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FHI's quick reference chart for the WHO medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. To initiate or continue the use of combined oral contraceptive (COC), Noristerat (NET-EN), Depo-Provera (DMPA), copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD).
[Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, 2004 Mar.  p.I/C (Initiation/Continuation): A woman may fall into either one category or another, depending on whether she is initiating or continuing to use a method. For example, a client with current PID who wants to initiate IUD use would be considered as Category 4, and should not have an IUD inserted. However, if she develops PID while using the IUD, she would be considered as Category 2. This means she could generally continue using the IUD and be treated for PID with the IUD in place. Where I/C is not marked, a woman with that condition falls in the category indicated - whether or not she is initiating or continuing use of the method. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002 Apr 3.  p.Whether use of oral contraceptives is causally associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer has long been debated and remains uncertain. On 11 March 2002, WHO’s Department of Reproductive Health and Research convened an international group of experts to review new information on the subject, including research findings from WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and several reviews commissioned by WHO. The reviews included a meta-analysis of existing published epidemiological data on the association between combined oral contraceptive use and the risk of cervical cancer; a summary of the biological basis for any association between oral contraceptives and cervical cancer; and a mathematical model assessing risks and benefits of different contraceptive methods. Questions about the relationship between oral contraceptive use and the risk of cervical cancer were addressed in 1990 as part of a comprehensive review of steroid hormone contraception and neoplasia. One of the main conclusions of the 1990 review was that use of oral contraceptives for more than 5 years was associated with a modest (1.3- to 1.8-fold) increased risk of cervical cancer, but that it was unclear whether the increased risk reflected a biological relationship or was attributable to other factors (such as lifestyle differences between users of different contraceptive methods, including differential risk of sexually transmitted infections, particularly Human Papillomavirus [HPV] infection). (excerpt)
In: Diczfalusy, E. and Borel, U., eds. Control of human fertility. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Nobel Symposium, Sodergarn, Lidingo, Sweden, May 27-29, 1970. New York, Wiley, 1971. 39-51.A drug delivery system providing for a controlled release of progestogen and affecting ovulation and steroidogenesis minimally would deal effectively with some of the problems associated with contraception. 2 systems being developed which fit these criteria are the primary topics of discourse in this article. In 1 system an implant consists of a polymer membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and contains the progestogen in crystalline form. Major problems with the PDS implants include a lack of intraindividual constance of release and interindividual variation in the slope of the decay in release. In the second system the implant consists of a lipid-steroid membrane containing a steroid. In this implant the concentration of the steroid in the membrane and the nature of the lipid phase may be important in determining the pattern of release. In vivo metabolic studies with lipid-steroid pellets are limited, but the patterns of output may be similar to those seen with PDS implants. Because of rate problems, a shorter regime slow-release implant seems more feasible than a longer lasting system. Surgical difficulties associated with the implantation and removal of the PDS implant make the choice of a lipid-steroid micropellet preparation more feasible for a short-term regimen. The discussion, following the main body of the article, focuses primarily on problems associated with implants.
Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.