart. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health Project [INFO], 2004 Aug. 2-4. (INFO Reports No. 1; USAID Grant No. GPH-A-00-02-00003-00)The 2003 Expert Working Group made several changes to the MEC to indicate that women often can safely use IUDs in conditions related to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Taken together, these changes should help reduce some providers’ concerns about offering IUDs in areas where HIV infection and other STIs are common. At the meeting the WHO Expert Working Group concluded that a woman generally can start using an IUD, if she wishes, even if she has AIDS—provided she is receiving ARV therapy and is clinically well—or if she has HIV infection or she is at high risk of HIV infection. The Expert Working Group changed these conditions from category 3 to category 2 for starting IUD use. According to the bulk of research considered at the WHO meeting, IUD use does not increase a woman’s chances of acquiring HIV infection. Women generally can keep their IUDs if they become infected with HIV or develop AIDS while using IUDs (category 2), although IUD users with AIDS should be carefully monitored for pelvic infection. Limited evidence shows that complications of IUD use are no more common among IUD users infected with HIV than among IUD users who are not infected with HIV. Also, IUD use does not increase HIV transmission to sexual partners. (excerpt)
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2004 Jan; 30(1):29-42.This Guidance provides information for clinicians providing women with copper-bearing intrauterine devices as long-term contraception. A key to the grades of recommendations, based on levels of evidence, is given at the end of this document. Details of the methods used by the Clinical Effectiveness Unit (CEU) in developing this Guidance and evidence tables summarising the research basis of the recommendations are available on the Faculty website (www.ffprhc.org.uk). Abbreviations (in alphabetical order) used include: acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs); automated external defibrillator (AED); blood pressure (BP); British National Formulary (BNF); confidence interval (CI); copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD); emergency contraception (EC); Faculty Aid to Continuing Professional Development Topic (FACT); levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (IUS); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA); non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); odds ratio (OR); pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); relative risk (RR); Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG); Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN); sexually transmitted infection (STI); termination of pregnancy (TOP); World Health Organization (WHO); WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria (WHOMEC); WHO Selected Practice Recommendations (WHOSPR). (author's)